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H1N1 influenza

Atefeh Mohebbi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Abbas Jamali, Ramin Yaghobi, Behrokh Farahmand, Reza Mohebbi
In 2015, the influenza virus A/H1N1/pdm09 strain outbreak became prevalent throughout the different provinces of Iran. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. Diagnosis and virological surveillance of influenza is essential for detecting novel genetic variants causing epidemic potential. This study describes the genetic properties of HA genome of influenza A/H1N1 pdm09 viruses circulating in Iran during the 2015/2016 season. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A/H1N1 pdm09, a total of 1758 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR...
October 15, 2018: Virus Research
Caitlin N Dodd, Maria de Ridder, Wan-Ting Huang, Daniel Weibel, Maria Giner-Soriano, Silvia Perez-Vilar, Javier Diez-Domingo, Lawrence W Svenson, Salahddin M Mahmud, Bruce Carleton, Monika Naus, Jeffrey C Kwong, Brian J Murray, Lisen Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lars Pedersen, Rosa Morros, Francisco Javier Puertas, Steven Black, Miriam Sturkenboom
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vaccine safety signals require investigation, which may be done rapidly at the population level using ecological studies, before embarking on hypothesis-testing studies. Incidence rates were used to assess a signal of narcolepsy following AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination among children and adolescents in Sweden and Finland in 2010. We explored the utility of ecological data to assess incidence of narcolepsy following exposure to pandemic H1N1 virus or vaccination in 10 sites that used different vaccines, adjuvants, and had varying vaccine coverage...
2018: PloS One
Ho Yeh Li, Pedro Vitale Mendes, Livia Maria Garcia Melro, Daniel Joelsons, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro Besen, Eduardo Leite Viera Costa, Adriana Sayuri Hirota, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos Barbosa, Flavia Krepel Foronda, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Thiago Gomes Romano, Marcelo Park
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the transport of severely ill patients with extracorporeal respiratory or cardiovascular support. METHODS: A series of 18 patients in the state of São Paulo, Brazil is described. All patients were consecutively evaluated by a multidisciplinary team at the hospital of origin. The patients were rescued, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was provided on site. The patients were then transported to referral hospitals for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Carine Claeys, Vijayalakshmi Chandrasekaran, José García-Sicilia, Roman Prymula, Javier Díez-Domingo, Jerzy Brzostek, Josep Marès-Bermúdez, Federico Martinón-Torres, Andrew J Pollard, Renata Růžková, Alfonso Carmona Martinez, Angels Ulied, Mariano Miranda Valdivieso, Saul N Faust, Matthew D Snape, Damien Friel, Thierry Ollinger, Jyoti Soni, Anne Schuind, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Varsha K Jain
BACKGROUND: It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months. METHODS: Children were randomized to two doses of IIV4 or control in the primary phase III study (NCT01439360). One year later, in an open-label revaccination extension study (NCT01702454), a subset of children who received IIV4 in the primary study (primed group) received one IIV4 dose and children who received control in the primary study (unprimed) received two IIV4 doses 28 days apart...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tim Krischuns, Franziska Günl, Lea Henschel, Marco Binder, Joschka Willemsen, Sebastian Schloer, Ursula Rescher, Vanessa Gerlt, Gert Zimmer, Carolin Nordhoff, Stephan Ludwig, Linda Brunotte
Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) is often associated with severe tissue damage due to hyperinduction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. The reasons for this excessive cytokine expression are still incompletely understood, which has hampered the development of efficient immunomodulatory treatment options. The host protein TRIM28 associates to the promoter regions of over 13,000 genes and is recognized as a genomic corepressor and negative immune regulator. TRIM28 corepressor activity is regulated by post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation of S473, which modulates binding of TRIM28 to the heterochromatin-binding protein HP1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Leena R Yeolekar, Milan Ganguly, Parikshit Tyagi, Nilesh B Ingle, Koert J Stittelaar, Leon de Waal, Francesco Berlanda Scorza, Kutub Mahmood, Rajeev M Dhere
A ferret challenge study was conducted to address the efficacy of the egg-based and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-based live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) strains. Vaccines derived as 6:2 reassortants from the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor strain and the HA and NA components from the A/California/07/2009 (A/Cal)- and A/Michigan/45/2015 (A/Mich)-like strains of type A H1N1 influenza virus were used in the study. Monovalent, trivalent and quadrivalent formulations of the LAIV containing either of the two H1N1 strains were analysed...
October 12, 2018: Vaccine
Kate R Beard, Nathan J Brendish, Tristan W Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seasonal and pandemic influenza are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the only class of antiviral agent recommended for the treatment of currently circulating strains of influenza. There has previously been controversy over the level of evidence for patient benefit with NAIs. We review here the current evidence base for the clinical impact of treatment of influenza with NAIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analysis of pharma-sponsored studies (including previously unpublished data) shows that NAIs reduce the duration of illness in influenza-infected patients, and suggest a possible reduction in the rate of complications and hospitalization...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Zhenhong Sun, Cuilian Yu, Wei Wang, Guangfu Yu, Tingting Zhang, Lin Zhang, Jiguo Zhang, Kai Wei
Influenza A virus causes periodic outbreaks and seriously threatens human health. The drug-resistant mutants have shown an epidemic trend because of the abuse of chemical drugs. Aloe polysaccharides (APS) extracted from Aloe vera leaves have evident effects on the therapy of virus infection. However, the activity of APS in anti-influenza virus has yet to be investigated. Here, we refined polysaccharides from A. vera leaf. In vitro test revealed that APS could inhibit the replication of a H1N1 subtype influenza virus, and the most obvious inhibitory effect was observed in the viral adsorption period...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
L Martínez-Alarcón, A Ríos, G Ramis, J J Quereda, J M Herrero, L Mendonça, A Muñoz, A M Hernández, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
The pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) in 2009, which was initially associated with pigs (swine flu), could have had a negative influence on attitudes toward xenotransplantation (XT), particularly after the social alarm it caused. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of this pandemic on the acceptance of XT among veterinary science students. METHODS: A control group sample was taken of students registered in the veterinary degree course (academic year 2007-2008). For the study group, the study was repeated on the same students (year 2008-2009) after the pandemic (April 2009)...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Jingting Zhang, Tao Ruan, Tianyu Sheng, Jiongjiong Wang, Jing Sun, Jin Wang, Richard A Prinz, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu, Xiulong Xu
The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of different influenza A virus (IAV) strains can differentially regulate the activity of c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and PI-3 kinase (PI3K). Whether varying JNK and PI3K activation impacts autophagy and IAV replication differently remains uncertain. Here we report that H5N1 (A/mallard/Huadong/S/2005) influenza A virus induced functional autophagy, as evidenced by increased LC3 lipidation and decreased p62 levels, and the presence of autolysosomes in chicken fibroblast cells...
October 10, 2018: Virology
Maxime Pichon, Caroline Picard, Bruno Simon, Alexandre Gaymard, Cécile Renard, Bruno Massenavette, Christophe Malcus, Guillaume Monneret, Florence Morfin-Sherpa, Martine Valette, Etienne Javouhey, Gilles Millat, Bruno Lina, Laurence Josset, Vanessa Escuret
INTRODUCTION: A child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) had an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with viral excretion longer than 6 months, during 2013-2014 influenza season, despite cord blood transplantation and antiviral treatments. METHODS: Conventional real-time RT-PCR methods were used to estimate viral load and to detect the presence of the common N1 neuraminidase (NA) H275Y substitution responsible for oseltamivir resistance. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of influenza viruses was performed retrospectively to characterize viral quasispecies in specimens...
October 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
Zhengfang Lin, Yinghua Li, Guifang Gong, Yu Xia, Changbing Wang, Yi Chen, Liang Hua, Jiayu Zhong, Ying Tang, Xiaomin Liu, Bing Zhu
Introduction: Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) attract much attention in the biomedical field and are used as carriers of drugs in current research studies. In this study, SeNPs were decorated by RBV, and the novel nanoparticle system was well characterized. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus before treatment with RBV, SeNPs, and SeNPs loaded with RBV (Se@RBV). Methods and results: MTT assay showed that Se@RBV nanoparticles protect cells during H1N1 infection in vitro...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jianpeng Li, Yiping Chen, Ning Yuan, Mingyong Zeng, Yuanhui Zhao, Rilei Yu, Zunying Liu, Haohao Wu, Shiyuan Dong
In this paper, a novel natural influenza A H1N1 virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitory peptide derived from cod skin hydrolysates was purified and its antiviral mechanism was explored. From the hydrolysates, novel efficient NA-inhibitory peptides were purified by a sequential approach utilizing an ultrafiltration membrane (5000 Da), sephadex G-15 gel column and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The amino acid sequence of the pure peptide was determined by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was PGEKGPSGEAGTAGPPGTPGPQGL, with a molecular weight of 2163 Da...
October 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yu-Qi Yan, Ying-Jie Fu, Sha Wu, Hong-Qiong Qin, Xiao Zhen, Bi-Mei Song, Yuan-Shu Weng, Peng-Cheng Wang, Xiao-Yin Chen, Zhen-You Jiang
Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the berberis species, has a wide array of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic effects. We evaluated the antiviral effect of berberine against influenza A/FM1/1/47 (H1N1) in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that berberine strongly suppressed viral replication in A549 cells and in mouse lungs. Meanwhile, berberine relieved pulmonary inflammation and reduced necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pulmonary edema induced by viral infection in mice when compared with vehicle-treated mice...
October 11, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Fani Chatzopoulou, Georgia Gioula, Ioannis Kioumis, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Maria Exindari
Influenza remains an important threat for human health, despite the extensive study of influenza viruses and the production of effective vaccines. In contrast to virus genetics determinants, host genetic factors with clinical impact remained unexplored until recently. The association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and influenza outcome in a European population was investigated in the present study. All samples were collected during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 post-pandemic period 2010-11 and a sufficient number of severe and fatal cases was included...
October 10, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Lan Wang, Hao Jiang, Si-Mei Shen, Chun-Xia Wen, Zheng Xing, Yi Shi
Endothelial cells have been considered the central regulators of cytokine storm in the respiratory system during influenza virus infection. Studies have found that elevated autophagy could be an essential component of viral pathogenesis in influenza infection. However, few studies have been performed to examine whether autophagy occurs in human pulmonary endothelial cells (HPMECs). In addition, specific mechanisms about how inflammatory responses are regulated in the endothelial cells remain unclear. We hypothesized that infection of influenza A viruses subtypes H1N1 and H9N2 triggered autophagy, which played an important role in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines, both in human lung epithelial A549 cells and in HPMECs...
2018: PloS One
Elma H Akand, Kevin M Downard
Implementation of a new phylonumerics approach to construct a mass tree representing over 6000 H1N1 human influenza strains has enabled ancestral and compensatory descendant mutations to be identified in N1 neuraminidase that promote antiviral resistance and restore viral fitness. Adjacent to the H275Y resistance mutation site, mutations S299A and S247N, respectively, lead the evolution of oseltamivir-resistant strains and restore viral fitness to those strains thereafter. Importantly the mass tree phylonumerics approach can identify such mutations globally, without any positional bias, so that functionally linked or compensatory mutations remote in the sequence or structure of the protein can be identified and interrogated...
October 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Surender Khurana, Elizabeth M Coyle, Jody Manischewitz, Lisa R King, Jin Gao, Ronald N Germain, Pamela L Schwartzberg, John S Tsang, Hana Golding
Immune responses to inactivated vaccines against avian influenza are poor due in part to lack of immune memory. Adjuvants significantly increased virus neutralizing titers. We performed comprehensive analyses of polyclonal antibody responses following FDA-approved adjuvanted H5N1-A/Indonesia vaccine, administered in presence or absence of AS03. Using Whole Genome Fragment Phage Display Libraries, we observed that AS03 induced antibody epitope diversity to viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase compared with unadjuvanted vaccine...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Runfeng Li, Bing Yuan, Xueshan Xia, Sheng Zhang, Qiuling Du, Chunguang Yang, Na Li, Jin Zhao, Yunhui Zhang, Rongping Zhang, Yue Feng, Jianlin Jiao, Malik Peiris, Nanshan Zhong, Chris Ka Pun Mok, Zifeng Yang
Outbreaks of avian influenza virus continue to pose threats to human health. Animal models such as the mouse, ferret, and macaque are used to understand the pathogenesis of avian influenza virus infection in humans. We previously reported that the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, family Tupaiidae), which is regarded as a "low-level primate", has α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid receptor distributions similar to those of humans and is potentially a useful mammalian model for studying mild human influenza (H1N1) virus infection...
October 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Nelson Lee, Aeron C Hurt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), including oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, is the main class of antiviral available for clinical use. As such, development of resistance toward these agents is of great clinical and public health concern. RECENT FINDINGS: At present, NAI resistance remains uncommon among the circulating viruses (oseltamivir <3.5%, zanamivir <1%). Resistance risk is slightly higher in A(H1N1) than A(H3N2) and B viruses...
October 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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