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Frontopolar cortex

Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Noora Heikkinen, Eini Niskanen, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Heikki Tanila, Eila Laukkanen, Ritva Vanninen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use, but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy- and light-drinking adolescents. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed-up for 10 years using questionnaires at three time-points...
November 19, 2016: Addiction
Xiaohong Wan, Kang Cheng, Keiji Tanaka
Little attention has been paid to the postdecision processing in fMRI studies with task paradigms in which there was no explicit feedback. Although late-onset BOLD responses were previously observed in the lateral frontopolar cortex after the familiar-novel decision on visually presented words, the nature of neural activations that caused the late-onset BOLD responses remained elusive. We here found, in human experts conducting complicated problem-solving tasks in their expertise domain, that the rostral frontal cortex, including the lateral frontopolar cortex, along with the anterior inferior parietal lobule, was activated only during the postdecision period, although there was no feedback...
July 2016: ENeuro
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Haruhisa Ohta, Takashi Yamada, Chieko Kanai, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Nobumasa Kato
In interactive social situations, it is often crucial to be able to take another person's perspective when evaluating one's own or another person's specific trait; individuals with ASD critically lack this social skill. To examine how perspective-dependent self- and other-evaluation processes modulate functional connectivity in ASD, we conducted an fMRI study in which 26 high-functioning adults with ASD and 24 typically developed (TD) controls were asked to decide whether an adjective describing a personality trait correctly described the participant himself/herself ("self") or the participant's mother ("other") by taking either the first (1P) or third person (3P) perspective...
August 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Nolan R Williams, E Baron Short, Thomas Hopkins, Brandon S Bentzley, Greg L Sahlem, Jaspreet Pannu, Matt Schmidt, Jeff J Borckardt, Jeffrey E Korte, Mark S George, Istvan Takacs, Ziad Nahas
BACKGROUND: Epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation (EpCS) represents a novel therapeutic approach with many unique benefits that can be used for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of EpCS of the frontopolar cortex (FPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treatment of TRD. METHODS: Adults (N = 5) who were 21-80 years old with severe TRD [failure to respond to adequate courses of at least 4 antidepressant medications, psychotherapy and ≥20 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24)] were recruited...
November 2016: Brain Stimulation
Joseph M Baker, Ning Liu, Xu Cui, Pascal Vrticka, Manish Saggar, S M Hadi Hosseini, Allan L Reiss
Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yu-Chen Chan
Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniela Seixas, Jacqueline Palace, Irene Tracey
Pain commonly affects multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and has the potential to become chronic and burden an already damaged central nervous system. Imaging studies are providing insights into brain restructuring associated with chronic pain and different chronic pain conditions seem to evoke distinct plasticity patterns. Our objective was to study the structural and functional brain changes of chronic neuropathic pain of MS. Employing structural and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared MS patients with chronic central pain with MS patients without pain matched with respect to age, gender, subtype and duration of MS and disability...
August 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yajing Zhu, Qing Fan, Haiyin Zhang, Jianyin Qiu, Ling Tan, Zeping Xiao, Shanbao Tong, Jue Chen, Yao Li
BACKGROUND: Previous neuroimaging data indicated that the dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit contributed to the neuropathological mechanism of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whereas, emerging work has shown that the pathophysiology of OCD might be related to more widely distributed large-scale brain systems including limbic system and the salience network. This study aims to investigate the aberrant spontaneous neuronal activity within the whole brain, and its association with the symptom severity for unmedicated OCD patients...
April 16, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
David Meder, Kristoffer H Madsen, Oliver Hulme, Hartwig R Siebner
Adaptive actions build on internal probabilistic models of possible outcomes that are tuned according to the errors of their predictions when experiencing an actual outcome. Prediction errors (PEs) inform choice behavior across a diversity of outcome domains and dimensions, yet neuroimaging studies have so far only investigated such signals in singular experimental contexts. It is thus unclear whether the neuroanatomical distribution of PE encoding reported previously pertains to computational features that are invariant with respect to outcome valence, sensory domain, or some combination of the two...
July 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Adam E Green, Katherine A Spiegel, Evan J Giangrande, Adam B Weinberger, Natalie M Gallagher, Peter E Turkeltaub
Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates neural mechanisms that support transient improvements in creative performance (augmented state creativity) in response to cognitive interventions (creativity cueing). Separately, neural interventions via tDCS show encouraging potential for modulating neuronal function during creative performance. If cognitive and neural interventions are separately effective, can they be combined? Does state creativity augmentation represent "real" creativity, or do interventions simply yield divergence by diminishing meaningfulness/appropriateness? Can augmenting state creativity bolster creative reasoning that supports innovation, particularly analogical reasoning? To address these questions, we combined tDCS with creativity cueing...
April 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Junzo Iida, Naoko Kishimoto, Yoko Nakanishi, Shohei Tanaka, Toyosaku Ota, Manabu Makinodan, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Patients with methamphetamine abuse/dependence often exhibit high levels of impulsivity, which may be associated with the structural abnormalities and functional hypoactivities observed in the frontal cortex of these subjects. Although near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-invasive method for characterizing the clinical features of various psychiatric illnesses, few studies have used NIRS to directly investigate the association between prefrontal cortical activity and inhibitory control in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MAP)...
2016: PloS One
Kieran C R Fox, Matthew L Dixon, Savannah Nijeboer, Manesh Girn, James L Floman, Michael Lifshitz, Melissa Ellamil, Peter Sedlmeier, Kalina Christoff
Meditation is a family of mental practices that encompasses a wide array of techniques employing distinctive mental strategies. We systematically reviewed 78 functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) studies of meditation, and used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze 257 peak foci from 31 experiments involving 527 participants. We found reliably dissociable patterns of brain activation and deactivation for four common styles of meditation (focused attention, mantra recitation, open monitoring, and compassion/loving-kindness), and suggestive differences for three others (visualization, sense-withdrawal, and non-dual awareness practices)...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Takeshi Yamada, Masashi Itakura, Takehiko Yamanashi, Sayaka Yamada, Mieko Masai, Akihiko Miura, Takahira Yamauchi, Takahiro Satake, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, David L Roberts, Koichi Kaneko
Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study...
March 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Krutika Gohil, Gabriel Dippel, Christian Beste
Cognitive control is central to many every day situations. There, we usually have to combine different actions to achieve a task goal. Several lines of research indicated that areas in the prefrontal cortex determine cognitive control in situations requiring multi-component behavior. One of this is the frontopolar cortex (FPC). However, direct non-correlative evidence for this notion is widely lacking. In the current study we test the importance of the FPC for the implementation of action cascading processes in a TMS/EEG study...
February 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits are resistant to treatment and thus pose a lifelong burden. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) provides reliable and valid assessments across cognitive domains. However, because the prefrontal functional abnormalities specifically associated with the level of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have not been examined, we explored this relationship. Patients with schizophrenia (N=87) and matched healthy controls (N=50) participated in the study...
April 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Koichiro Fujimaki, Hidenori Takemoto, Shigeru Morinobu
Few studies have examined the relationship between social function and brain activation in non-clinical populations. The aim of the present study was to assess this relationship and examine the underlying cortical mechanisms in a non-clinical population. Eighty healthy volunteers performed a serial arithmetic task according to the Uchida-Kraepelin performance test while hemoglobin concentration changes were assessed on the surface of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using 32-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Participants were also assessed for quality of life (QOL) using the Short-Form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36), for affective symptoms using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), for apathy using the Apathy Scale, for feelings of stress using the Stress Arousal Checklist (SACL), and for task performance using the number of answers in a serial arithmetic task...
February 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Ruibin Zhang, Marco Picchioni, Paul Allen, Timothea Toulopoulou
Working memory deficits, a core cognitive feature of schizophrenia may arise from dysfunction in the frontal and parietal cortices. Numerous studies have also found abnormal neural activation during working memory tasks in patients' unaffected relatives. The aim of this study was to systematically identify and anatomically localize the evidence for those activation differences across all eligible studies. Fifteen functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) manuscripts, containing 16 samples of 289 unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 358 healthy controls were identified that met our inclusion criteria: (1) used a working memory task; and (2) reported standard space coordinates...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Anton Henssen, Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Axel Schleicher, Hartmut Mohlberg, Fatma Gerboga, Simon B Eickhoff, Sebastian Bludau, Katrin Amunts
Previous architectonical studies of human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) provided divergent maps regarding number, location, and extent of areas. To solve this controversy, an observer-independent cytoarchitectonical mapping of medial OFC (mOFC) was performed. Borders of cortical areas were detected in histological sections of ten human post-mortem brains using a quantitative, statistically testable method, and their stereotaxic localization and intersubject variability were determined. Three areas were identified: granular Fo1 mainly on the rostral Gyrus rectus and medial of the olfactory sulcus; granular to dysgranular Fo2, mainly on the posterior part of the ventromedial Gyrus rectus and the medial and lateral banks of the olfactory sulcus; granular Fo3 between the olfactory and medial or intermediate orbital sulci...
February 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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