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clinical chemistry

Dominik Summer, Sonja Mayr, Milos Petrik, Christine Rangger, Katia Schoeler, Lisa Vieider, Barbara Matuszczak, Clemens Decristoforo
The inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction between 1,2,4,5-tetrazine (Tz) and trans -cyclooct-2-ene (TCO) has gained increasing attraction among extensive studies on click chemistry due to its exceptionally fast reaction kinetics and high selectivity for in vivo pretargeting applications including PET imaging. The facile two-step approach utilizing TCO-modified antibodies as targeting structures has not made it into clinics yet. An increase in the blood volume of humans in comparison to mice seems to be the major limitation...
October 11, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Sae Ashikawa, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuo Imai, Jun Sakai, Masahiro Kodana, Toru Kawamura, Kenji Ikebuchi, Takashi Murakami, Kotaro Mitsutake, Shigefumi Maesaki, Takuya Maeda
PURPOSE: Bloodstream infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality that lead to prolonged hospital stays and higher medical costs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MinION nanopore sequencer for the identification of the most dominant pathogens in positive blood culture bottles. METHODOLOGY: 16S and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA genes were amplified by PCR reactions with barcoded primers using nine clinical isolates obtained from positive blood bottles and 11 type strains, including five types of Candida species...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wei Wei, Jianhui Luo
Cell therapy has emerged as a promising new treatment in medicine, which is expected to be able to cure diseases by repairing, replacing, and regenerating tissues, as well as immune-modulation. However, challenges remain in ensuring consistent quality, clinical efficacy and safety profiles because of the diversity of cell types and clinical indications for cell therapy products (CTPs), as well as different and complex manufacturing process. Therefore, scientific consensus and regulatory measurements are urgently warranted to promote the translation of the latest scientific advances and innovative manufacturing technologies into clinical application...
October 12, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
James N Moore, Noah D Cohen, Scott A Brown
OBJECTIVE To identify courses in which first-year veterinary students struggled academically and to survey veterinarians as to their opinions on existing prerequisite courses and proposed alternatives. DESIGN Electronic surveys. SAMPLE Associate deans for academic affairs at colleges of veterinary medicine and practicing veterinarians in North America and the Caribbean. PROCEDURES Surveys were sent to associate deans of academic affairs seeking information on courses in which first-year veterinary students most commonly struggled academically...
November 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Ruslan Natanov, Faikah Gueler, Christine S Falk, Christian Kühn, Ulrich Maus, Erin C Boyle, Thierry Siemeni, Ann-Katrin Knoefel, Serghei Cebotari, Axel Haverich, Nodir Madrahimov
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with moderate hypothermic cardiac arrest (MHCA) is essential for prolonged complex procedures in cardiac surgery and is associated with postoperative complications. Although cytokine release provoked through MHCA under CPB plays a pivotal role in postoperative organ damage, the pathomechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the cytokine release pattern and histological organ damage after MHCA using a recently described mouse CPB model. Eight BALB/c mice underwent 60 minutes of circulatory arrest under CPB, were successively rewarmed and reperfused...
2018: PloS One
Arvind Kumar, Harpreet Singh, Amrita Mishra, Arun K Mishra
OBJECTIVE: Aripiprazole,a synthetic compound, obtained by chemical modification of the structure of quinolinone is considered as an atypical antipsychotic drug. The present review is an attempt to summarize the updated information related to reported chemistry and pharmacology of Aripiprazole. DEVELOPMENT: Aripiprazole, under development by Otsuka Pharmaceutical, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in the end months of 2002 to with an aim to treat patients with schizophrenia...
October 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
L Murthy, P Dreyer, P Suriyaarachchi, F Gomez, C L Curcio, D Boersma, G Duque
BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with poor outcomes hence identification of risks factors is pivotal. Since the independent role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in frailty remains unexplored, we aimed to determine this in a population of older individuals with a history of falling. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Falls and Fracture Clinic, Nepean Hospital (Penrith, Australia). PARTICIPANTS: 692 subjects (mean age=79, 65% women) assessed between 2009-2015...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Susan Monro, Katsuya L Colón, Huimin Yin, John Roque, Prathyusha Konda, Shashi Gujar, Randolph P Thummel, Lothar Lilge, Colin G Cameron, Sherri A McFarland
Transition metal complexes are of increasing interest as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and, more recently, for photochemotherapy (PCT). In recent years, Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes have emerged as promising systems for both PDT and PCT. Their rich photochemical and photophysical properties derive from a variety of excited-state electronic configurations accessible with visible and near-infrared light, and these properties can be exploited for both energy- and electron-transfer processes that can yield highly potent oxygen-dependent and/or oxygen-independent photobiological activity...
October 8, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Julie A Brickel, Ray A Matulka, Amy E Steffek
Consumers are demanding plant-based alternative protein sources to complement traditional animal-based protein sources to fulfill their dietary protein requirements. KALGAE™, a dried algal biomass derived from Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO, is a potential source of plant-based protein that has been evaluated for safety to support its use as a food ingredient. There were no treatment-related adverse effects observed in the 14-day palatability/toxicity or 90-day dietary toxicity study in CRL Sprague-Dawley CD® IGS rats...
2018: Toxicology Reports
N M Gulati, A S Pitek, A E Czapar, P L Stewart, N F Steinmetz
Nanoparticles offer a promising avenue for targeted delivery of therapies. To slow clearance, nanoparticles are frequently stealth-coated to prevent opsonization and immune recognition. Serum albumin (SA) has been used as a bio-inspired stealth coating. To develop this shielding strategy for clinical applications, it is critical to understand the interactions between the immune system and SA-camouflaged nanoparticles. This work investigates the in vivo processing of SA-coated nanoparticles using tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a model system...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Martina Zangheri, Mara Mirasoli, Massimo Guardigli, Fabio Di Nardo, Laura Anfossi, Claudio Baggiani, Patrizia Simoni, Mario Benassai, Aldo Roda
During space missions, real-time monitoring of astronauts' health status is of crucial importance and therefore there is a strong demand for simple analytical devices that astronauts can use to perform clinical chemistry analyses directly onboard. As part of the "IN SITU Bioanalysis" project, we designed a biosensor for analysing salivary levels of cortisol in astronauts, a marker of chronic stress. The biosensor is based on the Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) approach coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection and comprises a 3D-printed plastic cartridge containing a sealed fluidic element with the LFIA strip, in which the flow of sample and reagents is activated by pressing buttons on the cartridge and sustained by exploiting capillary forces...
September 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Amy K Saenger, Allan S Jaffe, Richard Body, Paul O Collinson, Peter A Kavsak, Carolyn S P Lam, Guillaume Lefèvre, Tobjørn Omland, Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos, Kari Pulkki, Fred S Apple
Two interferences recently brought to the forefront as patient safety issues include hemolysis (hemoglobin) and biotin (vitamin B7). The International Federation for Clinical Chemistry Committee on Cardiac Biomarkers (IFCC-CB) obtained input from a majority of cTn and NP assay manufacturers to collate information related to high-sensitivity (hs)-cTnI, hs-cTnT, contemporary, and POC cTn assays, and NP assays interferences due to hemolysis and biotin. The information contained in these tables was designed as educational tools to aid laboratory professionals and clinicians in troubleshooting cardiac biomarker analytical results that are discordant with the clinical situation...
October 6, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Pedro P G Guimaraes, Mingchee Tan, Tuomas Tammela, Katherine Wu, Amanda Chung, Matthias Oberli, Karin Wang, Roman Spektor, Rachel S Riley, Celso T R Viana, Tyler Jacks, Robert Langer, Michael J Mitchell
Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes lung cancer progression and contributes to poor patient prognosis. The porcupine inhibitor LGK974, a novel orally bioavailable cancer therapeutic in Phase I clinical trials, induces potent Wnt inhibition leading to suppressed growth and progression of multiple types of cancers. The clinical use of LGK974, however, is limited in part due to its low solubility and high toxicity in tissues that rely on Wnt signaling for normal homeostasis. Here, we report the use of host-guest chemistry to enhance solubility and bioavailability of LGK974 in mice through complexation with cyclodextrins (CD)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yury Gorbanev, Angela Privat-Maldonado, Annemie Bogaerts
Yury Gorbanev is a Marie Curie postdoctoral research fellow at PLASMANT, University of Antwerp, working on analysis and development of biomedical cold plasma. He previously participated in an interdisciplinary research project between the Department of Chemistry and York Plasma Institute, University of York, UK, dealing with chemical characteristics and various applications of cold atmospheric plasmas. Angela Privat-Maldonado is a postdoctoral researcher at PLASMANT. She investigates the biological effects and anti-tumour capabilities of cold plasmas...
October 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sebastian Schlücker, Vi Tran, Bernd Walkenfort, Matthias König, Mohammad Salehi
The design of a portable Raman/SERS-LFA reader with line illumination using a custom-made fiber optic probe for rapid (few sec), quantitative and ultrasensitive point-of-care-testing (POCT) is presented. The pregnancy hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is detectable in clinical samples within only 2-5 sec down to ca. 1.6 mIU/mL. This acquisition time is two to three orders of magnitude faster than existing approaches requiring expensive Raman instrumentation and 15-times more sensitive than a commercially available lateral flow assay (LFA) as the gold standard...
October 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
C I Edvard Smith, Rula Zain
Oligonucleotides (ONs) can interfere with biomolecules representing the entire extended central dogma. Antisense gapmer, steric block, spliceswitching ONs, and short interfering RNA drugs have been successfully developed. Moreover, antagomirs (antimicroRNAs), microRNA mimics, aptamers, DNAdecoys, DNAzymes, synthetic guide strands for CRISPR/Cas, and innate immunity-stimulating ONs are all in clinical trials. DNAtargeting, triplex-forming ONs and strand-invading ONs have made their mark on drug development research, but not yet as medicines...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Wen Li, Zhengqing Yan, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
The cell microenvironment choreographs the behaviors of cells through multiple well-controlled signals. For basic biological study and cell-based therapies, it is essential to decipher the complicated cell-matrix interactions, and to develop ways to mimic the dynamic microenvironment so that desired biological functions of cells can be guided. For this, biomaterials with the ability to spatiotemporally impart biochemical and biophysical cues to manipulate cell fate have been developed recently. The dynamic property and programmable features of stimuli-responsive biointerfaces endow them with the outstanding ability to develop advanced biological systems...
October 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Asako Sato, Sayo Yada, Emiko Hosoba, Hiroko Kanno, Hitomi Miura
Background To promote glycated albumin (GA) standardization, Committee on Diabetes Mellitus Indices, Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry published the recommended reference method, and is supplying the reference standard material (JCCRM 611). In this study, we evaluated the basic performance of "standardized enzymatic method" that is traceable to JCCRM 611, and established a unit conversion formula from standardized GA value (mmol/mol) to the routinely used GA value (%) . Methods To evaluate accuracy and within-run reproducibility of the "standardized enzymatic method", JCCRM 611 was measured 20 times...
October 3, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Anife Ahmedova, Boyan Todorov, Nikola Burdzhiev, Christine Goze
The growing advancement in nuclear medicine challenges researchers from several different fields to integrate imaging and therapeutic modalities in a theranostic radiopharmaceutical, which can be defined as a molecular entity with readily replaceable radioisotope to provide easy switch between diagnostic and therapeutic applications for efficient and patient-friendly treatment of diseases. For such a reason, the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of all five medical radionuclides of copper have thoroughly been investigated as they boost the hope for development of successful radiotheranostics...
September 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Fabian V Filipp, Stanca Birlea, Marcus W Bosenberg, Douglas Brash, Pamela B Cassidy, Suzie Chen, John A D'Orazio, Mayumi Fujita, Boon-Kee Goh, Meenhard Herlyn, Arup K Indra, Lionel Larue, Sancy A Leachman, Caroline Le Poole, Feng Liu-Smith, Prashiela Manga, Lluis Montoliu, David A Norris, Yiqun Shellman, Keiran S M Smalley, Richard A Spritz, Richard A Sturm, Susan M Swetter, Tamara Terzian, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Jeffrey S Weber, Neil F Box
In this perspective, we identify emerging frontiers in clinical and basic research of melanocyte biology and its associated biomedical disciplines. We describe challenges and opportunities in clinical and basic research of normal and diseased melanocytes that impact current approaches to research in melanoma and the dermatological sciences. We focus on four themes: (1) clinical melanoma research, (2) basic melanoma research, (3) clinical dermatology, and (4) basic pigment cell research, with the goal of outlining current highlights, challenges, and frontiers associated with pigmentation and melanocyte biology...
October 3, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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