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Inhibitory neurons

Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Yuji Kaneko, Colleen Pappas, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar V Borlongan
Oxytocin protects against ischemia-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, and is associated with GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter) signaling transduction in neurons. However, the molecular mechanism by which oxytocin affords neuroprotection, especially the interaction between oxytocin receptor and GABAA receptor (GABAAR), remains to be elucidated. Primary rat neural cells were exposed to oxytocin before induction of experimental acute stroke model via oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) injury...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
In this issue of Neuron, Younts et al. (2016) demonstrate that activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors by retrograde endocannabinoid signaling stimulates protein synthesis in axon terminals to induce long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory transmission.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Mythily Srinivasan, Baindu Bayon, Nipun Chopra, Debomoy K Lahiri
In the central nervous system (CNS), activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κβ) is associated with both neuronal survival and increased vulnerability to apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying these dichotomous effects are attributed to the composition of NF-κΒ dimers. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), β-amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregates upregulate activation of p65:p50 dimers in CNS cells and enhance transactivation of pathological mediators that cause neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
2016: PloS One
Poornapriya Ramamurthy, Joshua B White, Joong Yull Park, Richard I Hume, Fumi Ebisu, Flor Mendez, Shuichi Takayama, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: To send meaningful information to the brain, an inner ear cochlear implant (CI) must become closely coupled to as large and healthy a population of remaining Spiral Ganglion Neurons (SGN) as possible. Inner ear gangliogenesis depends on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a directionally attractant neurotrophic cytokine made by both Schwann and supporting cells (Bank et al., 2012). MIF-induced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived "neurons" could potentially substitute for lost or damaged SGN...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar
Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 μM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become shorter, slower and weaker. The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole mimicked this repertoire of inhibitory effects on swimming, whilst the D4 receptor antagonist, L745,870, had the opposite effects...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seok Roh Yoon, Cho Ara, Zhou Zixiong, Jeong Hyuneui, Park Jeong-Eun, Cha Youn-Soo, Oh Suk-Heung, Lim Chae-Woong, Kim Bumseok
<p>Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Claudia Kathe, Thomas Haynes Hutson, Stephen Brendan McMahon, Lawrence David Falcon Moon
Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity...
October 19, 2016: ELife
Jeffrey T Ehmsen, Yong Liu, Yue Wang, Nikhil Paladugu, Anna E Johnson, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Sascha du Lac, Mark P Mattson, Ahmet Höke
SLC7A10 (Asc-1) is a sodium-independent amino acid transporter known to facilitate transport of a number of amino acids including glycine, L-serine, L-alanine, and L-cysteine, as well as their D-enantiomers. It has been described as a neuronal transporter with a primary role related to modulation of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission. We find that SLC7A10 is substantially enriched in a subset of astrocytes of the caudal brain and spinal cord in a distribution corresponding with high densities of glycinergic inhibitory synapses...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Diego Dal Ben, Anna Marchenkova, Ajiroghene Thomas, Catia Lambertucci, Andrea Spinaci, Gabriella Marucci, Andrea Nistri, Rosaria Volpini
Blocking membrane currents evoked by the activation of purinergic P2X3 receptors localized on nociceptive neurons represents a promising strategy for the development of agents useful for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. Among compounds endowed with such antagonistic action, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP) is an ATP analogue, whose inhibitory activity on P2X receptors has been previously reported. Based on the results of molecular modelling studies performed with homology models of the P2X3 receptor, novel adenosine nucleotide analogues bearing cycloalkyl or arylalkyl substituents replacing the trinitrophenyl moiety of TNP-ATP were designed and synthesized...
October 18, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Chao Liang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint ST 37 (Shangjuxu) has been used to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility. However, the mechanisms by which EA affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) have scarcely been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether EA could improve ENS function. METHODS: A constipation model was established by gastric instillation of ice-cold saline daily for 14 days. The constipated mice were divided into two groups: the model group, which was not treated, and the EA group, which received EA at ST 37 at a frequency of 2-15 HZ and an amplitude of 1 mA for 15 min a day for 3 days...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Chrysanthi Fergani, Victor Navarro
Reproductive function is driven by the hormonal interplay between the gonads and brain-pituitary axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is released in a pulsatile manner, which is critical for the attainment and maintenance of fertility, however, GnRH neurons lack the ability to directly respond to most regulatory factors, and a hierarchical upstream neuronal network governs its secretion. We and others proposed a model in which Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), so called KNDy neurons, release kisspeptin (a potent GnRH secretagogue) in a pulsatile manner to drive GnRH pulses under the coordinated autosynaptic action of its cotransmitters, the tachykinin neurokinin B (NKB, stimulatory) and dynorphin (inhibitory)...
October 17, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Young Youp Koh, Dong Yoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of simvastatin, one of statins, on the catecholamine (CA) secretion from the perfused model of the isolated rat adrenal gland, and also to clarify its mechanism of action. DESIGN AND METHOD: The adrenal gland was isolated and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate. CA was measured directly by using the fluorospectrophotometer. RESULTS: Simvastatin inhibited ACh-evoked CA secretory response in a dose- and time-dependent fashion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mi-Na Kim, Young-Beom Kim, Seong-Mi Park, Yang In Kim, Wan-Joo Shim
OBJECTIVE: Estrogen has cardio-protective effect via several peripheral mechanism. But its action on central nervous system has not been fully investigated. Estrogen receptors are expressed in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurons, secreting vasopressin. In the male-rat models of DOCA-salt, GABA functions as an excitatory, rather than inhibitory neurotransmitter in vasopressin neurons. It might contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension. In the current study, the effect of estrogen on central GABA action was investigated in the female rat models...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Miguel Hernández-Cerón, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Carmen Rubio, Verónica Custodio, Edith González-Guevara, Carlos Castillo-Pérez, Carlos Paz
Lesions of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) reduce the after-discharge duration induced by repetitive kindling stimulation and decrease seizures to a lower rank according to Racine's scale. The DN sends cholinergic and glutamatergic fibers to the red nucleus (RN), which is composed of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells. To test the participation of these neurotransmitters in seizures, we compared the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the RN in a control condition, a kindled stage, and a kindled stage followed by DN lesions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Naiyan Chen, Hiroki Sugihara, Jinah Kim, Zhanyan Fu, Boaz Barak, Mriganka Sur, Guoping Feng, Weiping Han
Multiple hypothalamic neuronal populations that regulate energy balance have been identified. Although hypothalamic glia exist in abundance and form intimate structural connections with neurons, their roles in energy homeostasis are less known. Here we show that selective Ca(2+) activation of glia in the mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) reversibly induces increased food intake while disruption of Ca(2+) signaling pathway in ARC glia reduces food intake. The specific activation of ARC glia enhances the activity of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY)-expressing neurons but induces no net response in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons...
October 18, 2016: ELife
Anthony Holtmaat, Pico Caroni
Learning and memory are associated with the formation and modification of neuronal assemblies: populations of neurons that encode what has been learned and mediate memory retrieval upon recall. Functional studies of neuronal assemblies have progressed dramatically thanks to recent technological advances. Here we discuss how a focus on assembly formation and consolidation has provided a powerful conceptual framework to relate mechanistic studies of synaptic and circuit plasticity to behaviorally relevant aspects of learning and memory...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Jérémie Barral, Alex D Reyes
The balance between excitation and inhibition (E-I balance) is maintained across brain regions though the network size, strength and number of synaptic connections, and connection architecture may vary substantially. We use a culture preparation to examine the homeostatic synaptic scaling rules that produce E-I balance and in vivo-like activity. We show that synaptic strength scales with the number of connections K as ∼ , close to the ideal theoretical value. Using optogenetic techniques, we delivered spatiotemporally patterned stimuli to neurons and confirmed key theoretical predictions: E-I balance is maintained, active decorrelation occurs and the spiking correlation increases with firing rate...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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