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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559804/using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-enhance-creative-cognition-interactions-between-task-polarity-and-stimulation-site
#1
REVIEW
Adam B Weinberger, Adam E Green, Evangelia G Chrysikou
Creative cognition is frequently described as involving two primary processes, idea generation and idea selection. A growing body of research has used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine the neural mechanisms implicated in each of these processes. This literature has yielded a diverse set of findings that vary depending on the location and type (anodal, cathodal, or both) of electrical stimulation employed, as well as the task's reliance on idea generation or idea selection. As a result, understanding the interactions between stimulation site, polarity and task demands is required to evaluate the potential of tDCS to enhance creative performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532712/photosensitivity-and-epilepsy-current-concepts-and-perspectives-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
A Martins da Silva, Bárbara Leal
The authors review the influence of photic stimuli on the generation of epileptic seizures, addressing the first descriptions of the phenomenon and its subsequent exploration. Initially defined in the 1950's, links between intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and seizures were well understood by the 1970. Since then the increasing exposure to photic stimuli associated with modern life (for instance through TVs, patterns, computer games and electronic instruments with flickering displays) has led to an increased interest in this issue...
April 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469197/neural-plasticity-in-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-cortical-hub-construction-regional-homogeneity-resulting-from-working-memory-training
#3
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Working memory training (WMT) induces changes in cognitive function and various neurological systems. Here, we investigated changes in recently developed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of global information processing [degree of the cortical hub, which may have a central role in information integration in the brain, degree centrality (DC)], the magnitude of intrinsic brain activity [fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF)], and local connectivity (regional homogeneity) in young adults, who either underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369737/insula-and-amygdala-resting-state-functional-connectivity-differentiate-bipolar-from-unipolar-depression
#4
E Ambrosi, D B Arciniegas, A Madan, K N Curtis, M A Patriquin, R E Jorge, G Spalletta, J C Fowler, B C Frueh, R Salas
OBJECTIVE: Distinguishing depressive episodes due to bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) solely on clinical grounds is challenging. We aimed at comparing resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of regions subserving emotional regulation in similarly depressed BD and MDD. METHOD: We enrolled 76 in-patients (BD, n = 36; MDD, n = 40) and 40 healthy controls (HC). A seed-based approach was used to identify regions showing different rsFC with the insula and the amygdala...
July 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347211/use-of-multichannel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-study-relationships-between-brain-regions-and-neurocognitive-tasks-of-selective-divided-attention-and-2-back-working-memory
#5
Nozomi Tomita, Shoji Imai, Yusuke Kanayama, Issaku Kawashima, Hiroaki Kumano
While dichotic listening (DL) was originally intended to measure bottom-up selective attention, it has also become a tool for measuring top-down selective attention. This study investigated the brain regions related to top-down selective and divided attention DL tasks and a 2-back task using alphanumeric and Japanese numeric sounds. Thirty-six healthy participants underwent near-infrared spectroscopy scanning while performing a top-down selective attentional DL task, a top-down divided attentional DL task, and a 2-back task...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339164/are-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders-dissociable-on-the-basis-of-neuroimaging-morphological-findings-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis
#6
Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Andrea Nani, Luciano Fava, Sara Palermo, Francesca Bianco, Sergio Duca, Karina Tatu, Roberto Keller
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) are considered as three separate psychiatric conditions with, supposedly, different brain alterations patterns. From a neuroimaging perspective, this meta-analytic study aimed to address whether this nosographical differentiation is actually supported by different brain patterns of gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) morphological alterations. We explored two possibilities: (a) to find out whether GM alterations are specific for SCZD, ASD, and OCSD; and (b) to associate the identified brain alteration patterns with cognitive dysfunctions by means of an analysis of lesion decoding...
June 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#7
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294716/cortical-networks-involved-in-memory-for-temporal-order
#8
Anna Manelis, Vencislav Popov, Christopher Paynter, Matthew Walsh, Mark E Wheeler, Keith M Vogt, Lynne M Reder
We examined the neurobiological basis of temporal resetting, an aspect of temporal order memory, using a version of the delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task. While in an fMRI scanner, participants evaluated whether an item was novel or whether it had appeared before or after a reset event that signified the start of a new block of trials. Participants responded "old" to items that were repeated within the current block and "new" to both novel items and items that had last appeared before the reset event (pseudonew items)...
July 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220377/altered-functional-connectivity-architecture-of-the-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-resting-state-fmri
#9
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Zhao Dong, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205609/association-of-fronto-temporal-function-with-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia
#10
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Deficits in neuropsychological performance are common in schizophrenia, but their relationship with the fronto-temporal functional abnormalities associated with this condition remains unclear. We explored the relationship between neuropsychological performance as measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire theory of mind (ToM) subscale and fronto-temporal function in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170049/binding-oneself-to-the-mast-stimulating-frontopolar-cortex-enhances-precommitment
#11
Alexander Soutschek, Giuseppe Ugazio, Molly J Crockett, Christian C Ruff, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
Humans often give in to temptations that are in conflict with valuable long-term goals like health or saving for the future. Such willpower failures represent a prevalent problem in everyday life and in many psychiatric disorders. Strategies that increase resistance to temptations could therefore improve overall societal well-being. One important strategy is to voluntarily precommit, i.e. to restrict one's future action space by removing the tempting short-term option from the choice set, thereby leaving only the long-term option for implementation...
April 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119346/dissociating-the-neural-basis-of-conceptual-self-awareness-from-perceptual-awareness-and-unaware-self-processing
#12
Pawel Tacikowski, Christopher C Berger, H Henrik Ehrsson
Conceptual self-awareness is a mental state in which the content of one's consciousness refers to a particular aspect of semantic knowledge about oneself. This form of consciousness plays a crucial role in shaping human behavior; however, little is known about its neural basis. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a visual masked priming paradigm to dissociate the neural responses related to the awareness of semantic autobiographical information (one's own name, surname, etc.) from the awareness of information related to any visual stimulus (perceptual awareness), as well as from the unaware processing of self-relevant stimuli...
January 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#13
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#14
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865039/alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-is-associated-with-reduced-grey-matter-volumes
#15
Noora Heikkinen, Eini Niskanen, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Heikki Tanila, Eila Laukkanen, Ritva Vanninen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use, but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy- and light-drinking adolescents. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed-up for 10 years using questionnaires at three time-points...
November 19, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595134/the-neural-system-of-postdecision-evaluation-in-rostral-frontal-cortex-during-problem-solving-tasks
#16
Xiaohong Wan, Kang Cheng, Keiji Tanaka
Little attention has been paid to the postdecision processing in fMRI studies with task paradigms in which there was no explicit feedback. Although late-onset BOLD responses were previously observed in the lateral frontopolar cortex after the familiar-novel decision on visually presented words, the nature of neural activations that caused the late-onset BOLD responses remained elusive. We here found, in human experts conducting complicated problem-solving tasks in their expertise domain, that the rostral frontal cortex, including the lateral frontopolar cortex, along with the anterior inferior parietal lobule, was activated only during the postdecision period, although there was no feedback...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538473/altered-effects-of-perspective-taking-on-functional-connectivity-during-self-and-other-referential-processing-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Haruhisa Ohta, Takashi Yamada, Chieko Kanai, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Nobumasa Kato
In interactive social situations, it is often crucial to be able to take another person's perspective when evaluating one's own or another person's specific trait; individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) critically lack this social skill. To examine how perspective-dependent self- and other-evaluation processes modulate functional connectivity in ASD, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which 26 high-functioning adults with ASD and 24 typically developed (TD) controls were asked to decide whether an adjective describing a personality trait correctly described the participant himself/herself ("self") or the participant's mother ("other") by taking either the first (1P) or third person (3P) perspective...
August 30, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443912/five-year-follow-up-of-bilateral-epidural-prefrontal-cortical-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#18
Nolan R Williams, E Baron Short, Thomas Hopkins, Brandon S Bentzley, Greg L Sahlem, Jaspreet Pannu, Matt Schmidt, Jeff J Borckardt, Jeffrey E Korte, Mark S George, Istvan Takacs, Ziad Nahas
BACKGROUND: Epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation (EpCS) represents a novel therapeutic approach with many unique benefits that can be used for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of EpCS of the frontopolar cortex (FPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treatment of TRD. METHODS: Adults (N = 5) who were 21-80 years old with severe TRD [failure to respond to adequate courses of at least 4 antidepressant medications, psychotherapy and ≥20 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24)] were recruited...
November 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270754/sex-differences-in-neural-and-behavioral-signatures-of-cooperation-revealed-by-fnirs-hyperscanning
#19
Joseph M Baker, Ning Liu, Xu Cui, Pascal Vrticka, Manish Saggar, S M Hadi Hosseini, Allan L Reiss
Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199791/neural-correlates-of-sex-gender-differences-in-humor-processing-for-different-joke-types
#20
Yu-Chen Chan
Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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