Read by QxMD icon Read

defense response

Vy T Duong, Megha H Unhelkar, John E Kelly, Suhn H Kim, Carter T Butts, Rachel W Martin
In plants, esterase/lipases perform transesterification reactions, playing an important role in the synthesis of useful molecules, such as those comprising the waxy coatings of leaf surfaces. Plant genomes and transcriptomes have provided a wealth of data about expression patterns and the circumstances under which these enzymes are upregulated, e.g. pathogen defense and response to drought; however, predicting their functional characteristics from genomic or transcriptome data is challenging due to weak sequence conservation among the diverse members of this group...
December 5, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Dorota Dąbrowska, Ewa Jabłońska, Agnieszka Iwaniuk, Marzena Garley
Neutrophils constitute the most numerous populations of peripheral blood leukocytes, fulfilling the fundamental role in the development of the innate immune response. As the cells of the first line of defense, they guard the organism against the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Neutrophils, similar to the other cells of the immune system, enter the path of death after fulfilling their biological function. Depending on the conditions that they are found in, they may undergo different types of cell death which requires the involvement of numerous signaling pathways...
December 5, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Javiera P Oyarzún, Estela Càmara, Sid Kouider, Lluis Fuentemilla, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
INTRODUCTION: It has long been posited that threat learning operates and forms under an affective and a cognitive learning system that is supported by different brain circuits. A primary drawback in exposure-based therapies is the high rate of relapse that occurs when higher order areas fail to inhibit responses driven by the defensive circuit. It has been shown that implicit exposure of fearful stimuli leads to a long-lasting reduction in avoidance behavior in patients with phobia. Despite the potential benefits of this approach in the treatment of phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder, implicit extinction is still underinvestigated...
December 4, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yafan Gong, Jie Yang, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Jun Min Zhang, Ziwei Zhang
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), as an important selenoprotein, is the most crucial antioxidant defense in cardiomyocytes. However, the role of Gpx3 in Se-deficient cardiomyocyte damage still less reported. Here, we developed Gpx3 silence cardiomyocytes culture model (small interfering RNA; siRNA) for research the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis are performed to detect the expression of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes. MDC stain, flow cytometry, AO/EB stain, and electron microscope were performed to observe the changes of cell morphology...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Choongho Lee
Virus-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role in the viral life cycle as well as the pathogenesis of viral diseases. In response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by a virus, a host cell activates an antioxidative defense system for its own protection. Particularly, a nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway works in a front-line for cytoprotection and detoxification. Recently, a series of studies suggested that a group of clinically relevant viruses have the capacity for positive and negative regulations of the Nrf2 pathway...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jan Rossaint, Andreas Margraf, Alexander Zarbock
Platelets are most often recognized for their crucial role in the control of acute hemorrhage. However, current research has greatly expanded the appreciation of platelets beyond their contribution to primary hemostasis, indicating that platelets also actively participate in leukocyte recruitment and the regulation of the host defense in response to exogenous pathogens and sterile injury. Early recruitment of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, is the evolutionary stronghold of the innate immune response to successfully control exogenous infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mirian Domenech, Julio Sempere, Sara de Miguel, Jose Yuste
The emergence of clinical isolates associated to multidrug resistance is a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health since complicates the success of the antibiotic treatment and the resolution of the infectious process. This is of great concern in pathogens affecting the lower respiratory tract as these infections are one of the major causes of mortality in children and adults. In most cases where the respiratory pathogen is associated to multidrug-resistance, antimicrobial concentrations both in serum and at the site of infection may be insufficient and the resolution of the infection depends on the interaction of the invading pathogen with the host immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tytti Heinonen, Eleonora Ciarlo, Charlotte Théroude, Aimilia Pelekanou, Jacobus Herderschee, Didier Le Roy, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the family of NAD+ -dependent lysine/histone deacetylases. SIRT5 resides mainly in the mitochondria where it catalyzes deacetylation, demalonylation, desuccinylation, and deglutarylation of lysine to regulate metabolic and oxidative stress response pathways. Pharmacologic inhibitors of SIRT5 are under development for oncologic conditions, but nothing is known about the impact of SIRT5 on antimicrobial innate immune defenses. Using SIRT5 knockout mice, we show that SIRT5 deficiency does not affect immune cell development, cytokine production and proliferation by macrophages and splenocytes exposed to microbial and immunological stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jonathan W Handing, Stephanie A Ragland, Urmila V Bharathan, Alison K Criss
The mucosal inflammatory response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) is characterized by recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Gc survives exposure to neutrophils by limiting the ability of neutrophils to make antimicrobial products and by expressing factors that defend against these products. The multiple transferable resistance (Mtr) system is a tripartite efflux pump, comprised of the inner membrane MtrD, the periplasmic attachment protein MtrC, and the outer membrane channel MtrE. Gc MtrCDE exports a diverse array of substrates, including certain detergents, dyes, antibiotics, and host-derived antimicrobial peptides...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohamed M Refaey, Dapeng Li
Transport procedures usually cause fish stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transport stress on blood biochemical profiles, oxidative stress biomarkers, and hepatic heat shock proteins (HSPs) of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). Fish (body weight 55.57 ± 5.13 g) were randomly distributed to two groups, the control, and the treatment. The control group was kept under the normal culture conditions. The treatment group was exposed to the process of transport (3.5 h). Fish samples were collected before transport, after packing and at 0, 1, 6, 24, 72, and 168 h after transport, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Huijeong Ahn, Hyuk Moo Kwon, Eunsong Lee, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Eui-Bae Jeung, Geun-Shik Lee
Inflammatory responses are essential in eliminating harmful substrates from damaged tissue and inducing recovery. Several cytokines participate in and facilitate this response. Certain cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are initially produced in precursor form in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and undergo maturation by inflammasomes, which are cytosolic multi-protein complexes containing nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein 2-like receptors (NLRs). Immune modulators targeting inflammasomes have been investigated to control inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
E Meng, J Li, B Tang, Y Hu, T Qiao, Y Hou, Y Lin, Z Chen
Although parasites and microbial pathogens are both detrimental to insects, little information is currently available on the mechanism involved in how parasitized hosts balance their immune responses to defend against microbial infections. We addressed this in the present study by comparing the immune response between unparasitized and parasitized pupae of the chrysomelid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), to Escherichia coli invasion. In an in vivo survival assay, a markedly reduced number of E. coli colony-forming units per microliter was detected in parasitized pupae at 12 and 24 h post-parasitism, together with decreased phagocytosis and enhanced bactericidal activity at 12 h post-parasitism...
December 5, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Wang Lin, Honghui Guo, Lingkai Wang, Dandan Zhang, Xueyang Wu, Li Li, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang
Hazardous contaminants, such as nitrite and microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), are released into water bodies during cyanobacterial blooms and may adversely influence the normal physiological function of hydrobiontes. The combined effects of nitrite and MC-LR on the antioxidant defense and innate immunity were evaluated through an orthogonal experimental design (nitrite: 0, 29, 290 μM; MC-LR: 0, 3, 30 nM). Remarkable increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have suggested that nitrite and/or MC-LR exposures induce oxidative stress in fish spleen, which were indirectly confirmed by significant downregulations of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzyme genes cat1, sod1 and gpx1a...
December 3, 2018: Toxins
Faten El Asmi, Carlos Eduardo Brantis-de-Carvalho, Danielle Blondel, Mounira K Chelbi-Alix
Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) conjugation to proteins has essential roles in several processes including localization, stability, and function of several players implicated in intrinsic and innate immunity. In human, five paralogs of SUMO are known of which three are ubiquitously expressed (SUMO1, 2, and 3). Infection by rhabdoviruses triggers cellular responses through the activation of pattern recognition receptors, which leads to the production and secretion of interferon. This review will focus on the effects of the stable expression of the different SUMO paralogs or Ubc9 depletion on rhabdoviruses-induced interferon production and interferon signaling pathways as well as on the expression and functions of restriction factors conferring the resistance to rhabdoviruses...
December 3, 2018: Viruses
Tainá C de C Monte, Thaize Quiroga Chometon, Alvaro Luiz Bertho, Vanessa S de Moura, Maurício Carvalho de Vasconcellos, Juberlan Garcia, Raquel Ferraz-Nogueira, Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior, Marta Julia Faro
The immune system of snails is highly sensitive to pollutants, which can suppress its immune response. We investigated the effects of exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup® Original on the snail Biomphalaria glabrata infected by the platyhelminth Echinostoma paraensei by evaluating changes in the snaiĺs internal defense system. Four cohorts were studied: control group, infected snails, snails treated with Roundup®, and snails infected and treated with Roundup®. The hemocyte viability was assessed, morphological differentiation of cells was observed and flow cytometry was performed to determine the morphology, viability and the lectin expression profiles...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Weixiu Ji, Linjia Wang, Shiyi He, Lu Yan, Tieying Li, Jianxiong Wang, Ah-Ng Tony Kong, Siwang Yu, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia training enhances the endurance capacity of athletes. This response may in part be attributed to the hypoxia-induced increase in antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscles. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor which regulates the expression of genes via binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) of these genes, plays a crucial role in stimulating the body's defense system and potentially responds to hypoxia. Meanwhile, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an important player in protecting cells from hypoxic stress...
2018: PloS One
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Flore Zélé, Gonçalo Santos-Matos, Alexandre R T Figueiredo, Cátia Eira, Catarina Pinto, Telma G Laurentino, Élio Sucena, Sara Magalhães
To fight infection, arthropods rely on the deployment of an innate immune response but also upon physical/chemical barriers and avoidance behaviours. However, most studies focus on immunity, with other defensive mechanisms being relatively overlooked. We have previously shown that the spider mite Tetranychus urticae does not mount an induced immune response towards systemic bacterial infections, entailing very high mortality rates. Therefore, we hypothesized that other defence mechanisms may be operating to minimize infection risk...
December 3, 2018: Oecologia
Jong-Min Lim, Chang-Hyun Song, Su-Jin Park, Dong-Chan Park, Hyung-Rae Cho, Go-Woon Jung, Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae-Suk Choi
This study was designed to observe the possible protective effects of a triple-fermented barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) extract (FBe) obtained by saccharification and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Weissella cibaria in alleviating gastric damage induced by a hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ethanol (EtOH) mixture in mice. After oral administration of FBe (300, 200, and 100 mg/kg) followed by 1 hr before and after the single treatment of HCl/EtOH (H/E) mixture, the hemorrhagic lesion scores, histopathology of the stomach, gastric nitrate/nitrite content, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense systems including catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were observed...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Na Young Kim, Young Jin Jang, Ohkmae K Park
The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is a key signaling molecule regulating plant growth, development, and defense against pathogens. Octadecanoid-responsive arabidopsis 59 (ORA59) is an ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor and has been suggested to integrate ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling and regulate resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we screened for ORA59 interactors using the yeast two-hybrid system to elucidate the molecular function of ORA59. This led to the identification of RELATED TO AP2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"