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Frontopolar cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732578/neural-activation-and-memory-for-natural-scenes-explicit-and-spontaneous-retrieval
#1
Mathias Weymar, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Peter J Lang
Stimulus repetition elicits either enhancement or suppression in neural activity, and a recent fMRI meta-analysis of repetition effects for visual stimuli (Kim, 2017) reported cross-stimulus repetition enhancement in medial and lateral parietal cortex, as well as regions of prefrontal, temporal, and posterior cingulate cortex. Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718333/neural-response-after-a-single-ect-session-during-retrieval-of-emotional-self-referent-words-in-depression-a-randomized-sham-controlled-fmri-study
#2
Kamilla W Miskowiak, Julian Macoveanu, Martin B Jørgensen, Mette M Støttrup, Caroline V Ott, Hans M Jensen, Anders Jørgensen, J Harmer, Olaf B Paulson, Lars V Kessing, Hartwig R Siebner
Background: Negative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of depression that is reversed by antidepressant drug treatment. However, it is unclear whether modulation of neurocognitive bias is a common mechanism of distinct biological treatments. This randomized controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study explored the effects of a single electroconvulsive therapy session on self-referent emotional processing. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder were randomized to one active or sham electroconvulsive therapy session at the beginning of their electroconvulsive therapy course in a double-blind, between-groups design...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684004/the-neural-system-of-metacognition-accompanying-decision-making-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Lirong Qiu, Jie Su, Yinmei Ni, Yang Bai, Xuesong Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Xiaohong Wan
Decision-making is usually accompanied by metacognition, through which a decision maker monitors uncertainty regarding a decision and may then consequently revise the decision. These metacognitive processes can occur prior to or in the absence of feedback. However, the neural mechanisms of metacognition remain controversial. One theory proposes an independent neural system for metacognition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); the other, that metacognitive processes coincide and overlap with the systems used for the decision-making process per se...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628066/abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-frontopolar-subregions-in-treatment-nonresponsive-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Peter W Fettes, Massieh Moayedi, Katharine Dunlop, Farrokh Mansouri, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Peter Giacobbe, Karen D Davis, Raymond W Lam, Sidney H Kennedy, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Jonathan Downar
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with major depressive disorder develop treatment-nonresponsive depression (TNRD); novel interventions targeting the substrates of this illness population are desperately needed. Convergent evidence from lesion, stimulation, connectivity, and functional neuroimaging studies implicates the frontopolar cortex (FPC) as a particularly important region in TNRD pathophysiology; regions functionally connected to the FPC, once identified, could present favorable targets for novel brain stimulation treatments...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572771/brain-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-coping-styles
#5
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Elisa Tatti, Lucia Mencarelli, Francesco Neri, Davide Momi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Simone Rossi, Alessandro Rossi
Coping abilities represent the individual set of mental and behavioral strategies adopted when facing stress or traumatic experiences. Coping styles related to avoidance have been linked to a disposition to develop psychiatric disorders such as PTSD, anxiety, and major depression, whereas problem-oriented coping skills have been positively correlated with well-being and high quality of life. Even though coping styles constitute an important determinant of resilience and can impact many aspects of everyday living, no study has investigated their brain functional connectivity underpinnings in humans...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396739/distinct-neural-correlates-of-episodic-memory-among-apolipoprotein-e-alleles-in-cognitively-normal-elderly
#6
Hao Shu, Yongmei Shi, Gang Chen, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Chunxian Yue, B Douglas Ward, Wenjun Li, Zhan Xu, Guangyu Chen, Qi-Hao Guo, Jun Xu, Shi-Jiang Li, Zhijun Zhang
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and ε2 alleles are acknowledged genetic factors modulating Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk and episodic memory (EM) deterioration in an opposite manner. Mounting neuroimaging studies describe EM-related brain activity differences among APOE alleles but remain limited in elucidating the underlying mechanism. Here, we hypothesized that the APOE ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles have distinct EM neural substrates, as a manifestation of degeneracy, underlying their modulations on EM-related brain activity and AD susceptibility...
February 2, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395916/reversible-silencing-of-the-frontopolar-cortex-selectively-impairs-metacognitive-judgment-on-non-experience-in-primates
#7
Kentaro Miyamoto, Rieko Setsuie, Takahiro Osada, Yasushi Miyashita
Self-evaluation of one's own ignorance requires us to peer into our own mind retrospectively. Here, we found that only the bilateral frontopolar cortices (area 10) are recruited for metacognitive evaluation of non-experienced events in macaque monkeys performing metacognitive confidence judgment on memory under fMRI scanning and that targeted reversible inactivation of the localized spots in area 10 selectively impaired the confidence judgment of non-experienced events. In contrast, fMRI experiments revealed that area 10 was not recruited for metacognition of experienced events like the way that the dorsal prefrontal cortex (area 9) was and, correspondingly, the inactivation of area 10 did not impair confidence judgment of experienced events...
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358365/cortical-connections-position-primate-area-25-as-a-keystone-for-interoception-emotion-and-memory
#8
Mary Kate P Joyce, Helen Barbas
The structural and functional integrity of subgenual cingulate area 25 (A25) is crucial for emotional expression and equilibrium. A25 has a key role in affective networks, and its disruption has been linked to mood disorders, but its cortical connections have yet to be systematically or fully studied. Using neural tracers in rhesus monkeys, we found that A25 was densely connected with other ventromedial and posterior orbitofrontal areas associated with emotions and homeostasis. A moderate pathway linked A25 with frontopolar area 10, an area associated with complex cognition, which may regulate emotions and dampen negative affect...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355588/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-neurotransmitter-producing-sites-in-female-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#9
Gerd Wagner, Annegret Krause-Utz, Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Christian Schmahl, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Impulsive behavior, difficulties in controlling anger and suicidal behavior are typical patterns of affective/behavioral dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous functional MRI studies in the resting state condition demonstrated altered functional connectivity (FC) between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the frontoparietal executive control network (ECN), which was significantly associated with impulsivity in BPD. Impulsivity is often defined as a function of inhibitory control, strongly relying on the proper functioning of the fronto-cingulo-striatal network...
April 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341386/at-the-core-of-reasoning-dissociating-deductive-and-non-deductive-load
#10
John P Coetzee, Martin M Monti
In recent years, neuroimaging methods have been used to investigate how the human mind carries out deductive reasoning. According to some, the neural substrate of language is integral to deductive reasoning. According to others, deductive reasoning is supported by a language-independent distributed network including left frontopolar and frontomedial cortices. However, it has been suggested that activity in these frontal regions might instead reflect non-deductive factors such as working memory load and general cognitive difficulty...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332063/diffusion-tensor-imaging-investigation-of-uncinate-fasciculus-anatomy-in-healthy-controls-description-of-a-subgenual-stem
#11
Kartik Bhatia, Luke Henderson, Mark Yim, Eugene Hsu, Rajiv Dhaliwal
The uncinate fasciculus is the largest white matter association tract connecting the prefrontal cortex and the anteromedial temporal lobe. The traditional anatomical description outlines a temporal stem that hooks around the posterior insula, a subinsular body, and 2 prefrontal stems extending to the lateral orbital gyri and the frontopolar cortex. Recent imaging studies of the white matter tracts deep to the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 25: BA25) suggest the presence of white matter fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala, via a route that would run in close proximity to the uncinate fasciculus, that are of functional importance in mood disorders...
2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275840/brain-stimulation-over-the-frontopolar-cortex-enhances-motivation-to-exert-effort-for-reward
#12
Alexander Soutschek, Pyungwon Kang, Christian C Ruff, Todd A Hare, Philippe N Tobler
BACKGROUND: Loss of motivation is a characteristic feature of several psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the neural mechanisms underlying human motivation are far from being understood. Here, we investigate the role that the frontopolar cortex (FPC) plays in motivating cognitive and physical effort exertion by computing subjective effort equivalents. METHODS: We manipulated neural processing with transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the FPC while 141 healthy participants decided whether or not to engage in cognitive or physical effort to obtain rewards...
December 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247192/exploring-feature-dimensions-to-learn-a-new-policy-in-an-uninformed-reinforcement-learning-task
#13
Oh-Hyeon Choung, Sang Wan Lee, Yong Jeong
When making a choice with limited information, we explore new features through trial-and-error to learn how they are related. However, few studies have investigated exploratory behaviour when information is limited. In this study, we address, at both the behavioural and neural level, how, when, and why humans explore new feature dimensions to learn a new policy for choosing a state-space. We designed a novel multi-dimensional reinforcement learning task to encourage participants to explore and learn new features, then used a reinforcement learning algorithm to model policy exploration and learning behaviour...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218005/distributed-neural-activity-patterns-during-human-to-human-competition
#14
Matthew Piva, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Steve W C Chang, Joy Hirsch
Interpersonal interaction is the essence of human social behavior. However, conventional neuroimaging techniques have tended to focus on social cognition in single individuals rather than on dyads or groups. As a result, relatively little is understood about the neural events that underlie face-to-face interaction. We resolved some of the technical obstacles inherent in studying interaction using a novel imaging modality and aimed to identify neural mechanisms engaged both within and across brains in an ecologically valid instance of interpersonal competition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199137/brodmann-area-10-collating-integrating-and-high-level-processing-of-nociception-and-pain
#15
REVIEW
Ke Peng, Sarah C Steele, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Multiple frontal cortical brain regions have emerged as being important in pain processing, whether it be integrative, sensory, cognitive, or emotional. One such region, Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10), is the largest frontal brain region that has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of functions including risk and decision making, odor evaluation, reward and conflict, pain, and working memory. BA 10, also known as the anterior prefrontal cortex, frontopolar prefrontal cortex or rostral prefrontal cortex, is comprised of at least two cytoarchitectonic sub-regions, medial and lateral...
February 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167430/short-term-reward-experience-biases-inference-despite-dissociable-neural-correlates
#16
Adrian G Fischer, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Markus Ullsperger
Optimal decision-making employs short-term rewards and abstract long-term information based on which of these is deemed relevant. Employing short- vs. long-term information is associated with different learning mechanisms, yet neural evidence showing that these two are dissociable is lacking. Here we demonstrate that long-term, inference-based beliefs are biased by short-term reward experiences and that dissociable brain regions facilitate both types of learning. Long-term inferences are associated with dorsal striatal and frontopolar cortex activity, while short-term rewards engage the ventral striatum...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073459/physical-aggressiveness-and-gray-matter-deficits-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#17
David S Chester, Donald R Lynam, Richard Milich, C Nathan DeWall
What causes individuals to hurt others? Since the famous case of Phineas Gage, lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) have been reliably linked to physically aggressive behavior. However, it is unclear whether naturally-occurring deficits in VMPFC, among normal individuals, might have widespread consequences for aggression. Using voxel based morphometry, we regressed gray matter density from the brains of 138 normal female and male adults onto their dispositional levels of physical aggression, verbal aggression, and sex, simultaneously...
December 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051745/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-neuropathophysiology-and-clinical-outcome-insights-from-multimodal-neuroimaging
#18
Andrei Irimia, Sheng-Yang Matthew Goh, Adam C Wade, Kavi Patel, Paul M Vespa, John D Van Horn
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS) and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score) and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024194/disrupted-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-reward-processing-in-remitted-bipolar-i-disorder
#19
Sunny J Dutra, Vincent Man, Hedy Kober, William A Cunningham, June Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with elevated reward sensitivity and persistent positive affect, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these patterns are not well understood. In the present study, we examined putative disruptions in communication within a well-known cortico-limbic reward circuit during reward processing as a potential contributing mechanism to these symptoms. METHODS: The present investigation employed a within- and between-subjects design utilizing a monetary and social incentive delay task among adults with bipolar disorder type I (BD; N = 24) and a healthy non-psychiatric control group (HC; N = 25) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
December 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984590/disinhibition-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is%C3%A2-associated-with-reduced-right-frontal-pole-cortical-thickness
#20
Elizabeth Finger, Jing Zhang, Bradford Dickerson, Yves Bureau, Mario Masellis
Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are among the most disabling and difficult aspects for caregivers and treating health professionals to manage. Despite the high prevalence of these behaviors, little is known about the factors which lead some patients to develop florid behavioral symptoms while others may progress to severe dementia without such phenomenon. We examined whether regional brain volumes as measured by cortical thickness would predict the presence or absence of disinhibition in patients with Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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