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Sara Gili, Angelica Abreo, Miguel GóMez-Fernández, Roma Solà, Carlos Morros, Xavier Sala-Blanch
Our objective was to define the positions of the nerves around the brachial artery and, secondarily, to assess the risk of intraneural injection during dual guided axillary block. Sixty ultrasound-guided axillary blocks were performed. The locations of the musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, and radial nerves relative to the brachial artery were determined. The position of the ulnar nerve was defined in relation to that of the brachial vein, and the position of the musculocutaneous nerve in relation to the coracobrachialis muscle...
October 20, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Feng-Bin Wang, Pu-Ming Cheng, Hsiao-Chun Chi, Chih-Kuan Kao, Yi-Han Liao
Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was injected into the entire (0.8 μL) or partial (rostral or caudal, 0.1-0.3 μL) superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat (male Sprague-Dawley, N = 35) to examine the distribution of neurons in the middle (MCG) and inferior (ICG) cervical ganglion that send axons bypass the SCG. Whole-mounts of the SCG, cervical sympathetic trunk (CST), MCG, ICG, and sections of the brainstem and spinal cord were prepared. With entire SCG tracer injection, neurons were labeled evenly in the MCG (left: 258, right: 121), ICG (left: 848, right: 681), and CST (up to 770)...
October 19, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Bjarke Jensen, Tobias Wang, Antoon F M Moorman
The complete division of the atrial cavity by a septum, resulting in a left and right atrium, is found in many amphibians and all amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals). Surprisingly, it is only in eutherian, or placental, mammals that full atrial septation necessitates addition from a second septum. The high incidence of incomplete closure of the atrial septum in human, so-called probe patency, suggests this manner of closure is inefficient. We review the evolution and development of the atrial septum to understand the peculiar means of forming the atrial septum in eutherian mammals...
October 18, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Adam Kuperavage, David Pokrajac, Sakdapong Chavanaves, Robert B Eckhardt
The calcar femorale (CF), a plate of dense bone internal to the lesser trochanter, is visible on computed tomographic images of the 6 million-year-old femoral fragment BAR 1003'00 (from the taxon Orrorin tugenensis), among the oldest specimens relevant to reconstructing the evolution of human bipedal locomotion. A strongly expressed CF has been used previously as an indicator of bipedality. If true, then there should be a quantifiable difference in the CF among hominoids. Absolute and normalized CF lengths were measured from computed tomographic images at five anatomical locations along the proximal portion of BAR 1003'00 in addition to samples of nine H...
October 19, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Anat Bachar Zipori, Linda Colpa, Agnes M F Wong, Sharon L Cushing, Karen A Gordon
BACKGROUND: Vision plays an important role in controlling posture and balance in children. Reduced postural control has been reported in children with strabismus, but little has been reported specifically in amblyopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children with amblyopia have reduced balance compared to both children with strabismus without amblyopia and healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 56 patients and healthy controls were recruited from the Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Clinics at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto...
2018: PloS One
Joe Iwanaga, Emily Simonds, Marc Vetter, Mayank Patel, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The inferior gluteal nerve has been traditionally described as a solely motor branch innervating the gluteus maximus. However, during routine dissection of the gluteal region, a cutaneous branch of the inferior gluteal nerve was identified. As the gluteal region is vulnerable to the development of pressure ulcers and iatrogenic injury with for example, surgical approaches and injection therapies, a comprehensive understanding of its cutaneous innervation is important. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomy of this cutaneous branch of the inferior gluteal nerve in a series of cadavers...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Jeffrey R Gehlhausen, Eric Hawley, Benjamin Mark Wahle, Yongzheng He, Donna Edwards, Steven D Rhodes, Jacquelyn D Lajiness, Karl Staser, Shi Chen, Xianlin Yang, Jin Yuan, Xiaohong Li, Li Jiang, Abbi Smith, Waylan Bessler, George Sandusky, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Steven P Angus, Gary L Johnson, Grzegorz Nalepa, Charles W Yates, D Wade Clapp, Su-Jung Park
Schwannomas are common, highly morbid, and medically untreatable tumors that can arise in patients with germline as well as somatic mutations in NF2. These mutations most commonly result in the loss of function of the NF2 encoded protein, Merlin. Little is known about how Merlin functions endogenously as a tumor suppressor and how its loss leads to oncogenic transformation in Schwann cells. Here, we identify NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) as a potential drug target driving NF-κB signaling and Merlin-deficient schwannoma genesis...
October 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Melissa L D Rayner, Simão Laranjeira, Rachael E Evans, Rebecca J Shipley, Jess Healy, James B Phillips
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) have a high prevalence and can be debilitating, resulting in life-long loss or disturbance in end-organ function, which compromises quality of life for patients. Current therapies use microsurgical approaches but there is the potential for enhancing recovery through other therapeutic modalities such as; cell-based conduits, gene therapy and small molecules. A number of molecular targets and drugs which have the potential to improve nerve regeneration have been identified, however, there are challenges associated with moving therapies toward clinical translation...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Papon Muangsanit, Rebecca J Shipley, James B Phillips
Vascularization plays a significant role in treating nerve injury, especially to avoid the central necrosis observed in nerve grafts for large and long nerve defects. It is known that sufficient vascularization can sustain cell survival and maintain cell integration within tissue-engineered constructs. Several studies have also shown that vascularization affects nerve regeneration. Motivated by these studies, vascularized nerve grafts have been developed using various different techniques, although donor site morbidity and limited nerve supply remain significant drawbacks...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Charlotte H Harrison, Ahmad Elmansouri, William Parton, Matthew A Myers, Samuel Hall, Jonny R Stephens, Eleanor G Seaby, Scott Border
Within medical education a reduction in curriculum time for subjects, such as anatomy puts pressure on educators to ensure the same learning outcomes are conveyed in less time. This has the potential to impact negatively on student experience. Near-peer teaching (NPT) is often praised as an effective revision tool, but its use as a frontline teaching resource remains unreported. The study explores the potential for NPT to promote delivery of learning outcomes and maximize student experience within a neuroanatomy module for second year medical students...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Anat Shmueli, Lina Salman, Eran Hadar, Amir Aviram, Ron Bardin, Eran Ashwal, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv
PURPOSE: To evaluate the best performing formula for macrosomia prediction in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 1060 sonographic fetal biometrical measurements performed within 7 days of delivery in term pregnancies (37-42 gestational weeks) complicated by diabetes. Sonographic prediction of macrosomia (≥ 4000, ≥ 4250, and ≥ 4500 g) was evaluated utilizing ten previously published formulas by: (1) calculating for each macrosomia threshold the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and ± likelihood ratio for macrosomia prediction; (2) comparing the systematic and random error and the proportion of estimates < 10% of birth weights between macrosomic and non-macrosomic neonates...
October 16, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Anat Cohen, Rajkumar Agarwal, Ahmad Farooqi, Nirupama Kannikeswaran
BACKGROUND: Seizures are a common presenting symptom to the emergency department (ED) in children with intraventricular shunts (IVS). The incidence of shunt malfunction and the yield of imaging studies in children with IVS presenting with seizures is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Weassessed the utility and diagnostic yield of evaluation for shunt malfunction in patients with IVS with seizure and identified clinical predictors for shunt malfunction in these children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of children aged zero to 21years with IVS who presented to the ED with seizure between 2011 and 2015...
August 10, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Xiaochen Wan, Liying Shi, Xiaohong Ma, Haimin Tang, Guoyou Wu
This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of action of ASK1 gene on the growth and migration of gastric cancer (GC) cells. Total RNA was extracted from the gastric cell lines and GC tissues. The expression level of ASK1, and the association between ASK1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of ASK1 on the proliferation of HGC-27 cells were assessed by the CCK-8 assay. In addition, the effects of ASK1 on the migration of HGC-27 cells were analyzed by the migration assay using transwell chambers...
October 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Lei Huang, Georgios Pafitanis, Dajiang Song, Deqing Hu, Peng Niu, Xu Hong, Ruilin Qi, Xudong Wei, Heping Zheng
Soft tissue defects of the forefoot represent a challenging surgical modality to reconstructive microsurgeons. This study describes the anatomical basis and design of the perforator-based intermediate dorsal pedal neurocutaneous vascular flap. Thirty fresh human lower limb specimens were injected with red latex and used for dissection of the dorsal vascular and neural anatomy of the foot. The direction and distribution of the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve and the vascular anatomy of the third dorsal artery of the plantar arch, along with the intermediate dorsal neurocutaneous nutrient vessels, were mapped...
October 14, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Anat Achiron, Rina Falb, Anna Feldman, Maria Bovim, Onn Rosenblum, Ida Sarova Pinhas, David Magalashvili, Mark Dolev, Shay Menascu, Michael Gurevich
BACKGROUND: The operating molecular mechanisms that characterize a multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse has not been thoroughly studied. We have shown that increased expression of RNA polymerase 1 (POL1) molecular pathway is associated with increased MS disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To assess POL1 pathway expression during acute MS relapse. METHODS: We studied POL1 pathway activation and associated biomarkers during the first acute optic neuritis attack of MS, and in relapsing-remitting MS patients treated with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) experiencing an acute MS relapse or a radiological relapse using gene expression microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR...
October 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Troy A Hackett
In the brain, purines such as ATP and adenosine can function as neurotransmitters and co-transmitters, or serve as signals in neuron-glial interactions. In thalamocortical (TC) projections to sensory cortex, adenosine functions as a negative regulator of glutamate release via activation of the presynaptic adenosine A1 receptor (A1 R). In the auditory forebrain, restriction of A1 R-adenosine signaling in medial geniculate (MG) neurons is sufficient to extend LTP, LTD, and tonotopic map plasticity in adult mice for months beyond the critical period...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Florencia Evelyn Rodríguez, María Teresa Sandoval, Blanca Beatriz Álvarez, Daniel Marcelo Lombardo
We presented a comparative study of two species of South American bats, Myotis albescens and Eumops patagonicus, about prenatal development. This study was carried out using 60 specimens, which were measured and photographed, and the embryonic stage was assigned by the staging system for Carollia perspicillata. We observed that the chorionic vesicle showed similarities in the disposition of the extraembryonic membranes, but they differed in characteristics of their yolk sac; in E. patagonicus, it was more glandular than M...
September 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Emil Krupandan, Anusuya Chinsamy-Turan, Diego Pol
This analysis of the long bone microstructure of Antetonitrus ingenipes fills a crucial gap in our understanding of the growth dynamics of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. The bone histology of basal Sauropodomorpha are often characterized by zonal tissue, and contrasts with that of more derived sauropod taxa which show a shift toward the deposition of uninterrupted fibrolamellar bone (with lines of growth being either absent or only present in the outer circumferential layer). In Antetonitrus, growth patterns in the youngest individuals exhibit uninterrupted fibrolamellar bone without any growth marks...
September 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Rafael Cisne, Alessandra M T Souza, Marco A Pereira-Sampaio, Marcio A Babinski, Silvana L Gorniak, Paula C Papa
Formaldehyde is commonly used worldwide, even though it is classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This has motivated intensive investigations of formaldehyde substitutes, and recently, some alternative solutions were found, which can potentially replace it. Previous research showed that tannic acid (TA) in glutaraldehyde solution has the ability to stabilize elastin and collagen. This provided a basis for the development of a new alcoholic fixative solution, particularly aimed at extracellular matrix components, with TA as a main component...
September 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jessica S Dudley, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson, Tanya Carter, Bronwyn M McAllan
Mammals exhibit similar changes in uterine epithelial morphology during early pregnancy despite having a diverse range of placental types. The uterine epithelium undergoes rapid morphological and molecular change ("plasma membrane transformation") during the early stages of pregnancy to allow attachment of the blastocyst. The domestic cat, Felis catus is in the order Carnivora; all species within the Carnivora studied so far develop an endotheliochorial placenta during pregnancy. The endotheliochorial placental type is a common form of placental invasion in mammals...
September 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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