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antibiotic care

Leonard J Keller, Vincent J Alentado, Joseph E Tanenbaum, Bryan S Lee, Amy S Nowacki, Edward C Benzel, Thomas E Mroz, Michael P Steinmetz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: A spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a serious condition that may be managed with antibiotics alone or with decompressive surgery combined with antibiotics. PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of SEA after surgical management and to identify the patient-level factors that are associated with outcomes following surgical decompression and removal of SEA. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective chart review analysis...
December 8, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Salam Abbara, Aurélia Pitsch, Sébastien Jochmans, Kyann Hodjat, Dr Pascale Cherrier, Mehran Monchi, Christophe Vinsonneau, Sylvain Diamantis
OBJECTIVES: To assess if the postprescription review and feedback (PPRF) of all antibiotics with restriction of carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins, along with a change of medical standard of care, impacted the consumption of antibiotics and bacterial resistance in a medical/surgical intensive care unit (MSICU). METHODS: A four years before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) retrospective comparative study. Antibiotics consumption was evaluated in Defined Daily Doses per 1000 patient days...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Daniel B Chastain, Anthony Davis
Osteomyelitis remains difficult to treat, typically requiring a prolonged course of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. The optimal route and duration of antibiotics remains ill-defined due to limited prospective clinical trials. Oritavancin is a long acting, semisynthetic, lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against many Gram-positive organisms. Favorable pharmacokinetics makes oritavancin an appealing alternative for currently available antibiotics requiring daily infusions to decrease the risk of vascular access complications associated with outpatient antimicrobial therapy...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Giorgio Berlot, Claudio Michele Vassallo, Nicola Busetto, Margarita Nieto Yabar, Tatiana Istrati, Silvia Baronio, Giada Quarantotto, Mattia Bixio, Giulia Barbati, Roberto Dattola, Irene Longo, Antonino Chillemi, Alice Scamperle, Fulvio Iscra, Ariella Tomasini
BACKGROUND: The administration of endovenous immunoglobulins in patients with septic shock could be beneficial and preparations enriched with IgA and IgM (ivIgGAM) seem to be more effective than those containing only IgG. In a previous study Berlot et al. demonstrated that early administration of ivIgGAM was associated with lower mortality rate. We studied a larger population of similar patients aiming either to confirm or not this finding considering also the subgroup of patients with septic shock by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
N Pourramezan, S Ohadian Moghadam, M R Pourmand
Health-care workers may serve as a reservoir for dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to patients in hospital settings. The present study aimed to screen MRSA in nasal swabs of health-care workers and clinical specimens from patients and investigate the possible relationship between these isolates at a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Additionally, we aimed to identify potential risk factors for MRSA colonization in health-care workers. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from health-care workers and inpatients who completed a questionnaire on risk factors...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
Charmaine Ng, Xiaoqiong Gu, Shin Giek Goh, Hongjie Chen, Laurence Haller, Boonfei Tan, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Four multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were cultured from intensive care unit wastewater. All isolates exhibited resistance to carbapenem and extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Genome characterization revealed the presence of beta-lactamase resistance genes ( bla PAO and bla OXA ), and three out of the four isolates carried the bla NDM-1 gene encoding resistance against carbapenems.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Jiangang Zhang, Chunjiang Zhao, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Qi Wang, Zhanwei Wang, Feifei Zhang, Hui Wang
Objective: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), assess the clinical outcomes of IAIs, and investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens causing IAIs. Patients and methods: This prospective observational study enrolled patients from the Chinese Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (CARES) program between 2007 and 2016. Data on the clinicopathological factors and causative pathogens were collected...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Emmanuel C Eze, Hafizah Y Chenia, Mohamed E El Zowalaty
Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of nosocomial infections due to its increased antibiotic resistance and virulence. The ability of A. baumannii to form biofilms contributes to its survival in adverse environmental conditions including hospital environments and medical devices. A. baumannii has undoubtedly propelled the interest of biomedical researchers due to its broad range of associated infections especially in hospital intensive care units. The interplay among microbial physicochemistry, alterations in the phenotype and genotypic determinants, and the impact of existing ecological niche and the chemistry of antimicrobial agents has led to enhanced biofilm formation resulting in limited access of drugs to their specific targets...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mojtaba Moosavian, Hosein Ghadri, Zahra Samli
Objective: Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are known as a source of spreading these bacteria. The aim of this prospective study was molecular detection of vanA and vanB genes among VRE isolated from patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in Ahvaz in southwest of Iran. Materials and methods: Overall, 243 non-duplicate rectal swab specimens were collected from ICU-hospitalized patients in teaching hospitals affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Joseph Y Ting, Vanessa Paquette, Karen Ng, Sarka Lisonkova, Valoria Hait, Sandesh Shivanada, Peter Tilley, Horacio Osiovich, Ashley Roberts
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in the neonatal intensive care unit using standardized criteria and determine the effects of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on patterns of antibiotic usage. METHODS: A retrospective audit of antibiotic use from July 2010 to June 2013 was conducted, focusing on prescriptions of vancomycin, cefotaxime, meropenem and linezolid for >3 calendar-days. We evaluated the appropriateness of each course of antibiotic treatment based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 12-Step Guidelines to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance (steps 4, 6 and 9)...
January 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shuyan Wei, Charles Green, Lillian S Kao, Brandy B Padilla-Jones, Van T T Truong, Charles E Wade, John A Harvin
BACKGROUND: Organ/space surgical site infection (OS-SSI) develops frequently after trauma laparotomies and is associated with significant morbidity. No valid model exists to accurately risk-stratify the probability of OS-SSI development after emergent laparotomy. Risk stratification for OS-SSI in these patients could guide promising, but unproven, interventions for OS-SSI prevention, such as more frequent dosing of intraoperative antibiotics or direct peritoneal resuscitation.We hypothesize that in trauma patients who undergo emergent laparotomy, probability of OS-SSI can be accurately estimated using patient data available during the index operation...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alexander Singer, Leanne Kosowan, Alan Katz, Kheira Jolin-Dahel, Karen Appel, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: Choosing Wisely Canada is an initiative to reduce overprescribing and overtesting. This study assessed adherence to 4 Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations for interventions commonly performed in primary care: (a) antibiotic prescriptions for infections that are probably viral in origin, (b) routine vitamin D tests in low-risk adults, (c) annual screening blood tests and (d) prescriptions of antipsychotic medication to treat symptoms of dementia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of data from the electronic medical records of patients who had an encounter between 2014 and 2016 with a participating Manitoba Primary Care Research Network primary care provider in Manitoba, Canada...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Zhongqiang Yan, Yu Zhou, Mingmei Du, Yanling Bai, Bowei Liu, Meiliang Gong, Hongbin Song, Yigang Tong, Yunxi Liu
BACKGROUND: Following the alarming outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (CRKP) in five intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital in China, a prospective investigation of CRKP colonized/infected patients was conducted. AIM: To describe the diffusion and transmission of CRKP among epidemiologically linked ICU patients, staff and environment. METHODS: Enhanced CRKP infected/colonized case monitoring was performed by the real-time nosocomial infection surveillance system (RT-NISS)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Nick Lansdale, Samantha Fryer, Mairead Stockdale, James Bancroft, Jennifer Orr, Harriet Corbett, Simon Kenny
AIM: Despite evidence to suggest shorter durations of antibiotics are safe in complicated appendicitis, the practice has not been widely adopted in the UK. Our aim was to determine whether a clinical pathway that tailors antibiotics to clinical condition was safe and effective. METHODS: A new post-operative pathway (NewPath) was devised that reduced mandatory intravenous antibiotics for complicated appendicitis (perforated or gangrenous) from 5 to 3 days post-operatively, provided the child was apyrexial for >12 h and tolerating oral diet...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
David J Power, Paul J Sambrook, Alastair N Goss
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in delayed healing following dental extractions for insulin-dependent diabetics as compared to non-diabetic patients. METHODS: Prospective patients referred to the Adelaide Dental Hospital exodontia clinic for dental extractions were recruited into two groups: Known insulin-dependent diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. All had a random blood glucose level (BGL). Delayed healing cases were identified, and statistical evaluation performed...
December 7, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Sandro Mazzariol, Michela Corrò, Elena Tonon, Barbara Biancani, Cinzia Centelleghe, Claudia Gili
The present study describes the isolation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from respiratory tract of 2 dolphins of different origin, a stranded juvenile Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus ) and a captive born common bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ) calf, which died in the same institution at 1-month distance from the other. A complete microbiological and genetic investigation confirmed the presence of MRSA clone-complex 8, sequence type (ST) 8, spa- type t008 in both individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kasahun Gorems, Getenet Beyene, Melkamu Berhane, Zeleke Mekonnen
Background: Otitis media is among the leading causes of childhood illnesses although it can also affect the adults resulting in frequent physician visits, drug prescription and a key contributor to antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors, bacterial profile, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from patients with discharging ears which clinically equates to draining otitis media in developing countries with limited medical resources such as otoscope...
2018: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Velma Rebic, Nejra Masic, Sanela Teskeredzic, Mufida Aljicevic, Amila Abduzaimovic, Damir Rebic
Introduction: Acinetobacter species is associated with health care associated infections especially in patients on respiratory therapy equipment and indwelling catheters. They are becoming increasingly drug resistant. The knowledge of the prevalence and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter spp. is important. Aims: The study is undertaken to estimate the prevalence rate, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates. in Acinetobacter spp...
November 2018: Medical Archives
Hasan Naz, Levent Aslan, Gülden Sönmez Tamer, Canan Naz
Myiasis; is defined as the infestation of dead or living tissues of humans and animals by the diptera larvae. It is prevalent all over the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries with low socioeconomic status. Myiasis of humans has been associated with low socioeconomic status, alcoholism, mental or neurological diseases, poor personal hygiene, patients with varicose veins, diabetes, malnutrition, advanced stage cancer, pediculosis, immunosuppression, sexually transmitted disease, gingivitis and other oral cavity lesions...
October 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Caner Yürüyen, Şölen Daldaban Dinçer, Özgür Yanılmaz, Efe Serkan Boz, Sebahat Aksaray
Empiric treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics exerts condensed pressure in intensive care units (ICUs) for the selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria became the focus of interest owing to limited treatment options and negative effects on patient survival. Cumulative antibiograms can guide selection of correct empiric treatment, de-escalation treatment according to antibiogram results and development of policies in fight against antibiotic resistance. In this study, we aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance rates of gram-negative bacilli in the intensive care units of the public hospitals in the region where we are connected by using the cumulative antibiogram result and to show the change of resistance over the years and to determine whether there is any difference between the hospitals...
October 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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