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Inhibitory neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786105/cannabinoid-win-55-212-2-mesylate-inhibits-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#1
Rong Tan, Lijun Cao
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an established pain modulator in the peripheral nervous system. Elevated levels of TNF-α in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons reportedly is critical for neuropathic pain processing. It has been shown that the production of nitric oxide, a key player in the development and maintenance of nociception, depends on the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and their activities. Accumulating evidence also supports an important role of cannabinoids in modulating neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786081/distinct-learning-induced-changes-in-stimulus-selectivity-and-interactions-of-gabaergic-interneuron-classes-in-visual-cortex
#2
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785640/switching-from-high-fat-diet-to-foods-containing-resveratrol-as-a-calorie-restriction-mimetic-changes-the-architecture-of-arcuate-nucleus-to-produce-more-newborn-anorexigenic-neurons
#3
Maryam Safahani, Hadi Aligholi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Djalali, Hamideh Pishva, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Leila Alizadeh, Ali Gorji, Fariba Koohdani
PURPOSE: These days, obesity threatens the health for which one of the main interventions is calorie restriction (CR). Due to the difficulty of compliance with this treatment, CR mimetics such as resveratrol (RSV) have been considered. The present study compared the effects of RSV and CR on hypothalamic remodeling in a diet-switching experiment. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice received high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks, subsequently their diet switched to chow diet, HFD + RSV, chow diet + RSV or CR diet for a further 6 weeks...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783906/bulleyaconitine-a-attenuates-hyperexcitability-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-induced-by-spared-nerve-injury-the-role-of-preferably-blocking-nav1-7-and-nav1-3-channels
#4
Man-Xiu Xie, Jie Yang, Rui-Ping Pang, Wei-An Zeng, Han-Dong Ouyang, Yan-Qing Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
Background Oral administration of Bulleyaconitine A, an extracted diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum bulleyanum plants, is effective for treating chronic pain in rats and in human patients, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Results As the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons resulting from the upregulation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels has been proved critical for development of chronic pain, we tested the effects of Bulleyaconitine A on Nav channels in rat spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782955/loss-of-calretinin-and-parvalbumin-positive-interneurones-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-of-aged-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#5
Fatima Zallo, Emanuela Gardenal, Alexei Verkhratsky, José Julio Rodríguez
Neuronal degeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is linked to impaired calcium homeostasis and to changes in calcium-binding proteins (CBPs). The AD-related modification of neuronal CBPs remains controversial. Here we analyzed the presence and expression of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the hippocampal CA1 neurones of 18 months old 3xTg-AD mice compared to non-Tg animals. We found a layer specific decrease in number of interneurones expressing CR and PV (by 33.7% and 52%, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782876/chloride-cotransporter-kcc2-is-essential-for-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-scn
#6
A H O Olde Engberink, J H Meijer, S Michel
One of the principal neurotransmitters of the central nervous system is GABA. In the adult brain, GABA is predominantly inhibitory, but there is growing evidence indicating that GABA can shift to excitatory action depending on environmental conditions. In the mammalian central circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) GABAergic activity shifts from inhibition to excitation when animals are exposed to long day photoperiod. The polarity of the GABAergic response (inhibitory versus excitatory) depends on the GABA equilibrium potential determined by the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i )...
May 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782492/molecular-basis-of-inhibition-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-by-diminazene
#7
Aram J Krauson, James G Rooney, Marcelo D Carattino
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric proton-gated cation permeable ion channels expressed primarily in neurons. Here we employed site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of ASIC1a by diminazene. This compound inhibits mouse ASIC1a with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.4 μM. At first, we examined whether neutralizing mutations of Glu79 and Glu416 alter diminazene block. These residues form a hexagonal array in the lower palm domain that was previously shown to contribute to pore opening in response to extracellular acidification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781994/a-drosophila-in-vivo-injury-model-for-studying-neuroregeneration-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system
#8
Dan Li, Feng Li, Pavithran Guttipatti, Yuanquan Song
The regrowth capacity of damaged neurons governs neuroregeneration and functional recovery after nervous system trauma. Over the past few decades, various intrinsic and extrinsic inhibitory factors involved in the restriction of axon regeneration have been identified. However, simply removing these inhibitory cues is insufficient for successful regeneration, indicating the existence of additional regulatory machinery. Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, shares evolutionarily conserved genes and signaling pathways with vertebrates, including humans...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#9
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780307/parvalbumin-and-gaba-microcircuits-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#10
Claudio A Villalobos, Qiong Wu, Psyche H Lee, Paul J May, Michele A Basso
The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a sensorimotor midbrain structure responsible for orienting behaviors. Although many SC features are known, details of its intrinsic microcircuits are lacking. We used transgenic mice expressing reporter genes in parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) and gamma aminobutyric acid-positive (GABA+ ) neurons to test the hypothesis that PV+ neurons co-localize GABA and form inhibitory circuits within the SC. We found more PV+ neurons in the superficial compared to the intermediate SC, although a larger percentage of PV+ neurons co-expressed GABA in the latter...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780247/impact-of-nanoparticles-on-neuron-biology-current-research-trends
#11
REVIEW
Firdos Alam Khan, Dana Almohazey, Munthar Alomari, Sarah Ameen Almofty
Nanoparticles have enormous applications in textiles, cosmetics, electronics, and pharmaceuticals. But due to their exceptional physical and chemical properties, particularly antimicrobial, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory properties, nanoparticles have many potential applications in diagnosis as well as in the treatment of various diseases. Over the past few years, nanoparticles have been extensively used to investigate their response on the neuronal cells. These nanoparticles cause stem cells to differentiate into neuronal cells and promote neuronal cell survivability and neuronal cell growth and expansion...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#12
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777828/mutual-connectivity-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-mri-data-with-local-models
#13
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Udaysankar Chockanathan, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Functional connectivity analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) can represent brain networks and reveal insights into interactions amongst different brain regions. However, most connectivity analysis approaches adopted in practice are linear and non-directional. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantage of a data-driven, directed connectivity analysis approach called Mutual Connectivity Analysis using Local Models (MCA-LM) that approximates connectivity by modeling nonlinear dependencies of signal interaction, over more conventionally used approaches, such as Pearson's and partial correlation, Patel's conditional dependence measures, etcetera...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776144/inhibition-delay-increases-neural-network-capacity-through-stirling-transform
#14
Alain Nogaret, Alastair King
Inhibitory neural networks are found to encode high volumes of information through delayed inhibition. We show that inhibition delay increases storage capacity through a Stirling transform of the minimum capacity which stabilizes locally coherent oscillations. We obtain both the exact and asymptotic formulas for the total number of dynamic attractors. Our results predict a (ln2)^{-N}-fold increase in capacity for an N-neuron network and demonstrate high-density associative memories which host a maximum number of oscillations in analog neural devices...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776048/critical-neural-networks-with-short-and-long-term-plasticity
#15
L Michiels van Kessenich, M Luković, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
In recent years self organized critical neuronal models have provided insights regarding the origin of the experimentally observed avalanching behavior of neuronal systems. It has been shown that dynamical synapses, as a form of short-term plasticity, can cause critical neuronal dynamics. Whereas long-term plasticity, such as Hebbian or activity dependent plasticity, have a crucial role in shaping the network structure and endowing neural systems with learning abilities. In this work we provide a model which combines both plasticity mechanisms, acting on two different time scales...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773979/efficient-coding-and-energy-efficiency-are-promoted-by-balanced-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-currents-in-neuronal-network
#16
Lianchun Yu, Zhou Shen, Chen Wang, Yuguo Yu
Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#17
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773103/-curcumin-alleviates-early-brain-injury-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-by-inhibiting-jnk-c-jun-signal-pathway
#18
Xia Li, Ji Zhu
Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of curcumin on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by inhibiting JNK/ c-Jun signal pathway. Methods Sixty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group (sham group), SAH group, SAH group treated with 100 mg/(kg.d) curcumin and SAH group treated with 200 mg/(kg.d) curcumin, with 15 rats in each group. Endovascular puncture was used to induce SAH model. Nissl staining was used to test whether neurons were broken...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772958/arf6-and-rab11-as-intrinsic-regulators-of-axon-regeneration
#19
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Richard Eva
Adult central nervous system (CNS) axons do not regenerate after injury because of extrinsic inhibitory factors, and a low intrinsic capacity for axon growth. Developing CNS neurons have a better regenerative ability, but lose this with maturity. This mini-review summarises recent findings which suggest one reason for regenerative failure is the selective distribution of growth machinery away from axons as CNS neurons mature. These studies demonstrate roles for the small GTPases ARF6 and Rab11 as intrinsic regulators of polarised transport and axon regeneration...
May 17, 2018: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772344/the-expression-of-galanin-in-the-parafacial-respiratory-group-and-its-effects-on-respiration-in-neonatal-rats
#20
Tara G Bautista, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Darko Spirovski, Hiroshi Onimaru
The inhibitory peptide galanin is expressed within the retrotrapezoidal nucleus (RTN) - a key central chemoreceptor site that also contains the active expiratory oscillator. It was previously reported that microinjection of galanin into pre-Bötzinger complex - containing the inspiratory oscillator - exerts inhibitory effects on inspiratory motor output and respiratory rhythm. In neonatal rats, the present study aimed to investigate: 1) expression of galanin within the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), which overlaps anatomically and functionally with the adult RTN, and; 2) effects of galanin on respiratory rhythm using the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
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