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Attention Deficie Hyperactivity Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053573/altered-methyltetrahydrofolate-reductase-gene-polymorphism-in-mothers-of-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Saliha Baykal, Bahadır Batar, Ayşin Nalbantoğlu, Yakup Albayrak, Halil Hancı, Nihan Potas, Ferit Durankuş, Murat Beyazyüz, Koray Karabekiroğlu
Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and causes significant functional impairments in children. Behavioral genetic and molecular genetic studies have provided significant evidence in terms of highlighting the etiology of ADHD. Folate deficiency during pregnancy is an established risk factor for ADHD. Polymorphisms in the Methyltetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) encoding gene, such as A1298C and C667T, are associated with the decreased bioavailability of folate, and this condition can act like folate deficiency...
July 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047142/linking-genetics-to-epigenetics-the-role-of-folate-and-folate-related-pathways-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Carla Lintas
There is growing evidence that epigenetic dysregulation plays a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. In humans, folate is one of the main donors of the methyl group required for the synthesis of S-adenosyl methionine which in turn is needed for DNA and histone methylation as key neurodevelopment processes. Folate deficiency during pregnancy has been correlated with neural tube defects and with a higher incidence of neurocognitive and/or neurobehavioral deficits. A similar outcome may be exerted by gene polymorphisms in folate or folate related pathways...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036553/mind-wandering-perspective-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Natali S Bozhilova, Giorgia Michelini, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a range of mental health, neurocognitive and functional problems. Although the diagnosis is based on descriptions of behaviour, individuals with ADHD characteristically describe excessive spontaneous mind wandering (MW). MW in individuals with ADHD reflects constant mental activity which lacks topic stability and content consistency. Based on this review of the neural correlates of ADHD and MW, we outline a new perspective on ADHD: the MW hypothesis...
September 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992786/neurocognitive-disorders-and-sleep-in-children-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#4
Tuğba Şişmanlar Eyüboğlu, Ayşe Tana Aslan, Alper Ceylan, Azime Şebnem Soysal, Işıl İrem Budakoğlu, Tansu Ulukavak Çiftçi, Oğuz Köktürk
BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients have higher incidence of sleep disordered breathing which lead neurocognitive impairments such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It may effect academic performance of children and may cause impairment in emotional relationships. This study aim to evaluate hyperactivity and attention deficiency in PCD patients and investigate the relationship between sleep and hyperactivity and attention deficiency in PCD patients...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972622/implicit-sequence-learning-in-young-people-with-tourette-syndrome-with-and-without-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Elizabeth Shephard, Madeleine J Groom, Georgina M Jackson
Impaired habit-learning has been proposed to underlie the tic symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, accounts differ in terms of how habit-learning is altered in TS, with some authors proposing habit formation is impaired due to a deficient 'chunking' mechanism, and others proposing habit-learning is overactive and tics reflect hyperlearned behaviours. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is known to affect cognitive function in young people with co-occurring TS and ADHD (TS + ADHD)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914669/increase-serum-cortisol-in-young-guinea-pig-offspring-in-response-to-maternal-iron-deficiency
#6
Nora Shero, Sylvain Fiset, Hélène Plamondon, Mohamed Thabet, France M Rioux
Iron deficiency (ID) has been reported as a risk factor in the pathology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, although the mechanisms seem unclear. Previous results from our research group showed that guinea pig offspring born from ID dams were significantly more active in the Open Field Test than the controls. This behavior could potentially be associated to stress. We therefore hypothesized that maternal iron deficiency (MID) elevates the offspring serum cortisol, a biomarker of stress, during childhood and possibly at mature age...
June 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888233/methylphenidate-and-guanfacine-ameliorate-adhd-like-phenotypes-in-fez1-deficient-mice
#7
Akiko Sumitomo, Ayumi Saka, Keisho Ueta, Kouta Horike, Kazuko Hirai, Nao J Gamo, Takatoshi Hikida, Keiichi I Nakayama, Akira Sawa, Takeshi Sakurai, Toshifumi Tomoda
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that, while prevalent, has a stagnant track record for advances in treatment. The limited availability of animal models with appropriate face and predictive validities has hampered progress in developing novel neurobiological hypotheses and testing new therapeutic options for this condition. Here, we report that mice deficient in Fez1 , a gene specifically expressed in the nervous system with documented functions in neurodevelopment, show hyperactivity and impulsivity phenotypes, which are ameliorated by administering methylphenidate (MPH) or guanfacine (GFC), two pharmacological agents used for ADHD treatment...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862222/effectiveness-of-parents-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-obesity-and-self-esteem-of-overweight-children-with-attention-deficient-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Afsaneh Karbasi Amel, Saeed Karbasi Amel, Arefeh Erfan
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral problems that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, academic failure, and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool and elementary school that is often hidden from the parents' eyes. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of parent-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ADHD symptoms (including attention deficit disorder, restlessness, and impulsivity), overweight and self-esteem of 6-11-year-old obese children with attention deficit hyperactivity in Isfahan...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764626/25-hydroxvitamin-d-concentrations-are-not-lower-in-children-with-bronchial-asthma-atopic-dermatitis-obesity-or-attention-deficient-hyperactivity-disorder-than-in-healthy-children
#9
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Langrock, Eckard Hamelmann, Thomas Lücke, Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Martin Holtmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Stephanie Gest, Mirjam Frank, Börge Schmidt, Katharina Radkowski, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in immune regulation, and its receptor has been identified in several tissues including lung, adipose tissue, brain, and skin. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that vitD has an essential role not only in bone metabolism but also in other diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), bronchial asthma (BA), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obesity because the affected tissues express vitD receptors. Furthermore, obesity, AD, and BA are regarded as inflammatory diseases...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736076/a-study-on-association-of-iron-deficiency-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#10
Kamirul Islam, Soutrik Seth, Suman Saha, Atanu Roy, Rajib Das, Asok Kumar Datta
Background: Iron is important for brain development and cognitive function. Iron deficiency may cause alteration of neurotransmitters and may be manifested by different central nervous system disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aims: As studies are scarce in the Indian context, we had undertaken this study to find out the association between iron deficiency and ADHD. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695985/augmented-go-no-go-task-mouse-cursor-motion-measures-improve-adhd-symptom-assessment-in-healthy-college-students
#11
Anton Leontyev, Stanley Sun, Mary Wolfe, Takashi Yamauchi
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently characterized as a disorder of executive function (EF). However, behavioral tests of EF, such as go/No-go tasks, often fail to grasp the deficiency in EF revealed by questionnaire-based measures. This inability is usually attributed to questionnaires and behavioral tasks assessing different constructs of EFs. We propose an additional explanation for this discrepancy. We hypothesize that this problem stems from the lack of dynamic assessment of decision-making (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689282/impulsive-aggression-and-response-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-disruptive-behavioral-disorders-findings-from-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Andrei A Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Bruce Turetsky, Kerstin Konrad
BACKGROUND: Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. AIMS AND METHODS: Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. RESULTS: In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA...
July 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687930/deficient-neural-activity-subserving-decision-making-during-reward-waiting-time-in-intertemporal-choice-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Ayako Todokoro, Saori C Tanaka, Yuki Kawakubo, Noriaki Yahata, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Yukika Nishimura, Yukiko Kano, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision-making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting (i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward) is altered in adults with ADHD...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624671/practitioner-review-emotional-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-implications-for-clinical-recognition-and-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Stephen V Faraone, Anthony L Rostain, Joseph Blader, Betsy Busch, Ann C Childress, Daniel F Connor, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Because emotional symptoms are common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and associate with much morbidity, some consider it to be a core feature rather than an associated trait. Others argue that emotional symptoms are too nonspecific for use as diagnostic criteria. This debate has been difficult to resolve due, in part, to the many terms used to describe emotional symptoms in ADHD and to concerns about overlap with mood disorders. METHODS: We sought to clarify the nature of emotional symptoms in ADHD by reviewing conceptual and measurement issues and by examining the evidence base regarding specificity of such symptoms for ADHD...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595626/a-case-of-congenital-insensitivity-to-pain-with-anhidrosis-comorbid-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-clinical-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#15
Elham Shirazi, Shirin Sayyahfar, Mahtab Motamed, Javad Alaghband-Rad
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK1) gene. CIPA is accompanied by abnormal catecholamine metabolism and decreased blood concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of heterogeneous etiology and presentation, and recent reports have suggested a pathophysiological role of neurotrophins in ADHD...
April 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560310/neural-mechanisms-underlying-successful-and-deficient-multi-component-behavior-in-early-adolescent-adhd
#16
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558816/prenatal-primary-prevention-of-mental-illness-by-micronutrient-supplements-in-pregnancy
#17
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554125/git1-regulates-synaptic-structural-plasticity-underlying-learning
#18
Amanda C Martyn, Krisztian Toth, Robert Schmalzigaug, Nathan G Hedrick, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Ryohei Yasuda, William C Wetsel, Richard T Premont
The signaling scaffold protein GIT1 is expressed widely throughout the brain, but its function in vivo remains elusive. Mice lacking GIT1 have been proposed as a model for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, due to alterations in basal locomotor activity as well as paradoxical locomotor suppression by the psychostimulant amphetamine. Since we had previously shown that GIT1-knockout mice have normal locomotor activity, here we examined GIT1-deficient mice for ADHD-like behavior in more detail, and find neither hyperactivity nor amphetamine-induced locomotor suppression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545976/improvements-in-negative-parenting-mediate-changes-in-children-s-autonomic-responding-following-a-preschool-intervention-for-adhd
#19
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525285/prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-hyperactivity-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
May 2018: Environment International
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