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Attention Deficie Hyperactivity Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514410/the-devil-is-in-the-detail-exploring-the-intrinsic-neural-mechanisms-that-link-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptomatology-to-ongoing-cognition
#1
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496768/significantly-lower-serum-and-hair-magnesium-levels-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-than-controls-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Yu-Hui Huang, Bing-Yan Zeng, Dian-Jeng Li, Yu-Shian Cheng, Tien-Yu Chen, Hsin-Yi Liang, Wei-Chieh Yang, Pao-Yen Lin, Yen-Wen Chen, Ping-Tao Tseng, Ching-Hua Lin
The pathophysiology of attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still obscure. Some studies have discussed that magnesium levels are lower in the serum and erythrocytes of children with ADHD. However, these findings are controversial. The aim of our study is to identify whether magnesium levels are in fact lower in children with ADHD. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and examined the connection between magnesium insufficiency and ADHD. A total of twelve studies were included into the current meta-analysis...
November 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485932/dietary-and-nutrient-status-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-case-control-study
#3
Wen-Jiun Chou, Ming-Fen Lee, Mei-Lin Hou, Lien-Shu Hsiao, Min-Jing Lee, Miao-Chun Chou, Liang-Jen Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nutritional and dietary habits may affect children's behaviors and learning. The etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, may be associated with unhealthy diets or nutrients deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to examine whether children with ADHD exhibited different dietary habits or nutrient profiles from healthy control subjects. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We recruited 42 patients with ADHD (mean age: 8...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410779/cerebellar-radiological-abnormalities-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-part-1-clinical-and-neuroimaging-findings
#4
Michael S Salman, Shakhawat Hossain, Lina Alqublan, Martin Bunge, Katya Rozovsky
Background: Many children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have focal abnormal signal intensities (FASI) on brain MRI, whose full clinical impact and natural history have not been studied systematically. Our aims are to describe the clinical and neuroradiological features in children with NF1 and cerebellar FASI, and report on the natural history of FASI that display atypical features such as enhancement and mass effect. Method: A retrospective review of the hospital charts and brain MRIs was performed on children from Manitoba diagnosed between 1999 and 2008 with NF1, who also had cerebellar FASI on MRI...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367389/vitamin-d-levels-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Evangelia Kotsi, Elisavet Kotsi, Despina N Perrea
The aim of this article was to assess the differences in serum 25(OH)D levels between children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. We used the PubMed (1966-2017), Scopus (2004-2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2017), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL (2000-2017), and Google Scholar (2004-2017) databases. Statistical meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3. Εight studies were finally included in the present meta-analysis with a total number of 11,324 children...
October 26, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334678/chronic-methylphenidate-treatment-during-adolescence-has-long-term-effects-on-monoaminergic-function
#6
Mathieu Di Miceli, Adesina Omoloye, Benjamin Gronier
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants like methylphenidate or D-amphetamine are often prescribed for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in children. Whether such drugs can be administered into a developing brain without consequences in adulthood is still an open question. METHODS: Here, using in vivo extracellular electrophysiology in anesthetised preparations, combined with behavioural assays, we have examined the long-term consequences in adulthood of a chronic methylphenidate oral administration (5 mg/kg/day, 15 days) in early adolescent (post-natal day 28) and late adolescent (post-natal day 42) rats, by evaluating body weight change, sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia), locomotor sensitivity to D-amphetamine and electrical activities of ventral tegmental area dopamine and dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215837/-motor-proficiency-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-associations-with-cognitive-skills-and-symptom-severity
#7
Halime Tuna Çak, Remzi Karaokur, Songül Atasavun Uysal, Abdülbaki Artık, Vesile Yıldız Kabak, Burak Karakök, Nilay Şahan, Yusuf Karaer, Başak Karabucak, Şeniz Özusta, Ebru Çengel Kültür
OBJECTIVES: Of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 45-70% have motor skill problems, which can adversely affect social competence, peer relations, and academic skills. The aim of this study is to assess motor skills in school-aged children with ADHD, and to elucidate if there are any relationships between ADHD symptoms and cognitive function. METHOD: Included in this study were 58 children (38 ADHD, 20 controls) between 8-11 years of age...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165120/early-life-stress-impairs-developmental-programming-in-cadherin-13-cdh13-deficient-mice
#8
Dominik P Kiser, Sandy Popp, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer, Tatyana Strekalova, Daniel L van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Olga Rivero
OBJECTIVE: Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a member of the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule family, has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders, but also to depression. In the adult brain, CDH13 expression is restricted e.g. to the presynaptic compartment of inhibitory GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus and Cdh13 knockout mice show an increased inhibitory drive onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to a shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance...
August 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053573/altered-methyltetrahydrofolate-reductase-gene-polymorphism-in-mothers-of-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Saliha Baykal, Bahadır Batar, Ayşin Nalbantoğlu, Yakup Albayrak, Halil Hancı, Nihan Potas, Ferit Durankuş, Murat Beyazyüz, Koray Karabekiroğlu
Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and causes significant functional impairments in children. Behavioral genetic and molecular genetic studies have provided significant evidence in terms of highlighting the etiology of ADHD. Folate deficiency during pregnancy is an established risk factor for ADHD. Polymorphisms in the Methyltetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) encoding gene, such as A1298C and C667T, are associated with the decreased bioavailability of folate, and this condition can act like folate deficiency...
January 10, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047142/linking-genetics-to-epigenetics-the-role-of-folate-and-folate-related-pathways-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
REVIEW
C Lintas
There is growing evidence that epigenetic dysregulation plays a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. In humans, folate is one of the main donors of the methyl group required for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, which in turn is needed for DNA and histone methylation as key neurodevelopment processes. Folate deficiency during pregnancy has been correlated with neural tube defects and with a higher incidence of neurocognitive and/or neurobehavioral deficits. A similar outcome may be exerted by gene polymorphisms in folate or folate-related pathways...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036553/mind-wandering-perspective-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Natali S Bozhilova, Giorgia Michelini, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a range of mental health, neurocognitive and functional problems. Although the diagnosis is based on descriptions of behaviour, individuals with ADHD characteristically describe excessive spontaneous mind wandering (MW). MW in individuals with ADHD reflects constant mental activity which lacks topic stability and content consistency. Based on this review of the neural correlates of ADHD and MW, we outline a new perspective on ADHD: the MW hypothesis...
September 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992786/neurocognitive-disorders-and-sleep-in-children-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#12
Tuğba Şişmanlar Eyüboğlu, Ayşe Tana Aslan, Alper Ceylan, Azime Şebnem Soysal, Işıl İrem Budakoğlu, Tansu Ulukavak Çiftçi, Oğuz Köktürk
BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients have higher incidence of sleep disordered breathing which lead neurocognitive impairments such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It may effect academic performance of children and may cause impairment in emotional relationships. This study aim to evaluate hyperactivity and attention deficiency in PCD patients and investigate the relationship between sleep and hyperactivity and attention deficiency in PCD patients...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972622/implicit-sequence-learning-in-young-people-with-tourette-syndrome-with-and-without-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Elizabeth Shephard, Madeleine J Groom, Georgina M Jackson
Impaired habit-learning has been proposed to underlie the tic symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, accounts differ in terms of how habit-learning is altered in TS, with some authors proposing habit formation is impaired due to a deficient 'chunking' mechanism, and others proposing habit-learning is overactive and tics reflect hyperlearned behaviours. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is known to affect cognitive function in young people with co-occurring TS and ADHD (TS + ADHD)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914669/increase-serum-cortisol-in-young-guinea-pig-offspring-in-response-to-maternal-iron-deficiency
#14
Nora Shero, Sylvain Fiset, Hélène Plamondon, Mohamed Thabet, France M Rioux
Iron deficiency (ID) has been reported as a risk factor in the pathology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, although the mechanisms seem unclear. Previous results from our research group showed that guinea pig offspring born from ID dams were significantly more active in the Open Field Test than the controls. This behavior could potentially be associated to stress. We therefore hypothesized that maternal iron deficiency (MID) elevates the offspring serum cortisol, a biomarker of stress, during childhood and possibly at mature age...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888233/methylphenidate-and-guanfacine-ameliorate-adhd-like-phenotypes-in-fez1-deficient-mice
#15
Akiko Sumitomo, Ayumi Saka, Keisho Ueta, Kouta Horike, Kazuko Hirai, Nao J Gamo, Takatoshi Hikida, Keiichi I Nakayama, Akira Sawa, Takeshi Sakurai, Toshifumi Tomoda
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that, while prevalent, has a stagnant track record for advances in treatment. The limited availability of animal models with appropriate face and predictive validities has hampered progress in developing novel neurobiological hypotheses and testing new therapeutic options for this condition. Here, we report that mice deficient in Fez1 , a gene specifically expressed in the nervous system with documented functions in neurodevelopment, show hyperactivity and impulsivity phenotypes, which are ameliorated by administering methylphenidate (MPH) or guanfacine (GFC), two pharmacological agents used for ADHD treatment...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862222/effectiveness-of-parents-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-obesity-and-self-esteem-of-overweight-children-with-attention-deficient-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Afsaneh Karbasi Amel, Saeed Karbasi Amel, Arefeh Erfan
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral problems that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, academic failure, and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool and elementary school that is often hidden from the parents' eyes. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of parent-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ADHD symptoms (including attention deficit disorder, restlessness, and impulsivity), overweight and self-esteem of 6-11-year-old obese children with attention deficit hyperactivity in Isfahan...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764626/25-hydroxvitamin-d-concentrations-are-not-lower-in-children-with-bronchial-asthma-atopic-dermatitis-obesity-or-attention-deficient-hyperactivity-disorder-than-in-healthy-children
#17
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Langrock, Eckard Hamelmann, Thomas Lücke, Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Martin Holtmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Stephanie Gest, Mirjam Frank, Börge Schmidt, Katharina Radkowski, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in immune regulation, and its receptor has been identified in several tissues including lung, adipose tissue, brain, and skin. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that vitD has an essential role not only in bone metabolism but also in other diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), bronchial asthma (BA), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obesity because the affected tissues express vitD receptors. Furthermore, obesity, AD, and BA are regarded as inflammatory diseases...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736076/a-study-on-association-of-iron-deficiency-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#18
Kamirul Islam, Soutrik Seth, Suman Saha, Atanu Roy, Rajib Das, Asok Kumar Datta
Background: Iron is important for brain development and cognitive function. Iron deficiency may cause alteration of neurotransmitters and may be manifested by different central nervous system disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aims: As studies are scarce in the Indian context, we had undertaken this study to find out the association between iron deficiency and ADHD. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695985/augmented-go-no-go-task-mouse-cursor-motion-measures-improve-adhd-symptom-assessment-in-healthy-college-students
#19
Anton Leontyev, Stanley Sun, Mary Wolfe, Takashi Yamauchi
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently characterized as a disorder of executive function (EF). However, behavioral tests of EF, such as go/No-go tasks, often fail to grasp the deficiency in EF revealed by questionnaire-based measures. This inability is usually attributed to questionnaires and behavioral tasks assessing different constructs of EFs. We propose an additional explanation for this discrepancy. We hypothesize that this problem stems from the lack of dynamic assessment of decision-making (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Bruce Turetsky, Kerstin Konrad
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
July 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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