keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Frontopolar cortex

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332063/diffusion-tensor-imaging-investigation-of-uncinate-fasciculus-anatomy-in-healthy-controls-description-of-a-subgenual-stem
#1
Kartik Bhatia, Luke Henderson, Mark Yim, Eugene Hsu, Rajiv Dhaliwal
The uncinate fasciculus is the largest white matter association tract connecting the prefrontal cortex and the anteromedial temporal lobe. The traditional anatomical description outlines a temporal stem that hooks around the posterior insula, a subinsular body, and 2 prefrontal stems extending to the lateral orbital gyri and the frontopolar cortex. Recent imaging studies of the white matter tracts deep to the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 25: BA25) suggest the presence of white matter fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala, via a route that would run in close proximity to the uncinate fasciculus, that are of functional importance in mood disorders...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275840/brain-stimulation-over-the-frontopolar-cortex-enhances-motivation-to-exert-effort-for-reward
#2
Alexander Soutschek, Pyungwon Kang, Christian C Ruff, Todd A Hare, Philippe N Tobler
BACKGROUND: Loss of motivation is a characteristic feature of several psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the neural mechanisms underlying human motivation are far from being understood. Here, we investigate the role that the frontopolar cortex (FPC) plays in motivating cognitive and physical effort exertion by computing subjective effort equivalents. METHODS: We manipulated neural processing with transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the FPC while 141 healthy participants decided whether or not to engage in cognitive or physical effort to obtain rewards...
December 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247192/exploring-feature-dimensions-to-learn-a-new-policy-in-an-uninformed-reinforcement-learning-task
#3
Oh-Hyeon Choung, Sang Wan Lee, Yong Jeong
When making a choice with limited information, we explore new features through trial-and-error to learn how they are related. However, few studies have investigated exploratory behaviour when information is limited. In this study, we address, at both the behavioural and neural level, how, when, and why humans explore new feature dimensions to learn a new policy for choosing a state-space. We designed a novel multi-dimensional reinforcement learning task to encourage participants to explore and learn new features, then used a reinforcement learning algorithm to model policy exploration and learning behaviour...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218005/distributed-neural-activity-patterns-during-human-to-human-competition
#4
Matthew Piva, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Steve W C Chang, Joy Hirsch
Interpersonal interaction is the essence of human social behavior. However, conventional neuroimaging techniques have tended to focus on social cognition in single individuals rather than on dyads or groups. As a result, relatively little is understood about the neural events that underlie face-to-face interaction. We resolved some of the technical obstacles inherent in studying interaction using a novel imaging modality and aimed to identify neural mechanisms engaged both within and across brains in an ecologically valid instance of interpersonal competition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199137/brodmann-area-10-collating-integrating-and-high-level-processing-of-nociception-and-pain
#5
REVIEW
Ke Peng, Sarah C Steele, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Multiple frontal cortical brain regions have emerged as being important in pain processing, whether it be integrative, sensory, cognitive, or emotional. One such region, Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10), is the largest frontal brain region that has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of functions including risk and decision making, odor evaluation, reward and conflict, pain, and working memory. BA 10, also known as the anterior prefrontal cortex, frontopolar prefrontal cortex or rostral prefrontal cortex, is comprised of at least two cytoarchitectonic sub-regions, medial and lateral...
November 30, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167430/short-term-reward-experience-biases-inference-despite-dissociable-neural-correlates
#6
Adrian G Fischer, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Markus Ullsperger
Optimal decision-making employs short-term rewards and abstract long-term information based on which of these is deemed relevant. Employing short- vs. long-term information is associated with different learning mechanisms, yet neural evidence showing that these two are dissociable is lacking. Here we demonstrate that long-term, inference-based beliefs are biased by short-term reward experiences and that dissociable brain regions facilitate both types of learning. Long-term inferences are associated with dorsal striatal and frontopolar cortex activity, while short-term rewards engage the ventral striatum...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073459/physical-aggressiveness-and-gray-matter-deficits-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#7
David S Chester, Donald R Lynam, Richard Milich, C Nathan DeWall
What causes individuals to hurt others? Since the famous case of Phineas Gage, lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) have been reliably linked to physically aggressive behavior. However, it is unclear whether naturally-occurring deficits in VMPFC, among normal individuals, might have widespread consequences for aggression. Using voxel based morphometry, we regressed gray matter density from the brains of 138 normal female and male adults onto their dispositional levels of physical aggression, verbal aggression, and sex, simultaneously...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051745/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-neuropathophysiology-and-clinical-outcome-insights-from-multimodal-neuroimaging
#8
Andrei Irimia, Sheng-Yang Matthew Goh, Adam C Wade, Kavi Patel, Paul M Vespa, John D Van Horn
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS) and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score) and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024194/disrupted-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-reward-processing-in-remitted-bipolar-i-disorder
#9
Sunny J Dutra, Vincent Man, Hedy Kober, William A Cunningham, June Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with elevated reward sensitivity and persistent positive affect, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these patterns are not well understood. In the present study, we examined putative disruptions in communication within a well-known cortico-limbic reward circuit during reward processing as a potential contributing mechanism to these symptoms. METHODS: The present investigation employed a within- and between-subjects design utilizing a monetary and social incentive delay task among adults with bipolar disorder type I (BD; N = 24) and a healthy non-psychiatric control group (HC; N = 25) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984590/disinhibition-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is%C3%A2-associated-with-reduced-right-frontal-pole-cortical-thickness
#10
Elizabeth Finger, Jing Zhang, Bradford Dickerson, Yves Bureau, Mario Masellis
Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are among the most disabling and difficult aspects for caregivers and treating health professionals to manage. Despite the high prevalence of these behaviors, little is known about the factors which lead some patients to develop florid behavioral symptoms while others may progress to severe dementia without such phenomenon. We examined whether regional brain volumes as measured by cortical thickness would predict the presence or absence of disinhibition in patients with Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951610/managing-competing-goals-a-key-role-for-the-frontopolar-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri, Etienne Koechlin, Marcello G P Rosa, Mark J Buckley
Humans are set apart from other animals by many elements of advanced cognition and behaviour, including language, judgement and reasoning. What is special about the human brain that gives rise to these abilities? Could the foremost part of the prefrontal cortex (the frontopolar cortex), which has become considerably enlarged in humans during evolution compared with other animals, be important in this regard, especially as, in primates, it contains a unique cytoarchitectural field, area 10? The first studies of the function of the frontopolar cortex in monkeys have now provided critical new insights about its precise role in monitoring the significance of current and alternative goals...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#12
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914605/a-causal-role-for-right-frontopolar-cortex-in-directed-but-not-random-exploration
#13
Wojciech K Zajkowski, Malgorzata Kossut, Robert C Wilson
The explore-exploit dilemma occurs anytime we must choose between exploring unknown options for information and exploiting known resources for reward. Previous work suggests that people use two different strategies to solve the explore-exploit dilemma: directed exploration, driven by information seeking, and random exploration, driven by decision noise. Here, we show that these two strategies rely on different neural systems. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to inhibit the right frontopolar cortex, we were able to selectively inhibit directed exploration while leaving random exploration intact...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826410/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamus-and-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
M Cano, P Alonso, I Martínez-Zalacaín, M Subirà, E Real, C Segalàs, J Pujol, N Cardoner, J M Menchón, C Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: The assessment of inter-regional functional connectivity (FC) has allowed for the description of the putative mechanism of action of treatments such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, the possible FC alterations of other clinically-effective DBS targets have not been explored. Here we evaluated the FC patterns of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in patients with OCD, as well as their association with symptom severity...
August 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#15
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797920/prefrontal-activation-during-a-working-memory-task-differs-between-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-preliminary-exploratory-study
#16
Yue Zhu, Wenxiang Quan, Huali Wang, Yantao Ma, Jun Yan, Hua Zhang, Wentian Dong, Xin Yu
BACKGROUND: To identify bipolar disorder during the initial stages of a depressive episode has always been a great clinical challenge. Patterns of functional brain activity may underlie the differences in the neural mechanisms of bipolar depression (BD) and unipolar depression (UD). This study aimed to investigate the differences in neural activity between BD and UD patients during executive task. METHODS: We performed a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) scan in 39 patients with BD, 35 patients with UD, and 36 healthy controls (HCs)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715907/selective-effects-of-psychotherapy-on-frontopolar-cortical-function-in-ptsd
#17
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Colleen E Mills-Finnerty, Benjamin M Rosenberg, Raleigh Edelstein, Rachael N Wright, Carena A Kole, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701914/reduced-prefrontal-cortex-activation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-go-no-go-task-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#18
Shuo Miao, Junxia Han, Yue Gu, Xin Wang, Wenhong Song, Dongqing Li, Zhao Liu, Jian Yang, Xiaoli Li
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in children and affects 3 to 5% of school-aged children. This study is to demonstrate whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can detect the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-HB) in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TD children). Method: In this study, 14 children with ADHD and 15 TD children were studied. Metabolic signals of functional blood oxygen were recorded by using fNIRS during go/no-go task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685431/inter-individual-differences-in-exercise-induced-spatial-working-memory-improvement-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#19
Yudai Yamazaki, Daisuke Sato, Koya Yamashiro, Atsuhiro Tsubaki, Yui Yamaguchi, Nana Takehara, Atsuo Maruyama
Acute aerobic exercise at a mild intensity improves cognitive function. However, the response to exercise exhibits inter-individual differences, and the mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine potential factors in the brain that underlie differential responses to exercise in terms of cognitive improvement using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in these experiments. Participants performed a low intensity cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 10 min and performed a spatial memory task before and after exercising (5 and 30 min)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658252/integration-of-individual-and-social-information-for-decision-making-in-groups-of-different-sizes
#20
Seongmin A Park, Sidney Goïame, David A O'Connor, Jean-Claude Dreher
When making judgments in a group, individuals often revise their initial beliefs about the best judgment to make given what others believe. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, we know little about how the brain updates beliefs when integrating personal judgments (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
keyword
keyword
16975
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"