keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Entorhinal cortex

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324756/associations-of-plasma-clusterin-and-alzheimer-s-disease-related-mri-markers-in-adults-at-mid-life-the-cardia-brain-mri-sub-study
#1
Thaddeus Haight, R Nick Bryan, Osorio Meirelles, Russell Tracy, Myriam Fornage, Melissa Richard, Ilya Nasrallah, Kristine Yaffe, David R Jacobs, Cora Lewis, Pamela Schreiner, Stephen Sidney, Christos Davatzikos, Lenore J Launer
BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies of older persons have implicated clusterin in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In the context of identifying early biomarkers of risk, we examined associations of plasma clusterin and characteristics of AD in middle-aged individuals from the community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 639 cognitively normal individuals (mean age 50 ± 3.5) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323751/-18-f-av-1451-clustering-of-entorhinal-and-cortical-uptake-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jennifer L Whitwell, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Stephen D Weigand, Mary Machulda, Matthew L Senjem, Christopher G Schwarz, Anthony J Spychalla, David T Jones, Daniel A Drubach, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
OBJECTIVE: To use a cluster analysis of [18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET data to determine how subjects with Alzheimer's disease vary in the relative involvement of the entorhinal cortex and neocortex, and determine whether relative involvement of these two regions can help explain variability in age and clinical phenotype in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We calculated [18 F]AV-1451 uptake in entorhinal cortex and neocortex in 62 amyloid-positive Alzheimer's disease patients (39 typical and 23 atypical presentation)...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315537/vitamin-transporters-in-mice-brain-with-aging
#3
P Marcos, J González-Fuentes, L Castro-Vázquez, M V Lozano, M J Santander-Ortega, V Rodríguez-Robledo, N Villaseca-González, M M Arroyo-Jiménez
Its high metabolic rate and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content make the brain very sensitive to oxidative damage. In the brain, neuronal metabolism occurs at a very high rate and generates considerable amounts of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which accumulate inside neurons, leading to altered cellular homeostasis and integrity and eventually irreversible damage and cell death. A misbalance in redox metabolism and the subsequent neurodegeneration increase throughout the course of normal aging, leading to several age-related changes in learning and memory as well as motor functions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311746/hexadirectional-coding-of-visual-space-in-human-entorhinal-cortex
#4
Matthias Nau, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Jacob L S Bellmund, Christian F Doeller
Entorhinal grid cells map the local environment, but their involvement beyond spatial navigation remains elusive. We examined human functional MRI responses during a highly controlled visual tracking task and show that entorhinal cortex exhibited a sixfold rotationally symmetric signal encoding gaze direction. Our results provide evidence for a grid-like entorhinal code for visual space and suggest a more general role of the entorhinal grid system in coding information along continuous dimensions.
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311745/human-entorhinal-cortex-represents-visual-space-using-a-boundary-anchored-grid
#5
Joshua B Julian, Alexandra T Keinath, Giulia Frazzetta, Russell A Epstein
When participants performed a visual search task, functional MRI responses in entorhinal cortex exhibited a sixfold periodic modulation by gaze-movement direction. The orientation of this modulation was determined by the shape and orientation of the bounded search space. These results indicate that human entorhinal cortex represents visual space using a boundary-anchored grid, analogous to that used by rodents to represent navigable space.
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309406/robust-and-efficient-coding-with-grid-cells
#6
Lajos Vágó, Balázs B Ujfalussy
The neuronal code arising from the coordinated activity of grid cells in the rodent entorhinal cortex can uniquely represent space across a large range of distances, but the precise conditions for optimal coding capacity are known only for environments with finite size. Here we consider a coding scheme that is suitable for unbounded environments, and present a novel, number theoretic approach to derive the grid parameters that maximise the coding range in the presence of noise. We derive an analytic upper bound on the coding range and provide examples for grid scales that achieve this bound and hence are optimal for encoding in unbounded environments...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305438/asymmetric-tdp-pathology-in-primary-progressive-aphasia-with-right-hemisphere-language-dominance
#7
Garam Kim, Shahrooz Vahedi, Tamar Gefen, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen H Bigio, Marek-Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively examine the regional densities and hemispheric distribution of the 43-kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions, neurons, and activated microglia in a left-handed patient with right hemisphere language dominance and logopenic-variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHODS: Phosphorylated TDP-43 inclusions, neurons, and activated microglia were visualized with immunohistochemical and histologic methods. Markers were quantified bilaterally with unbiased stereology in language- and memory-related cortical regions...
January 5, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290554/a-non-canonical-reticular-limbic-central-auditory-pathway-via-medial-septum-contributes-to-fear-conditioning
#8
Guang-Wei Zhang, Wen-Jian Sun, Brian Zingg, Li Shen, Jufang He, Ying Xiong, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang
In the mammalian brain, auditory information is known to be processed along a central ascending pathway leading to auditory cortex (AC). Whether there exist any major pathways beyond this canonical auditory neuraxis remains unclear. In awake mice, we found that auditory responses in entorhinal cortex (EC) cannot be explained by a previously proposed relay from AC based on response properties. By combining anatomical tracing and optogenetic/pharmacological manipulations, we discovered that EC received auditory input primarily from the medial septum (MS), rather than AC...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288735/myelin-changes-at-the-early-stage-of-5xfad-mice
#9
Lihua Gu, Di Wu, Xiang Tang, Xinyang Qi, Xiaoli Li, Feng Bai, Xiaochun Chen, Qingguo Ren, Zhijun Zhang
Previous studies have demonstrated myelin deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is still unclear whether myelin deficits occur at early stage of AD. Our study aimed to investigate myelin deficits in 5XFAD mice dynamically in different cognition-associated brain regions at early stage of AD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to detect myelin changes in late-myelinating regions such as prelimbic area (PrL), retrosplenial granular cortex (Rsg), field CA1 of hippocampus (CA1) and entorhinal cortex (ERC) respectively at different stages (1, 2, 3 and 5 months of age) in 5XFAD mouse model...
December 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280734/interactions-between-stimulus-and-response-types-are-more-strongly-represented-in-the-entorhinal-cortex-than-in-its-upstream-regions-in-rats
#10
Eun-Hye Park, Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Previously we reported results which suggested that response types are critical in dissociating the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) in a scene memory task (Yoo and Lee, 2017). Here, we investigated whether the perirhinal cortex (PER) and postrhinal cortex (POR), the upstream regions of the LEC and MEC, respectively, could be dissociated similarly. We conducted four tasks by combining different stimulus and response types. Our results suggest that the PER is important whenever object recognition is required and, together with prior findings, imply that PER-LEC networks are essential in goal-directed interactions with objects...
December 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279308/conditional-deletion-of-hippocampal-ca2-ca3a-oxytocin-receptors-impairs-the-persistence-of-long-term-social-recognition-memory-in-mice
#11
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain (Oxtr-/-) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278888/healthy-versus-entorhinal-cortical-atrophy-identification-in-asymptomatic-apoe4-carriers-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Kyoko Konishi, Ridha Joober, Judes Poirier, Kathleen MacDonald, Mallar Chakravarty, Raihaan Patel, John Breitner, Véronique D Bohbot
Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been challenging as current biomarkers are invasive and costly. Strong predictors of future AD diagnosis include lower volume of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, as well as the ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) gene. Therefore, studying functions that are critically mediated by the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, such as spatial memory, in APOE ɛ4 allele carriers, may be key to the identification of individuals at risk of AD, prior to the manifestation of cognitive impairments...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262336/hippocampus-and-entorhinal-cortex-recruit-cholinergic-and-nmda-receptors-separately-to-generate-hippocampal-theta-oscillations
#13
Zhenglin Gu, Georgia M Alexander, Serena M Dudek, Jerrel L Yakel
Although much progress has been made in understanding type II theta rhythm generation under urethane anesthesia, less is known about the mechanisms underlying type I theta generation during active exploration. To better understand the contributions of cholinergic and NMDA receptor activation to type I theta generation, we recorded hippocampal theta oscillations from freely moving mice with local infusion of cholinergic or NMDA receptor antagonists to either the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex (EC). We found that cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus, but not the EC, and NMDA receptors in the EC, but not the hippocampus, are critical for open-field theta generation and Y-maze performance...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258552/effects-of-stevia-on-synaptic-plasticity-and-nadph-oxidase-level-of-cns-in-conditions-of-metabolic-disorders-caused-by-fructose
#14
V A Chavushyan, K V Simonyan, R M Simonyan, A S Isoyan, G M Simonyan, M A Babakhanyan, L E Hovhannisyian, Kh H Nahapetyan, L G Avetisyan, M A Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246746/chronic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-enhances-memory-and-reduces-pathological-hallmarks
#15
Amandeep Mann, Elise Gondard, Davide Tampellini, Jorge A T Milsted, Desiree Marillac, Clement Hamani, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder that currently remains extremely disabling. Recent work has shown that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has promising effects in AD patients. In parallel to the clinical trials, we investigated the impact of chronic DBS in 3xTg mice, a well-established animal model of AD. METHODS: AD mice were assigned to control (Cont), non-stimulation (NS) and stimulation (DBS) groups, along with age matched wild type controls (WT-Cont)...
November 23, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241829/the-aged-rhesus-macaque-manifests-braak-stage-iii-iv-alzheimer-s-like-pathology
#16
Constantinos D Paspalas, Becky C Carlyle, Shannon Leslie, Todd M Preuss, Johanna L Crimins, Anita J Huttner, Christopher H van Dyck, Douglas L Rosene, Angus C Nairn, Amy F T Arnsten
INTRODUCTION: An animal model of late-onset Alzheimer's disease is needed to research what causes degeneration in the absence of dominant genetic insults and why the association cortex is particularly vulnerable to degeneration. METHODS: We studied the progression of tau and amyloid cortical pathology in the aging rhesus macaque using immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical assays. RESULTS: Aging macaques exhibited the same qualitative pattern and sequence of tau and amyloid cortical pathology as humans, reaching Braak stage III/IV...
December 11, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230055/impaired-path-integration-in-mice-with-disrupted-grid-cell-firing
#17
Mariana Gil, Mihai Ancau, Magdalene I Schlesiger, Angela Neitz, Kevin Allen, Rodrigo J De Marco, Hannah Monyer
Path integration (PI) is a highly conserved, self-motion-based navigation strategy. Since the discovery of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex, neurophysiological data and computational models have suggested that these neurons serve PI. However, more direct empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis has been missing due to a lack of selective manipulations of grid cell activity and suitable behavioral assessments. Here we report that selective disruption of grid cell activity in mice can be achieved by removing NMDA glutamate receptors from the retro-hippocampal region and that disrupted grid cell firing accounts for impaired PI performance...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229355/effects-of-biflavonoids-from-garcinia-madruno-on-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Angélica Maria Sabogal-Guáqueta, Luis Carrillo-Hormaza, Edison Osorio, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid (βA) peptides in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Flavonoids have recently been used to prevent and treat a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, but little is known about bioflavonoids. In this study, we evaluate whether a biflavonoid fraction (BF) exerts neuroprotective effects on an aged triple transgenic mouse mode of AD (3xTg-AD). Then, 21-24-month-old 3xTg AD mice were i...
December 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#19
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215728/multiple-neuronal-pathologies-are-common-in-young-patients-with-pathologically-proven-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#20
Rachel H Tan, Yue Yang, Glenda M Halliday
AIMS: The past decade has seen a surge in studies identifying mixed pathologies in elderly populations. Importantly however, few studies have focussed on mixed pathology in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), particularly in younger cases. METHODS: The present study study examined concomitant pathological neuronal inclusions of TDP-43, hyperphosphorylated tau and α-synuclein protein in the anterior cingulate, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in young (≤65 years at death) versus elderly (≥80 years at death) cases with pathologically-confirmed FTLD (n=52) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=47)...
December 7, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
keyword
keyword
16973
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"