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Frontopolar cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#1
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294716/cortical-networks-involved-in-memory-for-temporal-order
#2
Anna Manelis, Vencislav Popov, Christopher Paynter, Matthew Walsh, Mark E Wheeler, Keith M Vogt, Lynne M Reder
We examined the neurobiological basis of temporal resetting, an aspect of temporal order memory, using a version of the delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task. While in an fMRI scanner, participants evaluated whether an item was novel or whether it had appeared before or after a reset event that signified the start of a new block of trials. Participants responded "old" to items that were repeated within the current block and "new" to both novel items and items that had last appeared before the reset event (pseudonew items)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220377/altered-functional-connectivity-architecture-of-the-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-resting-state-fmri
#3
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Zhao Dong, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205609/association-of-fronto-temporal-function-with-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia
#4
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Deficits in neuropsychological performance are common in schizophrenia, but their relationship with the fronto-temporal functional abnormalities associated with this condition remains unclear. We explored the relationship between neuropsychological performance as measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire theory of mind (ToM) subscale and fronto-temporal function in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170049/binding-oneself-to-the-mast-stimulating-frontopolar-cortex-enhances-precommitment
#5
Alexander Soutschek, Giuseppe Ugazio, Molly J Crockett, Christian C Ruff, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119346/dissociating-the-neural-basis-of-conceptual-self-awareness-from-perceptual-awareness-and-unaware-self-processing
#6
Pawel Tacikowski, Christopher C Berger, H Henrik Ehrsson
Conceptual self-awareness is a mental state in which the content of one's consciousness refers to a particular aspect of semantic knowledge about oneself. This form of consciousness plays a crucial role in shaping human behavior; however, little is known about its neural basis. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a visual masked priming paradigm to dissociate the neural responses related to the awareness of semantic autobiographical information (one's own name, surname, etc.) from the awareness of information related to any visual stimulus (perceptual awareness), as well as from the unaware processing of self-relevant stimuli...
January 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#7
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865039/alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-is-associated-with-reduced-grey-matter-volumes
#9
Noora Heikkinen, Eini Niskanen, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Heikki Tanila, Eila Laukkanen, Ritva Vanninen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use, but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy- and light-drinking adolescents. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed-up for 10 years using questionnaires at three time-points...
November 19, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595134/the-neural-system-of-postdecision-evaluation-in-rostral-frontal-cortex-during-problem-solving-tasks
#10
Xiaohong Wan, Kang Cheng, Keiji Tanaka
Little attention has been paid to the postdecision processing in fMRI studies with task paradigms in which there was no explicit feedback. Although late-onset BOLD responses were previously observed in the lateral frontopolar cortex after the familiar-novel decision on visually presented words, the nature of neural activations that caused the late-onset BOLD responses remained elusive. We here found, in human experts conducting complicated problem-solving tasks in their expertise domain, that the rostral frontal cortex, including the lateral frontopolar cortex, along with the anterior inferior parietal lobule, was activated only during the postdecision period, although there was no feedback...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538473/altered-effects-of-perspective-taking-on-functional-connectivity-during-self-and-other-referential-processing-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Haruhisa Ohta, Takashi Yamada, Chieko Kanai, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Nobumasa Kato
In interactive social situations, it is often crucial to be able to take another person's perspective when evaluating one's own or another person's specific trait; individuals with ASD critically lack this social skill. To examine how perspective-dependent self- and other-evaluation processes modulate functional connectivity in ASD, we conducted an fMRI study in which 26 high-functioning adults with ASD and 24 typically developed (TD) controls were asked to decide whether an adjective describing a personality trait correctly described the participant himself/herself ("self") or the participant's mother ("other") by taking either the first (1P) or third person (3P) perspective...
August 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443912/five-year-follow-up-of-bilateral-epidural-prefrontal-cortical-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#12
Nolan R Williams, E Baron Short, Thomas Hopkins, Brandon S Bentzley, Greg L Sahlem, Jaspreet Pannu, Matt Schmidt, Jeff J Borckardt, Jeffrey E Korte, Mark S George, Istvan Takacs, Ziad Nahas
BACKGROUND: Epidural prefrontal cortical stimulation (EpCS) represents a novel therapeutic approach with many unique benefits that can be used for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of EpCS of the frontopolar cortex (FPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treatment of TRD. METHODS: Adults (N = 5) who were 21-80 years old with severe TRD [failure to respond to adequate courses of at least 4 antidepressant medications, psychotherapy and ≥20 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24)] were recruited...
November 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270754/sex-differences-in-neural-and-behavioral-signatures-of-cooperation-revealed-by-fnirs-hyperscanning
#13
Joseph M Baker, Ning Liu, Xu Cui, Pascal Vrticka, Manish Saggar, S M Hadi Hosseini, Allan L Reiss
Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199791/neural-correlates-of-sex-gender-differences-in-humor-processing-for-different-joke-types
#14
Yu-Chen Chan
Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178661/chronic-pain-disrupts-the-reward-circuitry-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Daniela Seixas, Jacqueline Palace, Irene Tracey
Pain commonly affects multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and has the potential to become chronic and burden an already damaged central nervous system. Imaging studies are providing insights into brain restructuring associated with chronic pain and different chronic pain conditions seem to evoke distinct plasticity patterns. Our objective was to study the structural and functional brain changes of chronic neuropathic pain of MS. Employing structural and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared MS patients with chronic central pain with MS patients without pain matched with respect to age, gender, subtype and duration of MS and disability...
August 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084762/altered-intrinsic-insular-activity-predicts-symptom-severity-in-unmedicated-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Yajing Zhu, Qing Fan, Haiyin Zhang, Jianyin Qiu, Ling Tan, Zeping Xiao, Shanbao Tong, Jue Chen, Yao Li
BACKGROUND: Previous neuroimaging data indicated that the dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit contributed to the neuropathological mechanism of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Whereas, emerging work has shown that the pathophysiology of OCD might be related to more widely distributed large-scale brain systems including limbic system and the salience network. This study aims to investigate the aberrant spontaneous neuronal activity within the whole brain, and its association with the symptom severity for unmedicated OCD patients...
April 16, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083529/chasing-probabilities-signaling-negative-and-positive-prediction-errors-across-domains
#17
David Meder, Kristoffer H Madsen, Oliver Hulme, Hartwig R Siebner
Adaptive actions build on internal probabilistic models of possible outcomes that are tuned according to the errors of their predictions when experiencing an actual outcome. Prediction errors (PEs) inform choice behavior across a diversity of outcome domains and dimensions, yet neuroimaging studies have so far only investigated such signals in singular experimental contexts. It is thus unclear whether the neuroanatomical distribution of PE encoding reported previously pertains to computational features that are invariant with respect to outcome valence, sensory domain, or some combination of the two...
July 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075035/thinking-cap-plus-thinking-zap-tdcs-of-frontopolar-cortex-improves-creative-analogical-reasoning-and-facilitates-conscious-augmentation-of-state-creativity-in-verb-generation
#18
Adam E Green, Katherine A Spiegel, Evan J Giangrande, Adam B Weinberger, Natalie M Gallagher, Peter E Turkeltaub
Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates neural mechanisms that support transient improvements in creative performance (augmented state creativity) in response to cognitive interventions (creativity cueing). Separately, neural interventions via tDCS show encouraging potential for modulating neuronal function during creative performance. If cognitive and neural interventions are separately effective, can they be combined? Does state creativity augmentation represent "real" creativity, or do interventions simply yield divergence by diminishing meaningfulness/appropriateness? Can augmenting state creativity bolster creative reasoning that supports innovation, particularly analogical reasoning? To address these questions, we combined tDCS with creativity cueing...
April 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050450/reduced-prefrontal-cortex-hemodynamic-response-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-induced-psychosis-relevance-for-impulsivity
#19
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Junzo Iida, Naoko Kishimoto, Yoko Nakanishi, Shohei Tanaka, Toyosaku Ota, Manabu Makinodan, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Patients with methamphetamine abuse/dependence often exhibit high levels of impulsivity, which may be associated with the structural abnormalities and functional hypoactivities observed in the frontal cortex of these subjects. Although near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-invasive method for characterizing the clinical features of various psychiatric illnesses, few studies have used NIRS to directly investigate the association between prefrontal cortical activity and inhibitory control in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MAP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27032724/functional-neuroanatomy-of-meditation-a-review-and-meta-analysis-of-78-functional-neuroimaging-investigations
#20
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Matthew L Dixon, Savannah Nijeboer, Manesh Girn, James L Floman, Michael Lifshitz, Melissa Ellamil, Peter Sedlmeier, Kalina Christoff
Meditation is a family of mental practices that encompasses a wide array of techniques employing distinctive mental strategies. We systematically reviewed 78 functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) studies of meditation, and used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze 257 peak foci from 31 experiments involving 527 participants. We found reliably dissociable patterns of brain activation and deactivation for four common styles of meditation (focused attention, mantra recitation, open monitoring, and compassion/loving-kindness), and suggestive differences for three others (visualization, sense-withdrawal, and non-dual awareness practices)...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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