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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093132/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-is-past-performance-a-guarantee-of-future-results
#1
Ravi Jhaveri
PURPOSE: Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has had a tumultuous recent history that can be difficult for many to follow and understand. This commentary reviews the origin of LAIV; the events and circumstances that led to the withdrawal of any recommendation pf LAIV use in the United States; the merits, shortcomings, and repercussions of that decision; and finally some thoughts about the future of LAIV. METHODS: [List of databases, eg, PubMed] were searched for relevant articles...
August 6, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092251/inhibition-of-influenza-a-virus-by-mixed-sirnas-targeting-the-pa-np-and-ns-genes-delivered-by-hybrid-microcarriers
#2
Aleksandra V Brodskaia, Alexander S Timin, Andrey N Gorshkov, Albert R Muslimov, Andrei B Bondarenko, Yana V Tarakanchikova, Yana A Zabrodskaya, Irina L Baranovskaya, Eugenia V Il'inskaja, Elena I Sakhenberg, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Andrey V Vasin
In the present study, a highly effective carrier system has been developed for the delivery of antiviral siRNA mixtures. The developed hybrid microcarriers, made of biodegradable polymers and SiO2 nanostructures, more efficiently mediate cellular uptake of siRNA than commercially available liposome-based reagents and polyethyleneimine (PEI); they also demonstrate low in vitro toxicity and protection of siRNA from RNase degradation. A series of siRNA designs (targeting the most conserved regions of three influenza A virus (IAV) genes: NP, NS, and PA) were screened in vitro using RT-qPCR, ELISA analysis, and hemagglutination assay...
August 6, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089692/substrate-binding-by-the-2-nd-sialic-acid-binding-site-of-influenza-a-virus-n1-neuraminidase-contributes-to-enzymatic-activity
#3
Wenjuan Du, Meiling Dai, Zeshi Li, Geert-Jan Boons, Ben Peeters, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Erik de Vries, Cornelis A M de Haan
The influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) protein plays an essential role in the release of virus particles from cells and decoy receptors. The NA enzymatic activity presumably needs to match the activity of the IAV hemagglutinin (HA) attachment protein and the host sialic acid (SIA) receptor repertoire. We analyzed the enzymatic activities of N1 NA proteins derived from avian (H5N1) and human (H1N1) IAVs and analyzed the role of the 2nd SIA-binding site, located adjacent to the conserved catalytic site, therein...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087372/oligomerization-of-bacterially-expressed-h1n1-recombinant-hemagglutinin-contributes-to-protection-against-viral-challenge
#4
Tess E Kuenstling, Anthony R Sambol, Steven H Hinrichs, Marilynn A Larson
Vaccination is the most effective intervention to prevent influenza and control the spread of the virus. Alternatives are needed to the traditional egg-based vaccine strategy for a more rapid response to new outbreaks. Two different hemagglutinin (HA) fragments (rHA11-326 and rHA153-269 ) derived from influenza A virus subtype H1N1 were expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized by immunoblot, gel filtration, hemagglutination, and competitive binding assays. rHA11-326 included neutralizing epitopes and the trimerization domain, whereas rHA153-269 included only the head of HA with the neutralizing epitopes...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087171/heterosubtypic-protections-against-human-infecting-avian-influenza-viruses-correlate-to-biased-cross-t-cell-responses
#5
Min Zhao, Kefang Liu, Jiejian Luo, Shuguang Tan, Chuansong Quan, Shuijun Zhang, Yan Chai, Jianxun Qi, Yan Li, Yuhai Bi, Haixia Xiao, Gary Wong, Jianfang Zhou, Taijiao Jiang, Wenjun Liu, Hongjie Yu, Jinghua Yan, Yingxia Liu, Yuelong Shu, Guizhen Wu, Aiping Wu, George F Gao, William J Liu
Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp increase in H7N9 infections. Evaluations of cross-reactive T-cell immunity to seasonal influenza viruses and human-infecting AIVs have been reported previously. However, the roles of influenza A virus-derived epitopes in the cross-reactive T-cell responses and heterosubtypic protections are not well understood; understanding those roles is important for preventing and controlling new emerging AIVs...
August 7, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087046/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-preventing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-in-outpatient-settings-a-test-negative-case-control-study-in-beijing-china-2016-17-season
#6
Shuangsheng Wu, Yang Pan, Xinxin Zhang, Li Zhang, Wei Duan, Chunna Ma, Yi Zhang, Man Zhang, Ying Sun, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the 2016/17 epidemic of co-circulating influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses in Beijing, the capital of China. METHODS: The surveillance-based study included all swabbed patients through influenza virological surveillance, between November 2016 and April 2017. A test-negative case-control design was used to estimate influenza VE against medically-attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in outpatient settings...
August 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086855/serological-survey-of-influenza-a-viruses-in-domestic-and-wild-suidae-in-corsica-france-a-mediterranean-island-environment
#7
Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Séverine Hervé, Nicolas Rose, Nicolas Barbier, François Casabianca, Oscar Maestrini, Alessandra Falchi, Gaëlle Simon
Corsica is a mountainous French island in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. It is a rural area, where pig farming is a major economic activity. Although no acute respiratory outbreaks due to swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) have ever been reported in this free-ranging pig breeding system, influenza A viruses (IAVs) could be circulating within this pig population. A serological study was conducted as a first approach to domestic pigs and wild boars. Serum samples from 543 pigs raised on 91 different farms were collected during the 2013-2014 slaughtering season, and 279 sera from wild boars were obtained over four hunting seasons (between 2009 and 2014)...
September 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085171/rhabdomyolysis-in-children-three-exotic-presentations-from-suriname
#8
Kevin van 't Kruys, Rens Zonneveld, Safir Liesdek, Wilco Zijlmans
We describe three clinical cases of Surinamese children with rhabdomyolysis with diverse clinical presentation and course. The first patient had rhabdomyolysis because of toxins caused by multiple beestings and developed acute kidney injury. The other two patients had rhabdomyolysis following acute infection with chikungunya and influenza A/H1N1 virus. These cases emphasize that the diverse etiology of rhabdomyolysis should be considered in children in tropical settings.
July 30, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084768/exchange-of-amino-acids-in-the-h1-haemagglutinin-to-h3-residues-is-required-for-efficient-influenza-a-virus-replication-and-pathology-in-tmprss2-knock-out-mice
#9
Ruth L O Lambertz, Jan Pippel, Ingo Gerhauser, Heike Kollmus, Darisuren Anhlan, Eike R Hrincius, Joern Krausze, Nora Kühn, Klaus Schughart
The haemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes has to be activated by host proteases. Previous studies showed that H1N1 virus cannot replicate efficiently in Tmprss2-/- knock-out mice whereas H3N2 viruses are able to replicate to the same levels in Tmprss2-/- as in wild type (WT) mice. Here, we investigated the sequence requirements for the HA molecule that allow IAV to replicate efficiently in the absence of TMPRSS2. We showed that replacement of the H3 for the H1-loop sequence (amino acids 320 to 329, at the C-terminus of HA1) was not sufficient for equal levels of virus replication or severe pathology in Tmprss2-/- knock-out mice compared to WT mice...
August 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080677/protective-efficacy-of-a-high-growth-reassortant-h1n1-influenza-virus-vaccine-against-the-european-avian-like-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-mice-and-pigs
#10
Bao-Yang Ruan, Feng Wen, Xiao-Qian Gong, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Ling-Xue Yu, Shuai-Yong Wang, Peng Zhang, Hai-Ming Yang, Tong-Ling Shan, Hao Zheng, Yan-Jun Zhou, Wu Tong, Fei Gao, Guang-Zhi Tong, Hai Yu
Swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) causing outbreaks of acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs also pose a potential threat to public health. European avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) SIVs are the predominant circulating viruses in pigs in China and also occasionally cause human infection. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (SH1/PR8), with HA and NA genes from a representative EA H1N1 isolate A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2014 (SH1) in China and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of inactivated vaccine...
August 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076219/structural-analyses-reveal-the-mechanism-of-inhibition-of-influenza-virus-ns1-by-two-antiviral-compounds
#11
Alex B Kleinpeter, Alexander S Jureka, Sally M Falahat, Todd J Green, Chad M Petit
The influenza virus is a significant public health concern causing 250,000-500,000 deaths worldwide each year. Its ability to change quickly results in the potential for rapid generation of pandemic strains for which most individuals would have no antibody protection. This pandemic potential highlights the need for the continuous development of new drugs against influenza virus. As an essential component, and well-established virulence determinant, the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus is a highly prioritized target for the development of anti-influenza compounds...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075393/changes-in-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-narcolepsy-type-1-after-the-h1n1-influenza-epidemic-and-vaccination-campaign-in-norway-a-two-year-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Sebjørg Hesla Nordstrand, Berit Hjelde Hansen, Yusman Kamaleri, Kristian Bernhard Nilsen, Terje Rootwelt, Tor-Ivar Karlsen, Stine Knudsen
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies show a lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with narcolepsy. We aimed to describe changes in HRQoL after two years of multidisciplinary follow-up in a cohort of mainly post-H1N1 vaccination narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) patients in Norway. METHODS: Prospective-cohort study. Narcolepsy diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (third edition). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA)...
June 27, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066273/evolution-and-dynamics-of-the-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-hemagglutinin-protein-from-2009-to-2017
#13
Hebah A Al Khatib, Asmaa A Al Thani, Hadi M Yassine
The emergence of swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in 2009 invigorated extensive surveillance programs worldwide which have resulted in the deposition of large numbers of H1N1 sequences to Genbank. In the present study, we report on global evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) protein in viruses isolated from three different continents (North America, Europe and Asia) during the period between April 2009 until April 2017. Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web-based NetNglyc to predict N-Glycosylation sites and finally, the BEAST software package to calculate evolution and substitution rates...
July 31, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066270/histamine-contributes-to-severe-pneumonia-in-pigs-infected-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-virus
#14
Yunyueng Jang, Myongha Jin, Sang Heui Seo
Histamine is a biogenic amine that influences many immune cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on the pathogenesis of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in pigs. Histamine was not detected in the tracheal tissues of infected pigs, and no difference was found in the pathological damage found in infected pigs with and without treatment with a histamine antagonist. Lung tissues from untreated infected pigs showed severe interstitial pneumonia with accumulation of histamine, in contrast to those from infected pigs that were treated with the histamine antagonist...
July 31, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064910/vaccine-based-on-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-epitope-on-the-h1n1-influenza-virus-increases-mortality-in-vaccinated-mice
#15
Jiqin Wang, Mei Liu, Nianchang Ding, Yang Li, Jinyan Shao, Minjie Zhu, Zichen Xie, Keyu Sun
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity bridges humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Thus vaccine candidates which can elicit both broadly neutralizing antibodies and potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) are recommended. Previously, a panel of functional epitopes that can elicit ADCC effects is isolated and characterized on the H1N1 Influenza Virus. Based on these identified epitopes, an epitope vaccine against H1N1 infection has been designed. The serum of vaccine immunized mice show potent ADCC activities in comparison with vector control group and HA ecto domain vaccinated group...
July 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057852/an-outbreak-investigation-of-paediatric-severe-acute-respiratory-infections-requiring-admission-to-intensive-care-units-fiji-may-2016
#16
Julie Collins, Viema Biaukula, Daniel Faktaufon, James Flint, Sam Fullman, Katri Jalava, Jimaima Kailawadoko, Angela Merianos, Eric Nilles, Katrina Roper, Meru Sheel, Mike Kama
Introduction: Influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) are a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. In response to a cluster of SARI cases and deaths in pregnant women, with two deceased cases testing positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, an investigation was initiated to determine whether there was an increase of paediatric SARI cases admitted to divisional hospital intensive care units in Fiji in may 2016 compared to May 2013-2015. Methods: Retrospective case finding was conducted at the paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Fiji's three divisional hospitals...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057283/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-quadrivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-children-6-59-months-of-age-a-phase-3-randomized-noninferiority-study
#17
Victoria A Statler, Frank R Albano, Jolanta Airey, Daphne C Sawlwin, Alison Graves Jones, Vince Matassa, Esther Heijnen, Jonathan Edelman, Gary S Marshall
BACKGROUND: In the Southern Hemisphere 2010 influenza season, Seqirus' split-virion, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was associated with increased reports of fevers and febrile reactions in young children. A staged clinical development program of a quadrivalent vaccine (Seqirus IIV4 [S-IIV4]; Afluria® Quadrivalent/Afluria Quad™/Afluria Tetra™), wherein each vaccine strain is split using a higher detergent concentration to reduce lipid content (considered the cause of the increased fevers and febrile reactions), is now complete...
July 26, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055967/intra-seasonal-antibody-repertoire-analysis-of-a-subject-immunized-with-an-mf59%C3%A2-adjuvanted-pandemic-2009-h1n1-vaccine
#18
Jack Ferdman, Giuseppe Palladino, Hua-Xin Liao, M Anthony Moody, Thomas B Kepler, Giuseppe Del Giudice, Philip R Dormitzer, Stephen C Harrison, Ethan C Settembre, Pirada Suphaphiphat
During the height of the 2009 H1N1 swine-derived influenza pandemic, a clinical trial was conducted in which seven subjects were immunized using a monovalent, MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine, developed from an egg-passaged candidate vaccine virus (CVV), A/California/07/2009 X-181. Whole blood was collected prior to immunization and at 8, 22, and 202 days post-vaccination, and subjects' serological responses were evaluated. Here, we reconstruct and examine the longitudinal, influenza-specific circulating B cell repertoire of one subject in that study...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053826/infection-of-novel-reassortant-h1n2-and-h3n2-swine-influenza-a-viruses-in-the-guinea-pig-model
#19
Rodrigo Tapia, Victoria García, Juan Mena, Sergio Bucarey, Rafael A Medina, Víctor Neira
Novel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. All viruses replicated and were shed in the upper respiratory tract without prior adaptation although H1N2 viruses showed the highest shedding titers...
July 27, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050898/structurally-diverse-polyketides-from-the-mangrove-derived-fungus-diaporthe-sp-scsio-41011-with-their-anti-influenza-a-virus-activities
#20
Xiaowei Luo, Jie Yang, Feimin Chen, Xiuping Lin, Chunmei Chen, Xuefeng Zhou, Shuwen Liu, Yonghong Liu
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a severe worldwide threat to public health and economic development due to its high morbidity and mortality. Marine-derived fungi have been evidenced as a prolific source for the discovery of pharmacologically-active lead compounds. During the course of our search for novel bioactive substances from marine microorganisms, six new polyketides, including two octaketides ( 1-2 ), one chromone derivative ( 13 ), two highly substituted phthalides ( 17-18 ), and one α-pyrone derivative ( 21 ) along with 22 known congeners were isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus Diaporthe sp...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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