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defense response

Jameson K Gardner, Melissa M Herbst-Kralovetz
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) causes a persistent, lifelong infection that increases risk for sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Both the lack of a vaccine and the need for chronic suppressive therapies to control infection presents the need to further understand immune mechanisms in response to acute HSV-2 infection. The IL-36 cytokines are recently identified members of the IL-1 family and function as inflammatory mediators at epithelial sites. Here, we first used a well-characterized three-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) model to understand the role of IL-36γ in the context of HSV-2 infection...
August 14, 2018: Cytokine
Cheuk Yan Chan, Wen-Xiong Wang
The present study assessed the spatial and temporal variations and the potential influences of the Pearl River discharge on trace metal bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in Hong Kong coastal waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant defense, oxidative stress, metal detoxification, cellular response, neurotoxicity, and energy reserve were quantified in the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata over spatial scale across the east and west of Hong Kong. We documented the elevated Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in all western stations in the fall season, as a result of time-integrated accumulation during the peak discharge of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in summer...
August 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Aravind T Reddy, Sowmya P Lakshmi, Asoka Banno, Raju C Reddy
Cigarette smoke, a source of numerous oxidants, produces oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory responses that lead to irreversible lung tissue damage. It is the single, most significant risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although an intrinsic defense system that includes both enzymatic and non-enzymatic players exists to protect lung tissues against oxidative stress, impairment of these protective mechanisms has been demonstrated in smokers and COPD patients. The antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase (GPx) is an important part of this intrinsic defense system...
August 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ke-Yi Zhang, Wen-Jie Yuan, Ji-Dong Xu, Jin-Xing Wang
The cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is a member of the P-type lectin family. As a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, it functions in the delivery of newly synthesized acid hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes for their subsequent transfer to the lysosome by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-recognition moieties in the hydrolases. However, the functions of CD-MPR in immune responses are seldom reported. In the present study, we identified a CD-MPR-like molecule in Marsupenaeus japonicus and designed it as MjCD-MPR...
August 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
S L Semple, N T K Vo, S J Poynter, M Li, D D Heath, S J DeWitte-Orr, B Dixon
Despite increased global interest in Chinook salmon aquaculture, little is known of their viral immune defenses. This study describes the establishment and characterization of a continuous cell line derived from Chinook salmon spleen, CHSS, and its use in innate immune studies. Optimal growth was seen at 14-18 °C when grown in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 20% fetal bovine serum. DNA analyses confirmed that CHSS was Chinook salmon and genetically different from the only other available Chinook salmon cell line, CHSE-214...
August 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
M S Sajid, A Kausar, A Iqbal, H Abbas, Z Iqbal, M K Jones
Ticks (Acari:Ixodoidea) are important ectoparasites infesting livestock and human populations around the globe. Ticks can cause damage directly by affecting the site of infestation, or indirectly as vectors of a wide range of protozoa, bacteria and viruses which ultimately lead to lowered productivity of livestock populations. Hyalomma is a genus of hard ticks, having more than 30 species well-adapted to hot, humid and cold climates. Habitat diversity, vector ability, and emerging problem of acaricidal resistance in enzootic regions typify this genus in various countries around the world...
August 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Penn et al. (2018) report the protein interactome between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) secreted effectors and macrophage cytosolic proteins. This Resource reveals that the interaction of Mtb effector LpqN with host CBL counteracts antibacterial defense but causes a reciprocal enhancement of antiviral defense.
August 16, 2018: Molecular Cell
Patimaporn Wongprompitak, Nawarat Pleewan, Wiwit Tantibhedhyangkul, Angkana Chaiprasert, Pinnita Prabhasawat, Naharuthai Inthasin, Pattama Ekpo
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum, a pathogenic oomycete, is a common causative organism of infectious corneal ulcer. Studying the innate immune response at the ocular surface is important for better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and host defense against P. insidiosum infection. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in P. insidiosum infection. METHODS: Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were stimulated with either P...
August 13, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Julie A Pollock, Naina Sharma, Sirish K Ippagunta, Vanessa Redecke, Hans Häcker, John Katzenellenbogen
The immune system uses members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family to recognize a variety of pathogen- and host-derived molecules in order to initiate immune responses. Although TLR-mediated, pro-inflammatory immune responses are essential for host defense, prolonged and exaggerated activation can result in inflammation pathology that manifests in a variety of diseases. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors of the TLR signaling pathway might have promise as anti-inflammatory drugs. We have previously identified a class of triaryl pyrazole compounds that inhibit TLR signaling by modulation of the protein-protein interactions essential to the pathway...
August 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
François Trottein, Christophe Paget
The immune system has been traditionally divided into two arms called innate and adaptive immunity. Typically, innate immunity refers to rapid defense mechanisms that set in motion within minutes to hours following an insult. Conversely, the adaptive immune response emerges after several days and relies on the innate immune response for its initiation and subsequent outcome. However, the recent discovery of immune cells displaying merged properties indicates that this distinction is not mutually exclusive. These populations that span the innate-adaptive border of immunity comprise, among others, CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells and MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chen Huang, Jin Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yongchen Yu, Wenbo Bian, Zhongping Zeng, Xiaoling Sun, Xinghui Li
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have been reported to play an important role in protecting plants from attacks by herbivores. Though PPO genes in other plants have been extensively studied, research on PPO genes in the tea plant ( Camellia sinensis ) is lacking. In particular, which members of the PPO gene family elicit the defense response of the tea plant are as yet unknown. Here, two new PPO genes, CsPPO1 and CsPPO2 , both of which had high identity with PPOs from other plants, were obtained from tea leaves. The full length of CsPPO1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1740 bp that encoded a protein of 579 amino acids, while CsPPO2 contained an ORF of 1788 bp that encoded a protein of 595 amino acids...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Allison Palmer, Alison K Criss
Neisseria gonorrhoeae initiates a strong local immune response that is characterized by copious recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Neutrophils neutralize microbes by mechanisms that include phagocytosis, extracellular trap formation, production of reactive oxygen species, and the delivery of antimicrobial granular contents. However, neutrophils do not clear infection with N. gonorrhoeae. N. gonorrhoeae not only expresses factors that defend against neutrophil bactericidal components, but it also manipulates neutrophil production and release of these components...
August 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Xia Bian, Liting Wu, Liangliang Mu, Xiaoxue Yin, Xiufang Wei, Xiaofang Zhong, Yanjian Yang, Junru Wang, Yuan Li, Zheng Guo, Jianmin Ye
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), a member of non-receptor tyrosine kinase family, plays an important role in immune responses against pathogen infection, which is capable of activating B cells signaling pathway and regulating inflammatory response. In this study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ortholog (OnSYK) was identified and characterized at expression pattern against bacterial infection, function in B cells activation pathway and inflammatory response. The cDNA of OnSYK ORF contained 1851 bp of nucleotide sequence encoding polypeptides of 616 amino acids...
August 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chuanzhong Zhang, Hong Gao, Rongpeng Li, Dan Han, Le Wang, Junjiang Wu, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora sojae is a destructive pathogen of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] causing stem and root rot to soybean plants worldwide. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of plant defense responses against P. sojae are largely unclear. Herein, we document the underlying mechanisms and function of a novel BTB/POZ protein in soybean, GmBTB/POZ, which contains a BTB/POZ domain found in certain animal transcriptional regulators, in host soybean plants in response to P. sojae. It is located in the cell nucleus and transcriptionally up-regulated by P...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yasuomi Urano, Chinatsu Mori, Ayano Fuji, Keito Konno, Takayuki Yamamoto, Shohei Yashirogi, Mayu Ando, Yoshiro Saito, Noriko Noguchi
PARK7/DJ-1 is a Parkinson disease- and cancer-associated protein that functions as a multifunctional protein involved in gene transcription regulation and anti-oxidative defense. Although PARK7 lacks the secretory signal sequence, it is secreted and plays important physiological and pathophysiological roles. Whereas secretory proteins that lack the endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence are secreted from cells by way of what is called the unconventional secretion mechanism, the specific processes responsible for causing PARK7 to be secreted across the plasma membrane have remained unclear...
August 16, 2018: Autophagy
Umran Seven Erdemir, Hulya Arslan, Gurcan Guleryuz, Mehmet Yaman, Seref Gucer
A multielemental determination methodology in conjunction with an organic acid analysis that were supplemented with other stress parameters and an ultrastructural analysis used herein to study Verbascum olympicum Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) under Mn stress. Uptake and accumulation characteristics of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn were evaluated in 8-week-old seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution and exposed to 5 (CK), 50, and 200 μM MnSO4 for 7 days. Hydrogen peroxide levels were determined to evaluate oxidative stress, and changes in compatible substance levels (total phenolic contents, glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels) were determined to assess antioxidant defense mechanisms...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dagang Tian, Liu Yang, Zaijie Chen, Ziqiang Chen, Feng Wang, Yuanchang Zhou, Yuming Luo, Liming Yang, Songbiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. While many blast resistance (R) genes have been identified and deployed in rice cultivars, little is known about the R gene-mediated defense mechanism. We used a rice transgenic line harboring the resistance gene Piz-t to investigate the R gene-mediated resistance response to infection. RESULTS: We conducted comparative proteome profiling of the Piz-t transgenic Nipponbare line (NPB-Piz-t) and wild-type Nipponbare (NPB) inoculated with M...
August 15, 2018: Rice
Rejeki Siti Ferniah, Rina Sri Kasiamdari, Achmadi Priyatmojo, Budi Setiadi Daryono
Cross-breeding is a method of producing progeny with better resistance to pathogens. Resistance to pathogens usually involves pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Class II chitinase is an example of a defensive PR protein in plants. The class II chitinase in chilli is coded by the CaChi 2 gene. In this study, we crossed susceptible with resistant chilli cultivars, analysed the F1 resistance response against pathogenic F. oxysporum , and analysed the level of CaChi 2 gene expression in the F1 . Data were collected using disease severity index (DSI) determination and gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Elisabeth Lang, Vitaly I Pozdeev, Prashant V Shinde, Haifeng C Xu, Balamurugan Sundaram, Yuan Zhuang, Gereon Poschmann, Jun Huang, Kai Stühler, Aleksandra A Pandyra, Verena Keitel, Dieter Häussinger, Karl S Lang, Philipp A Lang
Immune responses are critical for defense against pathogens. However, prolonged viral infection can result in defective T cell immunity, leading to chronic viral infection. We studied immune activation in response to arenavirus infection during cholestasis using bile duct ligation (BDL). We monitored T cell responses, virus load and liver pathology markers after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). BDL mice failed to induce protective anti-viral immunity against LCMV and consequently exhibited chronic viral infection...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Megan R Kiedrowski, Jordan R Gaston, Brian R Kocak, Stefanie L Coburn, Stella Lee, Joseph M Pilewski, Michael M Myerburg, Jennifer M Bomberger
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of chronic respiratory infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We recently showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits enhanced biofilm formation during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) coinfection on human CF airway epithelial cells (AECs). The impact of respiratory viruses on other bacterial pathogens during polymicrobial infections in CF remains largely unknown. To investigate if S. aureus biofilm growth in the CF airways is impacted by virus coinfection, we evaluated S...
August 15, 2018: MSphere
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