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defense response

Seungwha Paik, Jin Kyung Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Tuberculosis (TB), which is primarily caused by the major etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious infectious disease worldwide. Recently, much effort has been made to develop novel/improved therapies by modulating host responses to TB (i.e., host-directed therapy). Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that helps maintain homeostasis or the removal of invading pathogens via a lysosomal degradation process. The activation of autophagy by diverse drugs or agents may represent a promising treatment strategy against Mtb infection, even to drug-resistant strains...
October 15, 2018: Virulence
Aya Tentaku, Takaaki Shimohata, Sho Hatayama, Junko Kido, Anh Quoc Nguyen, Yuna Kanda, Shiho Fukushima, Takashi Uebanso, Taketoshi Iwata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Nagakatsu Harada, Akira Takahashi
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Bacterial entry into a host eukaryotic cell involves the initial steps of adherence and invasion, which generally activate several cell-signaling pathways that induce the activation of innate defense systems, which leads to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and induction of apoptosis. Recent studies have reported that the unfolded protein response (UPR), a system to clear unfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also participates in the activation of cellular defense mechanisms in response to bacterial infection...
2018: PloS One
En-Hui Yi, Feng Xu, Peng Li, Jian-Qiang Guo
Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study aimed to detect the effects of transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 (TDP-43) on cell damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We observed that TDP-43 was highly expressed in RGC-5 cells induced by H2 O2 , and that repression of TDP-43 obviously ameliorated H2 O2 -induced RGC-5 cell injury...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Weiwei Xie, Wei Zheng, Min Liu, Qizhong Qin, Yunpeng Zhao, Zhi Cheng, Fengjin Guo
Inflammation is indispensable for host defense, whereas excessive inflammation often develop inflammatory diseases. Autophagy is thought to be engaged in many extracellular stress responses, such as starvation and innate immunity. Thus, autophagy plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the function of BRF1 in the regulation of inflammation and autophagy response in macrophages. We found that BRF1 inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory factors expression and the autophagy flux in macrophage...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Michael J Furlong, Gurion C K Ang, Rehan Silva, Myron P Zalucki
Research on insect-plant interactions has highlighted the intricacies of constitutive and induced plant defenses. Of particular interest has been the relationship of natural enemies (especially parasitic hymenoptera) to herbivore induced changes to plants, especially their responses to herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). In recent decades this has been a fertile area for research, with elegant experiments showing that HIPVs are important in attracting natural enemies to plants. We critically appraise the application of work on HIPVs in plant-insect-natural enemy interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Julio Villena, Haruki Kitazawa, Saskia C M Van Wees, Corné M J Pieterse, Hideki Takahashi
Modern animal and crop production practices are associated with the regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Alternative approaches are needed in order to satisfy the demands of the growing human population without the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Researchers have brought a different perspective to solve this problem and have emphasized the exploitation of animal- and plant-associated microorganisms that are beneficial to their hosts through the modulation of the innate immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John D Widdrington, Aurora Gomez-Duran, Angela Pyle, Marie-Helene Ruchaud-Sparagano, Jonathan Scott, Simon V Baudouin, Anthony J Rostron, Penny E Lovat, Patrick F Chinnery, A John Simpson
In order to limit the adverse effects of excessive inflammation, anti-inflammatory responses are stimulated at an early stage of an infection, but during sepsis these can lead to deactivation of immune cells including monocytes. In addition, there is emerging evidence that the up-regulation of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms, including mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, is important during the recovery from sepsis and inflammation. We aimed to describe the relationship between the compensatory immune and mitochondrial responses that are triggered following exposure to an inflammatory stimulus in human monocytic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jingyun Luan, Dianwen Ju
Inflammasomes have emerged as critical innate sensors of host immune that defense against pathogen infection, metabolism syndrome, cellular stress and cancer metastasis in the liver. The assembly of inflammasome activates caspase-1, which promotes the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18), and initiates pyroptotic cell death (pyroptosis). IL-18 exerts pleiotropic effects on hepatic NK cells, priming FasL-mediated cytotoxicity, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-dependent responses to prevent the development of liver diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Johannes Pettmann, Ana Mafalda Santos, Omer Dushek, Simon J Davis
The immune system serves as a crucial line of defense from infection and cancer, while also contributing to tissue homeostasis. Communication between immune cells is mediated by small soluble factors called cytokines, and also by direct cellular interactions. Cell-cell interactions are particularly important for T cell activation. T cells direct the adaptive immune response and therefore need to distinguish between self and foreign antigens. Even though decades have passed since the discovery of T cells, exactly why and how they are able to recognize and discriminate between antigens is still not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiutang Yuan, Sophie J McCoy, Yongfen Du, Stephen Widdicombe, Jason M Hall-Spencer
Research into the effects of reduced pH caused by rising CO2 on echinoderms has been strongly biased toward those groups which rely heavily on calcification, such as sea urchins. There is very limited information available for groups that are less reliant on calcification, such as sea cucumbers. Moreover, plasticity in physiology and behavior in holothurians, which is considered to be critical to cope with ocean acidification, remains even less understood. Here, we examined the effects of a 22-week exposure to three pH levels (pH 7...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rita Pombinho, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Innate immunity is the most broadly effective host defense, being essential to clear the majority of microbial infections. Scavenger Receptors comprise a family of sensors expressed in a multitude of host cells, whose dual role during microbial pathogenesis gained importance over recent years. SRs regulate the recruitment of immune cells and control both host inflammatory response and bacterial load. In turn, pathogens have evolved different strategies to overcome immune response, avoid recognition by SRs and exploit them to favor infection...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Hannah C M Niermann, Anna Tyborowska, Antonius H N Cillessen, Marjolein M van Donkelaar, Femke Lammertink, Megan R Gunnar, Barbara Franke, Bernd Figner, Karin Roelofs
Given the long-lasting detrimental effects of internalizing symptoms, there is great need for detecting early risk markers. One promising marker is freezing behavior. Whereas initial freezing reactions are essential for coping with threat, prolonged freezing has been associated with internalizing psychopathology. However, it remains unknown whether early life alterations in freezing reactions predict changes in internalizing symptoms during adolescent development. In a longitudinal study (N = 116), we tested prospectively whether observed freezing in infancy predicted the development of internalizing symptoms from childhood through late adolescence (until age 17)...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Xiaoyu Chen, Shan Liu, Wei Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Hanchen Liu, Fang Zhang, Zhongbing Lu, Wenjun Ding
Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) increases the risk of central nervous (CNS) diseases. As a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is essential for protection against chemically induced oxidative stress to restore cellular redox balance. However, the impact of Nrf2 on the neurotoxic effects of PM2.5 remains to understand. In this study, we exposed wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-/- ) mice to 1 mg/kg PM2...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sandra Lorena Duque Henao, Sergio A Urrego, Andrea M Cano, Edwin A Higuita
Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are promising for use in modulating immune responses in clinical settings characterized by immune immaturity or deficiency. β-Glucans derived from Ganoderma lucidum have demonstrated immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered β-glucans, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed in asymptomatic children, aged 3 to 5 years old, from Medellin, Colombia. Primary outcomes were the circulating CD8+ T lymphocyte and natural killer cell counts; secondary outcomes were circulating lymphocyte counts (total, CD3+, and CD4+ T cells), serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin A and cytokines, and various hematological parameters...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Satoshi Endo, Yumi Iwai, Hiroo Fukuda
Sap molecules are transported by xylem flow throughout the whole plant body. Factors regulating the xylem transport of different molecules remain to be identified. We used fluorophores to visualize xylem transport from roots to leaves in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several previously established Arabidopsis lines with modified xylem cell walls were used to determine the contribution of xylem cell walls to xylem transport. Fluorophores underwent xylem flow-dependent transport from roots to leaves within 20 min. A comparison of rhodamine, fluorescein, and three fluorescently-labeled CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) peptides revealed cargo-dependent xylem transport patterns in terms of leaf position and vein order...
October 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Yongming Wu, Mi Deng, Yuanxiang Jin, Xiyan Mu, Xiaoli He, Nha-Thi Luu, Chunyan Yang, Wenqing Tu
6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) has been widely applied as a mist suppressant to replace perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the metal plating industry in China for decades. Recently, F-53B has been frequently identified in the aquatic environment and wild-caught fish. However, studies on the uptake and elimination kinetics, and the toxicological effects of F-53B were very scarce. In this study, zebrafish larvae (72 h post fertilization, hpf) were exposed to F-53B (10, 100 μg/L) for 48 h, followed by a 24 h of depuration to examine both the dynamics of accumulation and elimination of F-53B and responses of antoxidant defense system in fish...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Chrystian J Cazarotto, Jhonatan P Boito, Roger R Gebert, João H Reis, Gustavo Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Vera M Morsch, Maria R C Schetinger, Pedro H Doleski, Marta L R Leal, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the metaphylactic effect of minerals on immunological and antioxidant responses, as well as performance and prevention of coccidiosis in newborn lambs. We divided 110 newborn lambs into two groups (55/group): control (untreated) and treated with two doses of 0.33 mL/kg of a mineral complex (zinc, copper, selenium, and manganese) on day of life (DOL) 1 and 30. Total blood was collected at DOL 1, 15, 30 and 45 to measure antioxidant enzymes, biochemical and immunology analyses, and haemogram...
September 28, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Jianping Fu, Xuelin Zhao, Yuhong Shi, Ronglian Xing, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Chenghua Li
P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) and multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs or ABCC) belonging to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect aquatic organisms from various toxicants and pathogen exposure. The function of ABC transporters of Sinonovacula constricta in response to pathogens was explored by cloning the complete cDNA of ABCB1 and ABCC5 of S. constricta through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Tissue-specific expression showed that ABCB1 and ABCC5 have the highest expression in hemocytes and gills among eight examined tissues, respectively...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Da Hyun Kim, Woo-Chang Chung, Su-Hyun Chun, Ji Ho Han, Moon Jung Song, Kwang-Won Lee
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a global public health concern. It causes respiratory diseases ranging from mild illness to fatal disease. Natural killer (NK) cells are an innate immune component that kill infected cells and secrete cytokines to modulate the adaptive immune system; they constitute the first-line defense and play important roles in controlling IAV infection. This study evaluated the effect of daily administration of heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum nF1-fortified yogurt on immunity and protection against IAV infection...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yusong Jiang, Mengjun Huang, Meixia Zhang, Jianbi Lan, Weixun Wang, Xiang Tao, Yiqing Liu
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), one of the most economically valuable plants in the Zingiberaceae family, is widely used as a spice and flavoring agent for beverages, bakery, confectionary, and pharmaceutics. Bacterial wilt disease, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most detrimental production constraints in ginger cultivation. Field cultivation experiments indicated that soil moisture affects the incidence of bacterial wilt disease. However, the relationship between soil moisture and bacterial wilt incidence as well as the mechanism that underlie this infection remain unclear...
October 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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