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H1N1 influenza

Paul D E Miller, Thushan I de Silva, Hayley Leonard, Chloe Anthias, Katja Hoschler, Kathryn Goddard, Karl Peggs, Alejandro Madrigal, John A Snowden
Traditionally, immune response to influenza vaccines has been measured using the haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. A broader repertoire of techniques including the sensitive viral microneutralization (VMN) assay is now recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Comparing HAI and VMN, we determined immune response to a trivalent 2015-2016 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (SIIV) administered to 28 recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Vaccination was within the first-year post-transplant at a median of 78...
December 13, 2018: Vaccine
Haiwei Li, Man Li, Renyang Xu, Shouxin Wang, Yongmin Zhang, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou, Sulong Xiao
It is urgently necessary to develop more effective anti-influenza agents due to the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza virus. Our earlier studies have identified that certain pentacyclic triterpene derivatives are effective inhibitors of influenza virus infection. In the present study, a series of C-28 modified pentacyclic triterpene derivatives via conjugation with a series of polyphenols were synthesized, and their antiviral activities against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were evaluated...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ann P Britton, Melissa Trapp, Suzana Sabaiduc, William Hsiao, Tomy Joseph, Helen Schwantje
Striped skunks (skunks) are susceptible to respiratory infection by influenza A viruses (IAV). As they are common synanthropes, maintenance of IAV in skunks could provide a source of infection for humans. We previously studied the nasal turbinates, lungs and faeces of 50 free-ranging skunks for the presence of IAV and identified two individuals with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 flu seasons. Subsequent to publication of that study, ferrets were shown to preferentially replicate and harbour A(H1N1)pdm09 in the soft palate, a site which had not been investigated in the skunks...
December 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Sunicha Chanvatik, Kamonpan Charoenkul, Supassama Chaiyawong, Taveesak Janethanakit, Ranida Tuanudom, Duangduean Prakairungnamthip, Supanat Boonyapisitsopa, Napawan Bunpapong, Alongkorn Amonsin
Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in both humans and animals. In this study, a survey of influenza A antibodies in domestic dogs and cats was conducted in 47 animal shelters in 19 provinces of Thailand from September 2011 to September 2014. One thousand and eleven serum samples were collected from 932 dogs and 79 cats. Serum samples were tested for influenza A antibodies using a multi-species competitive NP-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The NP-ELISA results showed that 0.97% (9/932) of dogs were positive, but all cat samples were negative...
December 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jong-Woo Lim, Woonsung Na, Hyun-Ouk Kim, Minjoo Yeom, Geunseon Park, Aram Kang, Haejin Chun, Chaewon Park, Seungseok Oh, Van Phan Le, Hyoung Hwa Jeong, Daesub Song, Seungjoo Haam
Powerful adjuvants to augment vaccine efficacy with a less immunogenic vaccine system are in great demand. In this study, a novel squalene-based cationic poly(amino acid) adjuvant (CASq) that elicits both cellular (Th1) and humoral (Th2) immune responses is developed. CASq is demonstrated to promote cellular uptake of viral antigen and stimulate macrophages, leading to active production of interleukin-12. Furthermore, co-administration of inactivated pdm H1N1 vaccine with CASq significantly increases the generation of antigen-specific antibodies and T cell immune responses in mice, as well as resulting in complete prevention of disease symptoms and protection against lethal infection...
December 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Riffat Naz, Asma Gul, Urooj Javed, Alina Urooj, Sidra Amin, Zareen Fatima
Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan. Ignoring these acute-level infections may lead to complications. Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Even though these infections are common, insufficiency of accessible data hinders development of a comprehensive summary of the problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rate in various regions of Pakistan and also to recognize the existing viral strains responsible for viral respiratory infections through published data...
December 12, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Guo Luo, Aditya Ambati, Ling Lin, Mélodie Bonvalet, Markku Partinen, Xuhuai Ji, Holden Terry Maecker, Emmanuel Jean-Marie Mignot
Type 1 narcolepsy (T1N) is caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuronal loss. Association with the HLA DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 (98% vs. 25%) heterodimer (DQ0602), T cell receptors (TCR) and other immune loci suggest autoimmunity but autoantigens are unknown. Onset is seasonal and associated with influenza A, notably pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) infection and vaccination (Pandemrix). Peptides derived from HCRT and influenza A, including pH1N1, were screened for DQ0602 binding and presence of cognate DQ0602 tetramer-peptide-specific CD4+ T cells tested in 35 T1N cases and 22 DQ0602 controls...
December 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carolina Sanchez Aranda, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Caroline Cavalcanti Dela Bianca, Ellen de Oliveira Dantas, Javier Mallol, Dirceu Solé
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life of infants, using the standardized protocol of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes- phase 3, and compare the values obtained with those found in phase 1, conducted at the same center. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2010, parents and guardians of infants answered the written questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes - phase 3, and its results were compared to those of phase 1, performed between 2005 and 2006...
October 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Parvaiz A Koul, Varsha Potdar, Masooma Showkat, Hyder Mir, M S Chadha
Scant data exist about the epidemiology of influenza B in India. We set out to address the epidemiology of influenza B in a temperate region of northern India from 2010 to 2016. Outpatient and inpatient surveillance was conducted in patients presenting with acute respiratory infection in a northern Indian hospital from September 2010 till April 2016. After recording clinical data, combined nasal/throat swabs were collected and tested for influenza viruses by real time RT-PCR. Influenza A viruses were further subtyped into A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 whereas influenza B were differentiated into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Sudha Singh, Anvita Gupta Malhotra, Mohit Jha, Khushhali Menaria Pandey
Recently three FDA approved existing drugs, namely-Oseltamivir, Peramivir and Zanamivir, used against Neuraminidase (NA) for the inhibitory effect on the process of viral progeny release to inhibit infection. All NA subtypes has been divided into two groups (Group 1 and Group 2) based on phylogenetic study. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir drugs are designed for Group 2 NA but are also used against 2009 H1N1 NA that lies in Group 1. There is no specific drug available for H1N1 and, consequently, there is an urgent requirement for the same...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Gro Tunheim, Ida Laake, Anna Hayman Robertson, Kristian Waalen, Olav Hungnes, Lisbeth M Naess, Rebecca J Cox, Siri Mjaaland, Lill Trogstad
BACKGROUND: A population-based pregnancy cohort was established in Norway to study potential effects of exposure to the 2009 influenza pandemic or pandemic vaccination during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We studied maternal A(H1N1)pdm09-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI)-titer levels and waning in women with influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy compared to vaccinated women. Moreover, we studied the association between HI-titers and self-reported severity and duration of ILI...
December 9, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sonja A Rasmussen, Denise J Jamieson
The 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated the severe effects of influenza illness on pregnant women. This experience stimulated efforts to improve influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women and resulted in a substantial increase in coverage from less than 30% before 2009 to more than 50% a few years later. As memories fade of the pandemic year, influenza vaccination coverage has stagnated at around 50%, despite considerable information becoming available on strategies to improve vaccination coverage during pregnancy...
December 4, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joshua D Doyle, Angela P Campbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza causes a range of illnesses in children, from uncomplicated self-limited illness to severe disease and death. This review provides an update on the severity and burden of influenza in US children over recent seasons. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2017-2018 influenza season was widespread and severe across all ages, including children. Disease severity is influenced by influenza virologic characteristics and host factors, as well as public health interventions such as influenza vaccination and antiviral treatment...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Andrea G Buchwald, Boubou Tamboura, Fadima C Haidara, Flanon Coulibaly, Moussa Doumbia, Fatoumata Diallo, Sarah Boudova, Adama M Keita, Samba O Sow, Karen Kotloff, Myron Levine, Milagritos D Tapia
Influenza transmission is increased among household contacts. Vaccination decreases transmission; however it is unclear how vaccinating a single individual alters disease risk among household contacts, particularly in regions with low vaccination coverage. Pregnant women were randomized to influenza or control vaccination. Households were visited weekly until infants born to enrolled women reached 6 months. Household contacts younger than 5 years were tested for laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI). Incidence of LCI and rate ratios (RtR) comparing incidence between vaccine groups were calculated...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Michelle Barnes, Iman Ridda, Holly Seale, Renin Toms, Anita Heywood
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections during the pandemic of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant literature in which clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were described. Published studies (between 01/01/2009 and 05/07/2012) describing cases of fatal or hospitalised A(H1N1)pdm09 and including data on bacterial testing or co-infection...
December 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sorino Claudio, Scichilone Nicola, Pedone Claudio, Negri Stefano, Visca Dina, Spanevello Antonio
A significant interaction between kidneys and lungs has been shown in physiological and pathological conditions. The two organs can both be targets of the same systemic disease (eg., some vasculitides). Moreover, loss of normal function of either of them can induce direct and indirect dysregulation of the other one. Subjects suffering from COPD may have systemic inflammation, hypoxemia, endothelial dysfunction, increased sympathetic activation and increased aortic stiffness. As well as the exposure to nicotine, all the foresaid factors can induce a microvascular damage, albuminuria, and a worsening of renal function...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Jin Soo Lee, Seong-Heon Wie, Young Keun Kim, Jacob Lee, Hye Won Jeong, Shin Woo Kim, Sun Hee Lee, Kyung-Hwa Park, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: During three influenza seasons (2014-2015, 2015-2016 and 2016-2017), we evaluated the effectiveness of the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines against pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases among the elderly aged ≥65 years with influenza-like illness (ILI)...
2018: PloS One
Shaikh M Ahmad, Md J Alam, Afsana Khanam, Mamunur Rashid, Sharmin Islam, Yearul Kabir, Rubhana Raqib, Mark C Steinhoff
Background: In the growing embryo, the vitamin A requirement is tightly regulated. Maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy may alter maternal immune function to accommodate the fetus. Objective: Our primary objective was to determine the effect of oral vitamin A supplementation (VAS) during pregnancy and until 6 mo postpartum on pandemic H1N1-vaccine responses in mothers and their infants at 6 mo of age. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, pregnant women (n = 112) during the second trimester (mean ± SD: 14 ± 1 wk) were assigned to receive either an oral dose of 10,000 IU vitamin A or placebo weekly until 6 mo postpartum...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Joe-Ann S Moser, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Ana A Ortiz-Hernández, Wenjuan Gu, Sally Hunsberger, Juan-Francisco Galán-Herrera, María Lourdes Guerrero, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, John H Beigel
BACKGROUND: The relationship between obesity and risk of complications described during the 2009 influenza pandemic is poorly defined for seasonal influenza and other viral causes of influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: An observational cohort of hospitalized and outpatient participants with ILI was conducted in six hospitals in Mexico. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza and other common respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: A total of 4778 participants were enrolled in this study and had complete data...
December 4, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Hyojin Kim, Mi Sook Chung
Antiviral activities of Morus alba (MA) juice and seed were examined using time-of-addition plaque assays against influenza viruses, A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) (BR59), pandemic A/Korea/01/2009(H1N1) (KR01), A/Brisbane/10/2007(H3N2) (BR10), and B/Florida/4/2006 (FL04). MA juice (MAJ) showed much higher antiviral activity than MA seed (MAS). In the pre- and cotreatment of virus, MAJ showed antiviral effects against BR59, KR01, and FL04 in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, MAJ at 4% concentration exhibited 1...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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