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Allison Shelton Rhines, Marcus William Feldman, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We model the epidemiological impact of providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to South African adolescents, among whom HIV prevalence is low, latent TB prevalence is high, and school-based programs may enable population-level coverage. METHODS: We simulate a dynamic compartmental model of age-structured HIV and TB co-epidemics in South Africa. HIV dynamics are modeled by infection status, CD4 count, and antiretroviral therapy; TB dynamics are modeled by disease stage, diagnosis, treatment, and IPT status...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
R Mukora, M Tlali, S Monkwe, S Charalambous, A S Karat, K L Fielding, A D Grant, A Vassall
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends point-of-care (POC) lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive people. South Africa had 438 000 new TB episodes in 2016, 58.9% of which were contributed by HIV-positive people. LF-LAM is being considered for scale-up in South Africa. METHODS: We estimated the costs of using LF-LAM in HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts  150 cells/μl enrolled in the TB Fast Track Trial in South Africa...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sara Suliman, Angelique Kany Kany Luabeya, Hennie Geldenhuys, Michele Tameris, Soren T Hoff, Zhongkai Shi, Dereck Tait, Ingrid Kromann, Morten Ruhwald, Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski, Barbara Shepherd, David Hokey, Ann M Ginsberg, Willem A Hanekom, Peter Andersen, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: Global tuberculosis (TB) control requires effective vaccines in TB-endemic countries, where most adults are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). We aimed to define optimal dose and schedule of H56:IC31, an experimental TB vaccine comprising Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660c, for M.tb-infected and uninfected adults. METHODS: We enrolled 98 healthy, HIV-uninfected, BCG-vaccinated, South African adults. M.tb infection was defined by QuantiFERON (QFT) assay...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Karolina Pilovska-Spasovska, Ljiljana Simonovska, Vladimir Mitreski
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in penitentiary institutions (prisons), and its prevalence was reported to be multiple times higher compared to that of the general population. Conditions such as overcrowding, malnutrition and limited access to medical care which often exist in prisons increase the risk of reactivation, transmission and poor prognosis of tuberculosis disease among inmates. AIM: The main objective of this study was to present the epidemiological situation of TB in the prisons from 2008 till 2017 in the Republic of Macedonia (RM)...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Tulshidas S Patil, Ashwini S Deshpande
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused due to an infection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M TB) bacilli affecting millions of people worldwide. It is a 9th leading cause of death and ranks above the HIV/AIDS. The unique intracellular life-cycle, more dangerous drug-resistant forms of bacilli, and insufficient investments in the TB research & development hindered the occurrence of optimum diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategy against this disease. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an update and overview of the current trends in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the disease...
August 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Rodrigo Collado-Chagoya, Javier Hernández-Romero, Gumaro A Eliosa-Alvarado, Rubén A Cruz-Pantoja, Rosa I Campos-Gutiérrez, Andrea A Velasco-Medina, Guillermo Velázquez-Sámano
Tolerance induction and desensitization in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or in toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been described as an absolute contraindication by some authors, but there are cases where there is no treatment alternative. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and ranks alongside HIV as a leading cause of death worldwide. Severe drug reactions, such as SJS and TEN, occurring in these individuals are lifethreatening. Since alternative therapies for TB are limited, the role of desensitization and reintroduction becomes essential...
January 2018: Allergy & Rhinology
Marie Claire Van Hout, Rosemary Mhlanga-Gunda
BACKGROUND: Sub Saharan African (SSA) prisons have seen a substantial increase in women prisoners in recent years. Despite this increase, women prisoners constitute a minority in male dominated prison environments, and their special health needs are often neglected. Research activity on prison health remains scant in SSA, with gathering of strategic information generally restricted to infectious diseases (human immunodeficiency virus infection HIV/tuberculosis TB), and particularly focused on male prisoners...
August 6, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan
Objectives: Understanding of the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and HIV infection could help identify high burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of predictors on the time of HIV diagnosis to death whereas accounting the spatial correlations across the counties and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS death in Hamadan province, Iran. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 585 patients...
August 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past few years, tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV as the infectious disease with the highest global mortality. Successful management of this syndemic will require improved diagnostic tests, shorter preventive therapies, and more effective treatments, particularly in light of drug-resistant TB. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from several major studies have been published or presented recently, including the development of a more sensitive rapid, molecular assay for TB; several new symptom-based screening tools; use of a 1-month regimen for TB prevention; the results of early vs...
August 4, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline the need for a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine; challenges for induction of vaccine-mediated protection in HIV-infected persons; and recent advances in clinical development. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV has a detrimental effect on T-cell function, polarization and differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific T cells, Mtb antigen presentation by dendritic cells, and leads to B-cell and antibody-response deficiencies. Previous observations of protection against TB disease in HIV-infected persons by Mycobacterium obuense suggest that an effective vaccine against HIV-related TB is feasible...
August 4, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Jill K Gersh, Zachary Feldman, Emily Greenberger, Amit Chandra, Harvey M Friedman, Ari Ho-Foster, Michelle K Haas
Delays in diagnosing Tuberculosis (TB) are associated with increased transmission. TB may present as a clinical syndrome that mimics community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of this paper was to determine frequency of TB among patients with CAP at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. We performed a retrospective study of adults presenting with CAP from April 2010-October 2011 to the Emergency Department (ED); we matched this cohort to the National Botswana Tuberculosis Registry (NBTR) to identify individuals subsequently diagnosed with TB...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Mbuso Precious Mabuza, Constance Shumba
South Africa is faced with a huge challenge of addressing the high burden of tuberculosis-human immune virus (TBHIV) co-infection, and this challenge is more pronounced in the province of KwaZulu-Natal which has one of the highest burdens of TB-HIV co-infection in the world. The study explored the experiences of doctors and nurses with regard to the management of tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in a TB-HIV high burden community in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The particular focus was to provide insight and to inform policy and programme development for effective management of TB-HIV co-infection in the TB-HIV high burden community of northern KwaZulu- Natal...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Victor S Santos, Delia Goletti, Konstantina Kontogianni, Emily R Adams, Barbara Molina-Moya, Jose Dominguez, Valeriu Crudu, Paulo R S Martins-Filho, Morten Ruhwald, Lovett Lawson, John S Bimba, Alberto L Garcia-Bastero, Linda Petrone, Basir S Kabeer, Klaus Reither, Luis E Cuevas
OBJECTIVES: We examined the data reported in studies for diagnostic purposes and discuss whether their intended use could be extended to triage, as rule in or rule out tests to select individuals who should undergo further confirmatory tests. METHODS: We searched SCOPUS, PubMed and Web of Science with the terms "acute-phase-proteins", "IP-10", "tuberculosis", "screening" and "diagnosis", extracted the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarkers and explored methodological differences to explain performance variations...
August 1, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Calixte Ida Penda, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Daniele Kedy Koum, Joseph Fokam, Cedric Anatole Zambo Meyong, Sandrine Talla, Paul Koki Ndombo
BACKGROUND: Universal HIV testing and treatment of infected children remain challenging in resource-limited settings (RLS), leading to undiagnosed children/adolescents and limited access to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of active cases finding of HIV-infected children/adolescents by provider-initiated testing and counseling in a health facility. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from January through April 2016 at 6 entry-points (inpatient, outpatient, neonatology, immunization/family planning, tuberculosis, day-care units) at the Laquintinie Hospital of Douala (LHD), Cameroon...
August 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Hyunsuk Yoo, Juyeon Lee, Jae-Joon Yim, Till Bärnighausen, Frank Tanser, Sue K Park
We investigated whether mortality risk increases with the number of full-term pregnancies in HIV-infected women. Our study is based on data from the ACDIS cohort, collected in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Mortality risk for different number of pregnancies in HIV-infected women was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model. The risk of TB or AIDS mortality in HIV-uninfected women did not change with the number of full-term pregnancies, while the corresponding risk increased markedly in HIV-infected women...
August 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Daniel W Gunda, Simon C Maganga, Igembe Nkandala, Semvua B Kilonzo, Bonaventura C Mpondo, Elichilia R Shao, Samwel E Kalluvya
Introduction: Although ART has improved the outcome of people living with HIV/AIDS, still some patients develop TB while receiving ART. The literature on the magnitude of this problem is still scarce in our setting especially northwestern Tanzania. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active TB among HIV patients on ART and assess its potential risk factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done among adult HIV-positive patients initiated on ART at Bugando Medical Centre...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Huan Chen, Samuel A Nyantakyi, Ming Li, Pooja Gopal, Dinah B Aziz, Tianming Yang, Wilfried Moreira, Martin Gengenbacher, Thomas Dick, Mei L Go
Tuberculosis (TB) poses an enduring threat to global health. Consistently ranked among the top 10 causes of death worldwide since 2000, TB has now exceeded HIV-AIDS in terms of deaths inflicted by a single infectious agent. In spite of recently declining TB incident rates, these decreases have been incremental and fall short of threshold levels required to end the global TB epidemic. As in other infectious diseases, the emergence of resistant organisms poses a major impediment to effective TB control. Resistance in mycobacteria may evolve from genetic mutations in target genes which are transmitted during cell multiplication from mother cells to their progeny...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alfonso Vallejos-Parás, David Alejandro Cabrera-Gaytán, Rosario Padilla-Velázquez, Lumumba Arriaga-Nieto, Gabriel Valle-Alvarado, Concepción Grajales-Muñiz, Teresita Rojas-Mendoza, María Del Rosario Niebla-Fuentes
Background: Tuberculosis has long been recognized as a public health problem in large cities. The goals of the "Stop TB" strategy of the WHO specifically promote its study at the subnational level. Therefore, we aimed to describe the state of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at the municipality level in Mexico. Methods: We obtained data on new cases of PTB and treatment success rates (TSRs) per municipality from each state in Mexico, reported by the Mexican Social Security Institute to the National Epidemiological Surveillance System during 2013...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Danielle Mann, Flávia Marinho Sant'Anna, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Dayvison Francis Saraiva Freitas, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Solange Cesar Cavalcante, Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Despite the increase in the number of cases of TB and HIV, few cases of CTB have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe CTB cases among patients with HIV infection from a cohort with tuberculosis. METHODS: We describe a series of 15 CTB and HIV cases, based on secondary data from 2000 to 2016. Diagnosis was based on isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture or clinical response to anti-tuberculous treatment associated with positive smear or histopathologic findings from affected skin or an adjacent lymph node...
July 26, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Rebecca B Stone, Yunmi Chung, Benjamin E Ansa
There has been an alarming resurgence of early syphilis since 2000, especially in the southeast region, which has one of the highest rates of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States of America (USA). Although the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA) is the second most populous area in Georgia with a large presence of health care facilities, its counties have one of the lowest overall rankings in health outcomes. This study examined the syphilis rates and trends in the CSRA. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention's AtlasPlus was used...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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