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Frontopolar cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715907/selective-effects-of-psychotherapy-on-frontopolar-cortical-function-in-ptsd
#1
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Colleen E Mills-Finnerty, Benjamin M Rosenberg, Raleigh Edelstein, Rachael N Wright, Carena A Kole, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701914/reduced-prefrontal-cortex-activation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-go-no-go-task-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#2
Shuo Miao, Junxia Han, Yue Gu, Xin Wang, Wenhong Song, Dongqing Li, Zhao Liu, Jian Yang, Xiaoli Li
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in children and affects 3 to 5% of school-aged children. This study is to demonstrate whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can detect the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-HB) in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TD children). Method: In this study, 14 children with ADHD and 15 TD children were studied. Metabolic signals of functional blood oxygen were recorded by using fNIRS during go/no-go task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685431/inter-individual-differences-in-exercise-induced-spatial-working-memory-improvement-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#3
Yudai Yamazaki, Daisuke Sato, Koya Yamashiro, Atsuhiro Tsubaki, Yui Yamaguchi, Nana Takehara, Atsuo Maruyama
Acute aerobic exercise at a mild intensity improves cognitive function. However, the response to exercise exhibits inter-individual differences, and the mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine potential factors in the brain that underlie differential responses to exercise in terms of cognitive improvement using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in these experiments. Participants performed a low intensity cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 10 min and performed a spatial memory task before and after exercising (5 and 30 min)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658252/integration-of-individual-and-social-information-for-decision-making-in-groups-of-different-sizes
#4
Seongmin A Park, Sidney Goïame, David A O'Connor, Jean-Claude Dreher
When making judgments in a group, individuals often revise their initial beliefs about the best judgment to make given what others believe. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, we know little about how the brain updates beliefs when integrating personal judgments (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657683/association-between-social-functioning-and-prefrontal-cortex-function-during-a-verbal-fluency-task-in-schizophrenia-a-near-infrared-spectroscopic-study
#5
Masashi Itakura, Shenghong Pu, Hiroaki Ohdachi, Hiroshi Matsumura, Katsutoshi Yokoyama, Izumi Nagata, Masaaki Iwata, Koichi Kaneko
AIM: Impaired social functioning is a common characteristic of patients with schizophrenia. Social functioning requires the complex operation of various executive functions. Deficits in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been implicated in executive dysfunction. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between subjectively and objectively assessed social functioning, and their associations with PFC function in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Twenty-three patients and twenty-two age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed...
June 28, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559804/using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-enhance-creative-cognition-interactions-between-task-polarity-and-stimulation-site
#6
REVIEW
Adam B Weinberger, Adam E Green, Evangelia G Chrysikou
Creative cognition is frequently described as involving two primary processes, idea generation and idea selection. A growing body of research has used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine the neural mechanisms implicated in each of these processes. This literature has yielded a diverse set of findings that vary depending on the location and type (anodal, cathodal, or both) of electrical stimulation employed, as well as the task's reliance on idea generation or idea selection. As a result, understanding the interactions between stimulation site, polarity and task demands is required to evaluate the potential of tDCS to enhance creative performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532712/photosensitivity-and-epilepsy-current-concepts-and-perspectives-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
A Martins da Silva, Bárbara Leal
The authors review the influence of photic stimuli on the generation of epileptic seizures, addressing the first descriptions of the phenomenon and its subsequent exploration. Initially defined in the 1950's, links between intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and seizures were well understood by the 1970. Since then the increasing exposure to photic stimuli associated with modern life (for instance through TVs, patterns, computer games and electronic instruments with flickering displays) has led to an increased interest in this issue...
April 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469197/neural-plasticity-in-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-cortical-hub-construction-regional-homogeneity-resulting-from-working-memory-training
#8
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Working memory training (WMT) induces changes in cognitive function and various neurological systems. Here, we investigated changes in recently developed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of global information processing [degree of the cortical hub, which may have a central role in information integration in the brain, degree centrality (DC)], the magnitude of intrinsic brain activity [fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF)], and local connectivity (regional homogeneity) in young adults, who either underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369737/insula-and-amygdala-resting-state-functional-connectivity-differentiate-bipolar-from-unipolar-depression
#9
E Ambrosi, D B Arciniegas, A Madan, K N Curtis, M A Patriquin, R E Jorge, G Spalletta, J C Fowler, B C Frueh, R Salas
OBJECTIVE: Distinguishing depressive episodes due to bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) solely on clinical grounds is challenging. We aimed at comparing resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of regions subserving emotional regulation in similarly depressed BD and MDD. METHOD: We enrolled 76 in-patients (BD, n = 36; MDD, n = 40) and 40 healthy controls (HC). A seed-based approach was used to identify regions showing different rsFC with the insula and the amygdala...
July 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347211/use-of-multichannel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-study-relationships-between-brain-regions-and-neurocognitive-tasks-of-selective-divided-attention-and-2-back-working-memory
#10
Nozomi Tomita, Shoji Imai, Yusuke Kanayama, Issaku Kawashima, Hiroaki Kumano
While dichotic listening (DL) was originally intended to measure bottom-up selective attention, it has also become a tool for measuring top-down selective attention. This study investigated the brain regions related to top-down selective and divided attention DL tasks and a 2-back task using alphanumeric and Japanese numeric sounds. Thirty-six healthy participants underwent near-infrared spectroscopy scanning while performing a top-down selective attentional DL task, a top-down divided attentional DL task, and a 2-back task...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339164/are-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders-dissociable-on-the-basis-of-neuroimaging-morphological-findings-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis
#11
Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Andrea Nani, Luciano Fava, Sara Palermo, Francesca Bianco, Sergio Duca, Karina Tatu, Roberto Keller
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) are considered as three separate psychiatric conditions with, supposedly, different brain alterations patterns. From a neuroimaging perspective, this meta-analytic study aimed to address whether this nosographical differentiation is actually supported by different brain patterns of gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) morphological alterations. We explored two possibilities: (a) to find out whether GM alterations are specific for SCZD, ASD, and OCSD; and (b) to associate the identified brain alteration patterns with cognitive dysfunctions by means of an analysis of lesion decoding...
June 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#12
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294716/cortical-networks-involved-in-memory-for-temporal-order
#13
Anna Manelis, Vencislav Popov, Christopher Paynter, Matthew Walsh, Mark E Wheeler, Keith M Vogt, Lynne M Reder
We examined the neurobiological basis of temporal resetting, an aspect of temporal order memory, using a version of the delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task. While in an fMRI scanner, participants evaluated whether an item was novel or whether it had appeared before or after a reset event that signified the start of a new block of trials. Participants responded "old" to items that were repeated within the current block and "new" to both novel items and items that had last appeared before the reset event (pseudonew items)...
July 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220377/altered-functional-connectivity-architecture-of-the-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-resting-state-fmri
#14
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Zhao Dong, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205609/association-of-fronto-temporal-function-with-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia
#15
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Deficits in neuropsychological performance are common in schizophrenia, but their relationship with the fronto-temporal functional abnormalities associated with this condition remains unclear. We explored the relationship between neuropsychological performance as measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire theory of mind (ToM) subscale and fronto-temporal function in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170049/binding-oneself-to-the-mast-stimulating-frontopolar-cortex-enhances-precommitment
#16
Alexander Soutschek, Giuseppe Ugazio, Molly J Crockett, Christian C Ruff, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
Humans often give in to temptations that are in conflict with valuable long-term goals like health or saving for the future. Such willpower failures represent a prevalent problem in everyday life and in many psychiatric disorders. Strategies that increase resistance to temptations could therefore improve overall societal well-being. One important strategy is to voluntarily precommit, i.e. to restrict one's future action space by removing the tempting short-term option from the choice set, thereby leaving only the long-term option for implementation...
April 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119346/dissociating-the-neural-basis-of-conceptual-self-awareness-from-perceptual-awareness-and-unaware-self-processing
#17
Pawel Tacikowski, Christopher C Berger, H Henrik Ehrsson
Conceptual self-awareness is a mental state in which the content of one's consciousness refers to a particular aspect of semantic knowledge about oneself. This form of consciousness plays a crucial role in shaping human behavior; however, little is known about its neural basis. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a visual masked priming paradigm to dissociate the neural responses related to the awareness of semantic autobiographical information (one's own name, surname, etc.) from the awareness of information related to any visual stimulus (perceptual awareness), as well as from the unaware processing of self-relevant stimuli...
January 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#18
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#19
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865039/alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-is-associated-with-reduced-grey-matter-volumes
#20
Noora Heikkinen, Eini Niskanen, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Heikki Tanila, Eila Laukkanen, Ritva Vanninen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use, but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy- and light-drinking adolescents. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed-up for 10 years using questionnaires at three time-points...
November 19, 2016: Addiction
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