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Inhibitory neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147842/tetrandrine-alleviates-nociception-in-a-rat-model-of-migraine-via-suppressing-s100b-and-p-erk-activation-in-satellite-glial-cells-of-the-trigeminal-ganglia
#1
Guangcheng Qin, Bei Gui, Jingmei Xie, Lixue Chen, Lianlian Chen, Zhiwei Cui, Jiying Zhou, Ge Tan
Sensitization and activation of the trigeminal ganglia have been implicated in the pathology of migraine. Satellite glial cells (SGCs), a specialized type of glial cells that ensheathe trigeminal neurons, may be critical for peripheral nociceptive sensitization. Tetrandrine (TET), an alkaloid extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, exerts an inhibitory effect on glial activation in vitro and has been used in various neurologic diseases. The current study investigated the effect of TET on nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced trigeminal sensitization and examined potential signaling pathways related to SGC activation in the model of migraine...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146941/developmental-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gaba-polarity-switch-is-disrupted-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-potential-target-for-clinical-therapeutics
#2
Hayder Amin, Federica Marinaro, Davide De Pietri Tonelli, Luca Berdondini
Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) show cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, developmental delays in childhood and risk of developing schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive previous studies in adult animal models, a possible embryonic root of this syndrome has not been determined. Here, in neurons from a 22q11.2 DS mouse model (Lgdel (+/-)), we found embryonic-premature alterations in the neuronal chloride cotransporters indicated by dysregulated NKCC1 and KCC2 protein expression levels...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146047/maternal-immune-activation-delays-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-switch-in-offspring
#3
Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. METHODS: Pregnant dams were injected intraperitoneally at gestational day 9 with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Neuronal development was assessed by means of electrophysiological, optical, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid causes an imbalanced expression of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143559/k-cl-co-transporter-2-kcc2-a-membrane-trafficking-perspective
#4
Bor Luen Tang
K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2/SLC12A5) is a neuronal specific cation chloride co-transporter which is active under isotonic conditions, and thus a key regulator of intracellular Cl(-) levels. It also has an ion transporter-independent structural role in modulating the maturation and regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. KCC2 levels are developmentally regulated, and a postnatal upregulation of KCC2 generates a low intracellular chloride concentration that allows the neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine to exert inhibitory neurotransmission through its Cl(-) permeating channel...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143124/the-effect-of-inhibition-on-stimulus-specific-adaptation-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#5
Yaneri A Ayala, Manuel S Malmierca
The inferior colliculus is a center of convergence for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs that may be activated simultaneously by sound stimulation. Stimulus repetition may generate response habituation by changing the efficacy of neuron's synaptic inputs. Specialized IC neurons reduce their response to repetitive tones, but restore their firing when a different and infrequent tone occurs, a phenomenon known as stimulus specific adaptation. Here, using the microiontophoresis technique, we determined the role of GABAA-, GABAB-, and glycinergic receptors in stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)...
November 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142291/resveratrol-modulates-cocaine-induced-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity-in-vta-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-phosphodiesterases-pdes
#6
Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Li Zhao, Fanxing Zeng, Qing-Song Liu
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139050/modeling-mesoscopic-cortical-dynamics-using-a-mean-field-model-of-conductance-based-networks-of-adaptive-exponential-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#7
Yann Zerlaut, Sandrine Chemla, Frederic Chavane, Alain Destexhe
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) has revealed fundamental properties of neocortical processing at macroscopic scales. Since for each pixel VSDi signals report the average membrane potential over hundreds of neurons, it seems natural to use a mean-field formalism to model such signals. Here, we present a mean-field model of networks of Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate-and-fire neurons, with conductance-based synaptic interactions. We study a network of regular-spiking (RS) excitatory neurons and fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory neurons...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139049/feedforward-architectures-driven-by-inhibitory-interactions
#8
Yazan N Billeh, Michael T Schaub
Directed information transmission is paramount for many social, physical, and biological systems. For neural systems, scientists have studied this problem under the paradigm of feedforward networks for decades. In most models of feedforward networks, activity is exclusively driven by excitatory neurons and the wiring patterns between them, while inhibitory neurons play only a stabilizing role for the network dynamics. Motivated by recent experimental discoveries of hippocampal circuitry, cortical circuitry, and the diversity of inhibitory neurons throughout the brain, here we illustrate that one can construct such networks even if the connectivity between the excitatory units in the system remains random...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138107/effect-of-low-frequency-electrical-stimulation-on-the-high-k-induced-neuronal-hyperexcitability-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#9
Zahra Ghasemi, Nima Naderi, Amir Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Raoufy, Nooshin Ahmadirad, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
Low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) is a potential therapeutic method for epilepsy treatment. However, the effect of different LFS characteristics including the number of pulses, intensity and the time of application on its antiepileptic action has not been completely determined. In the present study, epileptiform activity (EA) was induced in hippocampal slices by high-K(+) solution which washed out after 20 min. The changes in the electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons were measured during and 30 min after EA using whole cell patch clamp recording...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138105/adrenergic-receptor-agonists-modulation-of-dopaminergic-and-non-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#10
Kamil Pradel, Tomasz Blasiak, Wojciech B Solecki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal population consists of dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons (mainly GABAergic), the activity of which is intertwined with VTA behavioural functions. Both DAergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA have been shown to express adrenergic receptors (ARs) and respond to AR stimulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of selective AR agonists on DAergic and non-DAergic neuronal activity in the central and lateral parts of the VTA using in vivo electrophysiological recording combined with microiontophoretic drug application in anaesthetized rats...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136244/a-molecular-cascade-modulates-map1b-and-confers-resistance-to-mtor-inhibition-in-human-glioblastoma
#11
Dan R Laks, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Alvaro G Alvarado, Jonathan Nakashima, Shreya Chand, Daniel B Azzam, Ankur A Gholkar, Jantzen Sperry, Kirsten Ludwig, Michael C Condro, Serli Nazarian, Anjelica Cardenas, Michelle Y S Shih, Robert Damoiseaux, Bryan France, Nicholas Orozco, Koppany Visnyei, Thomas J Crisman, Fuying Gao, Jorge Z Torres, Giovanni Coppola, Alma L Burlingame, Harley I Kornblum
Background: Clinical trials of therapies directed against nodes of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in Glioblastoma (GBM) have had disappointing results. Resistance to mTOR inhibitors limits their efficacy. Methods: To determine mechanisms of resistance to chronic mTOR inhibition, we performed tandem screens on patient-derived GBM cultures. Results: An unbiased phosphoproteomic screen quantified phosphorylation changes associated with chronic exposure to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and our analysis implicated a role for GSK3B attenuation in mediating resistance that was confirmed by functional studies...
November 9, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135436/defective-synaptic-transmission-causes-disease-signs-in-a-mouse-model-of-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#12
Benedikt Grünewald, Maren D Lange, Christian Werner, Aet O'Leary, Andreas Weishaupt, Sandy Popp, David A Pearce, Heinz Wiendl, Andreas Reif, Hans C Pape, Klaus V Toyka, Claudia Sommer, Christian Geis
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease) caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene is the most prevalent inherited neurodegenerative disease in childhood resulting in widespread central nervous system dysfunction and premature death. The consequences of CLN3 mutation on the progression of the disease, on neuronal transmission, and on central nervous network dysfunction are poorly understood. We used Cln3 knockout (Cln3(Δex7/8)) mice and found increased anxiety-related behavior and impaired aversive learning as well as markedly affected motor function including disordered coordination...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134656/long-term-dynamic-synaptic-reorganization-after-gabaergic-precursor-cell-transplantation-into-adult-mouse-spinal-cord
#13
Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Allan I Basbaum, João M Bráz
Transplanting embryonic precursors of GABAergic neurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into adult mouse spinal cord ameliorates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain. Although Fos and transneuronal tracing studies strongly suggest that integration of MGE-derived neurons into host spinal cord circuits underlies recovery of function, the extent to which there is synaptic integration of the transplanted cells has not been established. Here, we used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to assess directly integration of GFP-expressing MGE-derived neuronal precursors into dorsal horn circuitry in intact, adult mice with short- (5-6 weeks) or long-term (4-6 months) transplants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#14
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133888/neuronal-hyperactivity-due-to-loss-of-inhibitory-tone-in-apoe4-mice-lacking-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#15
Tal Nuriel, Sergio L Angulo, Usman Khan, Archana Ashok, Qiuying Chen, Helen Y Figueroa, Sheina Emrani, Li Liu, Mathieu Herman, Geoffrey Barrett, Valerie Savage, Luna Buitrago, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Christine Fung, Eliana Goldberg, Steven S Gross, S Abid Hussaini, Herman Moreno, Scott A Small, Karen E Duff
The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the dominant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the reason APOE4 is associated with increased AD risk remains a source of debate. Neuronal hyperactivity is an early phenotype in both AD mouse models and in human AD, which may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we have identified an APOE4-associated hyperactivity phenotype in the brains of aged APOE mice using four complimentary techniques-fMRI, in vitro electrophysiology, in vivo electrophysiology, and metabolomics-with the most prominent hyperactivity occurring in the entorhinal cortex...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133852/nitrosynapsin-therapy-for-a-mouse-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-model-of-human-autism
#16
Shichun Tu, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Rosa Maria Escorihuela, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Vivek Swarup, James Parker, Jeffrey D Zaremba, Timothy Holland, Neha Bansal, Daniel R Holohan, Kevin Lopez, Scott D Ryan, Shing Fai Chan, Li Yan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiayu Huang, Abdullah Sultan, Scott R McKercher, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Huaxi Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Daniel H Geschwind, Amanda J Roberts, Alexey V Terskikh, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Stuart A Lipton, Nobuki Nakanishi
Transcription factor MEF2C regulates multiple genes linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and human MEF2C haploinsufficiency results in ASD, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome remain poorly understood. Here we report that Mef2c (+/-)(Mef2c-het) mice exhibit behavioral deficits resembling those of human patients. Gene expression analyses on brains from these mice show changes in genes associated with neurogenesis, synapse formation, and neuronal cell death...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133427/phasic-inhibition-as-a-mechanism-for-generation-of-rapid-respiratory-rhythms
#17
Jared M Cregg, Kevin A Chu, Thomas E Dick, Lynn T Landmesser, Jerry Silver
Central neural networks operate continuously throughout life to control respiration, yet mechanisms regulating ventilatory frequency are poorly understood. Inspiration is generated by the pre-Bötzinger complex of the ventrolateral medulla, where it is thought that excitation increases inspiratory frequency and inhibition causes apnea. To test this model, we used an in vitro optogenetic approach to stimulate select populations of hindbrain neurons and characterize how they modulate frequency. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition was required for increases in frequency caused by stimulation of Phox2b-lineage, putative CO2-chemosensitive neurons...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131485/in-vitro-effects-of-serotonin-melatonin-and-other-related-indole-compounds-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-kinetics-and-neuroprotection
#18
Ruth Hornedo Ortega, Grégory Da Costa, Ana Belén Cerezo, Ana Mª Troncoso, Tristan Richard, Mª Carmen García Parrilla
SCOPE: Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of Aβ assembly, the destabilisation of Aβ aggregates and the decrease of its cytotoxicity for the prevention of neuronal death are considered neuroprotective effects. In this work, the protective effects against Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity of eight indolic compounds: tryptophan (Tryp), tryptamine (Trpa), serotonin (Ser), tryptophol (Phol), N-acetylserotonin (Nser), 3-indoleacetic acid (3IA), tryptophan ethyl ester (Tee) and melatonin (Mel) was evaluated...
November 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131433/suppressive-effects-of-morphine-injected-into-the-ventral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-on-the-affective-but-not-sensory-component-of-pain-in-rats
#19
Chikashi Maruyama, Satoshi Deyama, Yusuke Nagano, Soichiro Ide, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Pain is a complex experience with both sensory and affective components. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the affective component of pain can be reduced by doses of morphine lower than those necessary to reduce the sensory component. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of morphine on the sensory component of pain have been investigated extensively, those influencing the affective component remain to be elucidated. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in the regulation of various negative emotional states, including aversion, anxiety, and fear...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129792/the-hypoxia-mimetic-protocatechuic-acid-ethyl-ester-inhibits-synaptic-signaling-and-plasticity-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#20
Sinead M Lanigan, John J O'Connor
During hypoxia a number of physiological changes occur within neurons including the stabilisation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The activity of these proteins is regulated by O2, Fe(2+), 2-OG and ascorbate-dependant hydroxylases which contain prolyl-4-hydroxylase domains (PHDs). PHD inhibitors have been widely used and have been shown to have a preconditioning and protective effect against a later and more severe hypoxic insult. In this study we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of the PHD inhibitor, protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4,dihydroxybenzoate: EDHB) as well as its effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the rat hippocampus using electrophysiological techniques...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
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