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Entorhinal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133888/neuronal-hyperactivity-due-to-loss-of-inhibitory-tone-in-apoe4-mice-lacking-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#1
Tal Nuriel, Sergio L Angulo, Usman Khan, Archana Ashok, Qiuying Chen, Helen Y Figueroa, Sheina Emrani, Li Liu, Mathieu Herman, Geoffrey Barrett, Valerie Savage, Luna Buitrago, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Christine Fung, Eliana Goldberg, Steven S Gross, S Abid Hussaini, Herman Moreno, Scott A Small, Karen E Duff
The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the dominant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the reason APOE4 is associated with increased AD risk remains a source of debate. Neuronal hyperactivity is an early phenotype in both AD mouse models and in human AD, which may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we have identified an APOE4-associated hyperactivity phenotype in the brains of aged APOE mice using four complimentary techniques-fMRI, in vitro electrophysiology, in vivo electrophysiology, and metabolomics-with the most prominent hyperactivity occurring in the entorhinal cortex...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130060/models-of-spatial-and-temporal-dimensions-of-memory
#2
Michael E Hasselmo, James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E Stern
Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127006/srage-prolonged-stem-cell-survival-and-suppressed-rage-related-inflammatory-cell-and-t-lymphocyte-accumulations-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#3
Seyeon Oh, Myeongjoo Son, Junwon Choi, Sojung Lee, Kyunghee Byun
The main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not determined despite extensive researches and many clinical trials, and as yet, no effective treatment has been developed. Fortunately, stem cell transplantation is emerging as potential therapeutic candidate for AD, but the success of stem cell based therapy depends on the survival of transplanted cells. Here, we generated sRAGE secreting mesenchymal stem cells (sRAGE-MSCs) and then injected theses MSCs or control MSCs with amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) into the entorhinal cortices of male Sprague Dawley rats...
November 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109512/modulating-medial-septal-cholinergic-activity-reduces-medial-entorhinal-theta-frequency-without-affecting-speed-or-grid-coding
#4
Francis Carpenter, Neil Burgess, Caswell Barry
Medial septal inputs to the hippocampal system are crucial for aspects of temporal and spatial processing, such as theta oscillations and grid cell firing. However, the precise contributions of the medial septum's cholinergic neurones to these functions remain unknown. Here, we recorded neuronal firing and local field potentials from the medial entorhinal cortex of freely foraging mice, while modulating the excitability of medial septal cholinergic neurones. Alteration of cholinergic activity produced a reduction in the frequency of theta oscillations, without affecting the slope of the non-linear theta frequency vs running speed relationship observed...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107845/early-alzheimer-type-lesions-in-cognitively-normal-subjects
#5
Stergios Tsartsalis, Aikaterini Xekardaki, Patrick R Hof, Enikö Kövari, Constantin Bouras
Amyloid deposits and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, together with neuronal and synaptic loss, are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both proteins are present in the normal brain during aging. However, the temporal sequence of their involvement in the onset of AD pathology remains controversial. To define whether amyloid β protein deposits or tau protein lesions appear first during normal brain aging, we performed an immunohistological study on serial sections from 105 autopsy brains (age range: 40-104 years) from patients free of clinical signs of cognitive decline, using anti-tau (AT8) and anti-amyloid (4G8) antibodies in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal cortex (Brodmann area 20), prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), occipital cortex (Brodmann areas 17 and 18), and in the brainstem...
October 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089567/imaging-the-creative-unconscious-reflexive-neural-responses-to-objects-in-the-visual-and-parahippocampal-region-predicts-state-and-trait-creativity
#6
Morten Friis-Olivarius, Oliver J Hulme, Martin Skov, Thomas Z Ramsøy, Hartwig R Siebner
What does it take to have a creative mind? Theories of creative cognition assert that the quantity of automatic associations places fundamental constraints on the probability of reaching creative solutions. Due to the difficulties inherent in isolating automated associative responses from cognitive control, the neural basis underlying this faculty remains unknown. Here we acquired fMRI data in an incidental-viewing paradigm in which subjects performed an attention-demanding task whilst viewing task-irrelevant objects...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078387/individual-differences-in-associative-memory-among-older-adults-explained-by-hippocampal-subfield-structure-and-function
#7
Valerie A Carr, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Serra E Favila, Brian K Rutt, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Anthony D Wagner
Older adults experience impairments in episodic memory, ranging from mild to clinically significant. Given the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in episodic memory, age-related changes in MTL structure and function may partially account for individual differences in memory. Using ultra-high-field 7T structural MRI and high-resolution 3T functional MRI (hr-fMRI), we evaluated MTL subfield thickness and function in older adults representing a spectrum of cognitive health. Participants performed an associative memory task during hr-fMRI in which they encoded and later retrieved face-name pairs...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073650/the-cognitive-map-in-humans-spatial-navigation-and-beyond
#8
REVIEW
Russell A Epstein, Eva Zita Patai, Joshua B Julian, Hugo J Spiers
The 'cognitive map' hypothesis proposes that brain builds a unified representation of the spatial environment to support memory and guide future action. Forty years of electrophysiological research in rodents suggest that cognitive maps are neurally instantiated by place, grid, border and head direction cells in the hippocampal formation and related structures. Here we review recent work that suggests a similar functional organization in the human brain and yields insights into how cognitive maps are used during spatial navigation...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073649/cell-types-for-our-sense-of-location-where-we-are-and-where-we-are-going
#9
Kiah Hardcastle, Surya Ganguli, Lisa M Giocomo
Technological advances in profiling cells along genetic, anatomical and physiological axes have fomented interest in identifying all neuronal cell types. This goal nears completion in specialized circuits such as the retina, while remaining more elusive in higher order cortical regions. We propose that this differential success of cell type identification may not simply reflect technological gaps in co-registering genetic, anatomical and physiological features in the cortex. Rather, we hypothesize it reflects evolutionarily driven differences in the computational principles governing specialized circuits versus more general-purpose learning machines...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073645/integration-of-objects-and-space-in-perception-and-memory
#10
REVIEW
Charles E Connor, James J Knierim
Distinct processing of objects and space has been an organizing principle for studying higher-level vision and medial temporal lobe memory. Here, however, we discuss how object and spatial information are in fact closely integrated in vision and memory. The ventral, object-processing visual pathway carries precise spatial information, transformed from retinotopic coordinates into relative dimensions. At the final stages of the ventral pathway, including the dorsal anterior temporal lobe (TEd), object-sensitive neurons are intermixed with neurons that process large-scale environmental space...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073644/spatial-representation-in-the-hippocampal-formation-a-history
#11
REVIEW
Edvard I Moser, May-Britt Moser, Bruce L McNaughton
Since the first place cell was recorded and the cognitive-map theory was subsequently formulated, investigation of spatial representation in the hippocampal formation has evolved in stages. Early studies sought to verify the spatial nature of place cell activity and determine its sensory origin. A new epoch started with the discovery of head direction cells and the realization of the importance of angular and linear movement-integration in generating spatial maps. A third epoch began when investigators turned their attention to the entorhinal cortex, which led to the discovery of grid cells and border cells...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073081/trem2-deficiency-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-protects-against-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#12
Cheryl E G Leyns, Jason D Ulrich, Mary B Finn, Floy R Stewart, Lauren J Koscal, Javier Remolina Serrano, Grace O Robinson, Elise Anderson, Marco Colonna, David M Holtzman
Variants in the gene encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) were recently found to increase the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the brain, TREM2 is predominately expressed on microglia, and its association with AD adds to increasing evidence implicating a role for the innate immune system in AD initiation and progression. Thus far, studies have found TREM2 is protective in the response to amyloid pathology while variants leading to a loss of TREM2 function impair microglial signaling and are deleterious...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071214/a-protocol-for-preparation-and-transfection-of-rat-entorhinal-cortex-organotypic-cultures-for-electrophysiological-whole-cell-recordings
#13
Nicholas I Cilz, James E Porter, Saobo Lei
Understanding how neuromodulators influence synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability within the entorhinal cortex (EC) is critical to furthering our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of this region. Organotypic cultures can provide a cost-effective means to employ selective molecular biological strategies in elucidating cellular mechanisms of neuromodulation in the EC. We therefore adapted our acute slice model for organotypic culture applications and optimized a protocol for the preparation and biolistic transfection of cultured horizontal EC slices...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060837/transient-reduction-in-theta-power-caused-by-interictal-spikes-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Manling Ge, Jundan Guo, Yangyang Xing, Zhiguo Feng, Weide Lu, Xinxin Ma, Yuehua Geng, Xin Zhang
The inhibitory impacts of spikes on LFP theta rhythms(4-8Hz) are investigated around sporadic spikes(SSs) based on intracerebral EEG of 4 REM sleep patients with temporal lobe epilepsy(TLE) under the pre-surgical monitoring. Sequential interictal spikes in both genesis area and extended propagation pathway are collected, that, SSs genesis only in anterior hippocampus(aH)(possible propagation pathway in Entorhinal cortex(EC)), only in EC(possible propagation pathway in aH), and in both aH and EC synchronously...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056296/task-demands-predict-a-dynamic-switch-in-the-content-of-awake-hippocampal-replay
#15
H Freyja Ólafsdóttir, Francis Carpenter, Caswell Barry
Reactivation of hippocampal place cell sequences during behavioral immobility and rest has been linked with both memory consolidation and navigational planning. Yet it remains to be investigated whether these functions are temporally segregated, occurring during different behavioral states. During a self-paced spatial task, awake hippocampal replay occurring either immediately before movement toward a reward location or just after arrival at a reward location preferentially involved cells consistent with the current trajectory...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053824/chemogenetic-locus-coeruleus-activation-restores-reversal-learning-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Jacki M Rorabaugh, Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Christian A Botz-Zapp, Vanessa M Fu, Natalie A Lembeck, Robert M Cohen, David Weinshenker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047416/lessons-learned-about-f-18-av-1451-off-target-binding-from-an-autopsy-confirmed-parkinson-s-case
#17
Marta Marquié, Eline E Verwer, Avery C Meltzer, Sally Ji Who Kim, Cinthya Agüero, Jose Gonzalez, Sara J Makaretz, Michael Siao Tick Chong, Prianca Ramanan, Ana C Amaral, Marc D Normandin, Charles R Vanderburg, Stephen N Gomperts, Keith A Johnson, Matthew P Frosch, Teresa Gómez-Isla
[F-18]-AV-1451 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with high affinity to neurofibrillary tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET studies have shown increased tracer retention in patients clinically diagnosed with dementia of AD type and mild cognitive impairment in regions that are known to contain tau lesions. In vivo uptake has also consistently been observed in midbrain, basal ganglia and choroid plexus in elderly individuals regardless of their clinical diagnosis, including clinically normal whose brains are not expected to harbor tau pathology in those areas...
October 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046628/the-human-periallocortex-layer-pattern-in-presubiculum-parasubiculum-and-entorhinal-cortex-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Ricardo Insausti, Mónica Muñoz-López, Ana M Insausti, Emilio Artacho-Pérula
The cortical mantle is not homogeneous, so that three types of cortex can be distinguished: allocortex, periallocortex and isocortex. The main distinction among those three types is based on morphological differences, in particular the number of layers, overall organization, appearance, etc., as well as its connectivity. Additionally, in the phylogenetic scale, this classification is conserved among different mammals. The most primitive and simple cortex is the allocortex, which is characterized by the presence of three layers, with one cellular main layer; it is continued by the periallocortex, which presents six layers, although with enough differences in the layer pattern to separate three different fields: presubiculum (PrS), parasubiculum (PaS), and entorhinal cortex (EC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045814/role-of-kcc2-dependent-potassium-efflux-in-4-aminopyridine-induced-epileptiform-synchronization
#19
Oscar C González, Zahra Shiri, Giri P Krishnan, Timothy L Myers, Sylvain Williams, Massimo Avoli, Maxim Bazhenov
A balance between excitation and inhibition is necessary to maintain stable brain network dynamics. Traditionally, seizure activity is believed to arise from the breakdown of this delicate balance in favor of excitation with loss of inhibition. Surprisingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that this conventional view may be limited, and that inhibition plays a prominent role in the development of epileptiform synchronization. Here, we explored the role of the KCC2 co-transporter in the onset of inhibitory network-induced seizures...
October 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039252/western-style-diet-induces-object-recognition-deficits-and-alters-complexity-of-dendritic-arborization-in-the-hippocampus-and-entorhinal-cortex-of-male-rats
#20
Kathryn S Sarfert, Melina L Knabe, Nicole S Gunawansa, Sarah N Blythe
OBJECTIVE: Research demonstrates a link between diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairments; however, no studies have utilized the Sholl analysis to assess changes in dendritic arborization as a possible cause of obesity-induced memory deficits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Western-style diet (WSD) on memory and dendritic complexity of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were fed either a control or WSD...
October 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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