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antibiotic care

Mengsi Cao, Yanru Feng, Yan Zhang, Weijun Kang, Kaoqi Lian, Lianfeng Ai
Vancomycin is one of the most commonly used glycopeptide antiobiotics, and as such is an important emerging environmental contaminant. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), such as antibiotics, are problematic since wastewater treatment processes are not completely effective at removing these chemical compounds. Since wastewater treatment processes are not completely effective, vancomycin occurs in surface water. Vancomycin and its metabolites in vivo and degradation products in aquatic environment may lead to undesirable ecological effects that threaten the environment or cause undesirable reactions that affect human health...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Denis Frasca, Sigismond Lasocki, Karim Asehnoune, Dorothée Balayn, Anne-Laure Guerin, Pierre-François Perrigault, Thomas Geeraerts, Philippe Seguin, Bertrand Rozec, Djilali Elaroussi, Vincent Cottenceau, Clément Guyonnaud, Olivier Mimoz
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the first cause of healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units (ICUs) and brain injury is one of the main risk factors for early-onset VAP. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been reported to decrease their occurrence in brain-injured patients, but a lack of controlled randomised trials and the risk of induction of bacterial resistance explain the low level of recommendations. The goal of this study is to determine whether a single dose of ceftriaxone within the 12 hours postintubation after severe brain injury can decrease the risk of early-onset VAP...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Jack E Brooker, Liliana B Camison, Michael R Bykowski, Ethan T Hurley, Saigopalakrishna S Yerneni, Phil G Campbell, Lee E Weiss, Mark P Mooney, James Cray, James R Gilbert, Gregory M Cooper, Joseph E Losee
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) bioprinted on biological matrix induces osseous regeneration in large calvarial defects in rabbits, both uncomplicated and scarred. Healing in unfavorable defects scarred from previous infection is decreased due in part to the lack of vascularity. This impedes the access of mesenchymal stem cells, key to osseous regeneration and the efficacy of BMP2, to the wound bed. The authors hypothesized that bioprinted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) would augment the osseous regeneration achieved with low dose biopatterned BMP2 alone...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Violeta Balinskaite, Sabine Bou-Antoun, Alan P Johnson, Alison Holmes, Paul Aylin
Background: The 'Quality Premium' (QP) introduced in England in 2015 aimed to financially reward local healthcare commissioners for targeted reductions in primary care antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to evaluate possible unintended clinical outcomes related to this QP. Methods: Using Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics datasets, we examined general practitioner (GP) consultations (visits) and emergency hospital admissions related to a series of pre-defined conditions of unintended consequences of reduced prescribing...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lilian Abbo, Bhavarth S Shukla, Amber Giles, Laura Aragon, Adriana Jimenez, Jose F Camargo, Jacques Simkins, Kathleen Sposato, Truc T Tran, Lorena Diaz, Jinnethe Reyes, Rafael Rios, Lina P Carvajal, Javier Cardozo, Maribel Ruiz, Gemma Rosello, Armando Perez Cardona, Octavio Martinez, Giselle Guerra, Thiago Beduschi, Rodrigo Vianna, Cesar A Arias
Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections and are inherently resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. Linezolid is the only drug currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci, however resistance to this antibiotic appears to be increasing. Although outbreaks of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LR-VRE) in solid organ transplant recipients remain uncommon, they represent a major challenge for infection control and hospital epidemiology...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Violeta Balinskaite, Alan P Johnson, Alison Holmes, Paul Aylin
Background: The Quality Premium was introduced in 2015 to financially reward local commissioners of healthcare in England for targeted reductions in antibiotic prescribing in primary care. Methods: We used a national antibiotic prescribing dataset from April 2013 till February 2017 to examine the number of antibiotic items prescribed, the total number of antibiotic items prescribed per STAR-PU (Specific Therapeutic Group Age-sex Related Prescribing Units), the number of broad-spectrum antibiotic items prescribed and broad-spectrum antibiotic items prescribed expressed as a percentage of the total number of antibiotic items...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Iram Liaqat, Qurat-Ul-Ain Saleem, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Arshad, Najma Arshad
PURPOSE: Wearing contact lens requires awareness about possible contaminants, the causative agents of multiple complications. The present study focused on identification of potential pathogens and presence of virulence associated markers in contact lens associated bacteria. METHODS: Bacterial contaminants were isolated from contact lenses or cleaning solutions collected from University students. Isolates were identified using conventional methods followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for the presence of virulence factors which included capsular presence, adhesion, serum resistance, iron chelation, haemagglutination and hemolysis...
October 15, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Sonal Sekhar M, Unnikrishnan M K, Gabriel Sunil Rodrigues, Navya Vyas, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are major public health concerns. In the view of the ever increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, improving the use of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) is a national priority. Objective of the study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) pattern of aerobes in DFIs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 3 years at Department of Surgery, Kasturba hospital, Manipal, India during which, 260 DFUs patients admitted in the general surgery wards were enrolled for the study...
July 11, 2018: Foot
José Julián López, Yira Cortázar, Ángela Acosta, Claudia Marcela Vargas-Peláez, Francisco Rossi
Introduction: The Colombian national pharmaceutical policy establishes as a strategy the generation of greater pharmaco-epidemiological research at the national level, especially in the case of antibiotic drugs. Objective: To provide local pharmaco-epidemiological evidence regarding the effectiveness, conditions of use and safety of generic meropenem and cefepime in a tertiary hospital in Bogotá. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective drug utilization study. The data were collected from the medical histories of all the patients who had cefepime or meropenem prescribed...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
En-Pei Lee, Meng-Kung Yu, Shu-Chun Lee, Feng-Xia Gao, Han-Ping Wu
The aim of this study was to identify the clinical parameters indicative of serious etiology of neonatal hyperthermia and to determine the appropriate cutoff value of body temperature (BT) for predicting the need to transfer the newborn to the special care (SC) nursery.The nursery records of newborns diagnosed with hyperthermia between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics of newborns with hyperthermia remained in the nursery were compared with those transferred to the SC nursery...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Laura Fuchs Bahlis, Luciano Passamani Diogo, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Sandra Costa Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: To describe the patient profile, mortality rates, the accuracy of prognostic scores, and mortality-associated factors in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a general hospital in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cohort study involving patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of CAP and requiring admission to a public hospital in the interior of Brazil between March 2014 and April 2015. We performed multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model with robust variance to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality...
July 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Miguel Salavert, Javier Cobo, Álvaro Pascual, Belén Aragón, Stefano Maratia, Yiling Jiang, Susana Aceituno, Santiago Grau
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea and is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Bezlotoxumab administered in combination with standard of care (SoC) antibiotic therapy prevents recurrent CDI. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of bezlotoxumab added to SoC, compared to SoC alone, to prevent the recurrence of CDI in high-risk patients from the Spanish National Health System perspective...
October 16, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Haley J Appaneal, Aisling R Caffrey, Maya Beganovic, Sanja Avramovic, Kerry L LaPlante
Background: Though recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common and poses a major clinical concern, data are lacking regarding mortality among patients who survive their initial CDI and have subsequent recurrences. Risk factors for mortality in patients with recurrent CDI are largely unknown. Methods: Veterans Affairs patients with a first CDI (stool sample with positive C. difficile toxin(s) and ≥2 days CDI treatment) were included (2010-2014). Subsequent recurrences were defined as additional CDI episodes ≥14 days after the stool test date and within 30 days of the end of treatment...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Saira Chaughtai, Bhavika Gandhi, Zeeshan Chaughtai, Dana Tarina, Mohammad A Hossain, Arif Asif
Recently, the incidence of Clostridium difficile- ( C. difficile- ) associated infection has increased significantly in hospital and ambulatory care settings in parallel to the increasing use of inappropriate antibiotics. According to the CDC, approximately 83,000 patients who developed C . difficile experienced at least one recurrence and 29,000 died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis. Patients on dialysis (particularly peritoneal dialysis) are predisposed to this infection due to an inherent immunocompromised state and transmural translocation of the bacteria due to the close association of gastrointestinal tract and peritoneal cavity...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Petra Anheuser, Sandra Mühlstädt, Jennifer Kranz, Laila Schneidewind, Joachim Steffens, Paolo Fornara
INTRODUCTION: Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO), in addition to anti-infective and surgical therapy, seems to be a key treatment point for Fournier's gangrene. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of HBO therapy on the outcome and prognosis of Fournier's gangrene. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present multicenter, retrospective observational study, we evaluated the data of approximately 62 patients diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene between 2007 and 2017...
October 16, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Graham Devereux, Seonaidh Cotton, Shona Fielding, Nicola McMeekin, Peter J Barnes, Andrew Briggs, Graham Burns, Rekha Chaudhuri, Henry Chrystyn, Lisa Davies, Anthony De Soyza, Simon Gompertz, John Haughney, Karen Innes, Joanna Kaniewska, Amanda Lee, Alyn Morice, John Norrie, Anita Sullivan, Andrew Wilson, David Price
Importance: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health issue and theophylline is used extensively. Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that low plasma concentrations (1-5 mg/L) of theophylline enhance antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids in COPD. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of adding low-dose theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The TWICS (theophylline with inhaled corticosteroids) trial was a pragmatic, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial that enrolled patients with COPD between February 6, 2014, and August 31, 2016...
October 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Margaret K McCue, Glen A Palmer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the use of the oral decontamination solution chlorhexidine (CHX) to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a long-term ventilator care setting over time. Most of the research in this area has been conducted in acute and intensive care settings. METHODS: This study was a retrospective medical record review conducted in a long-term care facility with a dedicated ventilator unit. Veterans records (N = 12) were accessed for this study...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
David Chirio, Marion Le Marechal, Pamela Moceri, Arnaud de la Chapelle, Sylvie Chaillou-Optiz, Anaïs Mothes, Cédric Foucault, Laurence Maulin, Chirine Parsaï, Pierre-Marie Roger, Elisa Demonchy
We aimed to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcome in patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE), with a focus on departure from European guidelines. We conducted a retrospective audit of all adult patients treated for endocarditis during a 1-year period across a regional network of nine care centers in the south-east of France. Medical records were reviewed regarding patient and infection characteristics, antibiotic therapy, outcome, and compliance to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Shirinsadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Ali Boroumand
Background and Purpose: Catheter-related blood circulation infection is the most dangerous and serious side-effects of vascular catheters, which leads to the enhancement of the costs, mortality, and hospital stay duration, especially in the Intensive Care Unit. Regarding this, the aim of the current study was to identify the prevalence of catheter-induced candidemia in the Tehran Heart Center, a heart hospital in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center for a minimum of 7 days during 18 months...
June 2018: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Katharine Yang, Robert L Kruse, Weijie V Lin, Daniel M Musher
Background: In most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), an etiologic agent is not determined; the most common report from the microbiological evaluation of sputum cites "normal respiratory flora." Non-diphtheria Corynebacterium spp. , a component of this flora, is commonly viewed as a contaminant, but it may be the cause of pneumonia and the frequency with which it causes CAP may be underestimated. Case presentations: This report present 3 cases of CAP in which Corynebacterium spp...
2018: Pneumonia
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