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clinical chemistry

Venumadhav Janganati, Jessica Ponder, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Poornima Bhat-Nakshatri, Eli E Bar, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Craig T Jordan, Peter A Crooks
Triazole derivatives of melampomagnolide B (MMB) have been synthesized via click chemistry methodologies and screened against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. Several derivatives showed promising anti-cancer activity, affording growth inhibition (GI50 ) values in the nanomolar range (GI50  = 0.02-0.99 μM). Lead compound 7h exhibited EC50 values of 400 nM and 700 nM, respectively, against two AML clinical specimens. Compound 7h was significantly more potent than parthenolide as an inhibitor of p65 phosphorylation in both hematological and solid tumor cell lines, indicating its ability to inhibit the NF-κB pathway...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Michel R Langlois, Børge G Nordestgaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and discuss the clinical use of lipid and apolipoprotein tests in the settings of diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up of hyperlipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently produced recommendations on the measurement of atherogenic lipoproteins, taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of analytical and clinical performances of the tests...
August 17, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Piyush Mehta, Atmaram Pawar, Kakasaheb Mahadik, C Bothiraja
Fisetin (FIS), a bioactive flavonol found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), vegetables, fruits and nuts. It exhibits various therapeutic activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-invasive, anti-tumorigenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities. In spite of the ever rising support for therapeutic activities, its clinical application is mainly limited because of poor water solubility, high lipophilicity and low oral bioavailability. Till date, numerous efforts have been made to surpass these limitations with the development of new improved delivery platforms...
July 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xi Ren, Daniele Evangelista-Leite, Tong Wu, Konrad T Rajab, Philipp T Moser, Kentaro Kitano, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Daniel E Gorman, Jordan P Bloom, Jun Jie Tan, Sarah E Gilpin, Haiyang Zhou, Douglas J Mathisen, Harald C Ott
Decellularized native extracellular matrix (ECM) biomaterials are widely used in tissue engineering and have reached clinical application as biomesh implants. To enhance their regenerative properties and postimplantation performance, ECM biomaterials could be functionalized via immobilization of bioactive molecules. To facilitate ECM functionalization, we developed a metabolic glycan labeling approach using physiologic pathways to covalently incorporate click-reactive azide ligands into the native ECM of a wide variety of rodent tissues and organs in vivo, and into the ECM of isolated rodent and porcine lungs cultured ex vivo...
August 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Franco Lombardo, Giuliano Berellini, R Scott Obach
We report a compilation and trend analysis of human intravenous pharmacokinetic data on 1352 drugs representing, to our knowledge, the largest publicly available set of human clinical pharmacokinetic data. The aim in building this dataset and its detailed analysis was to provide, as in the previous case published in 2008, an extended, robust and accurate resource which could be applied by drug metabolism, clinical pharmacology and medicinal chemistry scientists to in silico modeling, in vitro - in vivo scaling, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic approaches...
August 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Yuri E M van der Burgt, Christa M Cobbaert
In clinical testing of protein markers, structure variants of the measurand are often not taken into account. This heterogeneous character of protein measurands in immunoassays often renders test standardization impossible. Consequently, test results from different methods can lead to underdiagnosis or overdiagnosis and, thus, undertreatment or overtreatment of patients. The systematic structural analysis of protein isoforms has been coined proteoform profiling and is performed through mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies...
September 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Myrto Korogiannaki, Michael Samsom, Tannin A Schmidt, Heather Sheardown
Ocular dryness and discomfort is the primary reason for the discontinuation of contact lens wear. This is mainly due to poorly hydrated contact lens surfaces and increased friction, particularly at the end of the day and can potentially cause reduced vision or even inflammation. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a mucinous glycoprotein with boundary lubricating properties, naturally found in the eye, able to prevent tear film evaporation and protect the ocular surface during blinking. Aiming to improve the interfacial interactions between the ocular surface and the contact lens, the synthesis and characterization of surface modified model contact lenses with PRG4 is described...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xinyu Liu, Shengjie Dong, Yuru Ma, Hu Xu, Hongxia Zhao, Qingzhi Gao
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to develop novel inhibitors against clinically widespread extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) to meet the challenges of the ever-evolving threat of antibiotic resistances. Most existing ESBL inhibitors sharing a common chemical feature of β-lactam ring in their molecule, this structural characteristic makes them intrinsically susceptible to enzymatic breakdown by the resistance mechanisms employed by the bacteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to screen and discover novel lead compounds by using L-proline as initial scaffold to create a "non-sulfur, non-β-lactam" new chemotypes for potential ESBL inhibitors...
August 16, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Michael Guarnieri, Cory Brayton, Betty M Tyler
Animal models to study opiates are of growing interest. We have examined the short-term safety of buprenorphine implants in Fischer F344/NTac rats treated with excess doses of a cholesterol-triglyceride suspension of buprenorphine. A single injection of 0.65 mg/kg afforded clinically significant blood levels of analgesia for 3 days. Chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinalysis values with 2- to 10-fold excess doses of the drug-lipid suspension were within normal limits. Histopathology findings were unremarkable...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Cristian Urla, Justus Lieber, Florian Obermayr, Andreas Busch, Roland Schweizer, Steven W Warmann, Hans-Joachim Kirschner, Jörg Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a rare variant of Hirschsprung's disease occurring in 3-10% of the cases. Only few studies reported the long-term clinical and metabolic outcomes of patients with TCA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and metabolic long-term outcomes of children undergoing surgical treatment for TCA. METHODS: A 15-year retrospective study was performed. Blood chemistry tests and stool analysis performed at the last follow-up visit were recorded...
August 15, 2018: BMC Surgery
Jadel Müller Kratz, Facundo Garcia Bournissen, Colin J Forsyth, Sergio Sosa-Estani
Introduction Chagas disease (CD) is one of the most neglected public health problems in the Americas, where <1% of the estimated 6 million people with the infection have been diagnosed and treated. The goal of treatment is to eliminate the parasite, decrease the probability of cardiomyopathy and other complications during the chronic stage of infection, and interrupt the cycle of disease transmission by preventing congenital infection. Currently, only benznidazole (BZN) and nifurtimox are recognized by the World Health Organization as effective drugs for treatment of CD...
August 16, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Panagiota Langi, Sotirios Kiokias, Theodoros Varzakas, Charalampos Proestos
In this review, carotenoids from plants are described, and their natural existence is addressed. Carotenoids are 40-carbon isoprenoid molecules that produce the red, yellow, and orange pigmentation found in nature. Various plants, microalgae, bacteria, and fungi are natural sources of carotenoids and are presented in detail. The chemistry of carotenoids and their classification is also described along with the effect of carotenoids on human health which is explained with focus on lutein-zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, capsanthin, and lycopene...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eric A Wold, Jianping Chen, Kathryn A Cunningham, Jia Zhou
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been tractable drug targets for decades with over one-third of currently marketed drugs targeting GPCRs. Of these, the class A GPCR superfamily is highly represented and continued drug discovery for this family of receptors may provide novel therapeutics for a vast range of diseases. GPCR allosteric modulation is an innovative targeting approach that broadens the available small molecule toolbox and is proving to be a viable drug discovery strategy, as evidenced by recent FDA approvals and clinical trials...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yunyi Wu, Guanyu Wang
Toxicity prediction is very important to public health. Among its many applications, toxicity prediction is essential to reduce the cost and labor of a drug's preclinical and clinical trials, because a lot of drug evaluations (cellular, animal, and clinical) can be spared due to the predicted toxicity. In the era of Big Data and artificial intelligence, toxicity prediction can benefit from machine learning, which has been widely used in many fields such as natural language processing, speech recognition, image recognition, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics, with excellent performance...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jiangnan Peng, Sharadrao M Patil, David A Keire, Kang Chen
Glycosylation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a critical quality attribute that can impact mAb drug efficacy and safety. The mAb glycans are inherently heterogeneous in chemical structure and composition of monosaccharides. The established fluorescence or mass-spectrometry (MS) detection methods for glycosylation evaluation may require multiple steps of glycan cleavage or extensive digestion of the mAb, chemical labelling of the glycans, column separation and report the chemical identity of glycans indirectly through retention time and molecular weight values...
August 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ahmed Ghallab, Ute Hofmann, Selahaddin Sezgin, Nachiket Vartak, Reham Hassan, Ayham Zaza, Patricio Godoy, Kai Markus Schneider, Georgia Guenther, Yasser A Ahmed, Aya A Abbas, Verena Keitel, Lars Kuepfer, Steven Dooley, Frank Lammert, Christian Trautwein, Michael Spiteller, Dirk Drasdo, Alan F Hofmann, Peter L M Jansen, Jan G Hengstler, Raymond Reif
Bile duct ligation (BDL) is an experimental procedure that mimics obstructive cholestatic disease. One of the early consequences of BDL in rodents are so-called 'bile infarcts' that correspond to Charcot-Gombault necrosis in human cholestasis. The mechanisms causing bile infarcts and their pathophysiological relevance are unclear. Therefore, intravital two-photon-based imaging of bile duct-ligated mice was performed with fluorescent bile salts (BS) and non-BS organic anion analogues. Key findings were followed-up by MALDI imaging, clinical chemistry, immunostaining, and gene expression analyses...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Andrei Mocan, Atanas G Atanasov
The current study aimed to identify and analyze the 100 most cited papers on the topic of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Scopus database was searched to extract bibliometric data. Two-thirds of the 100 most cited papers were reviews. Papers were mostly published in food science and nutrition journals, and one-third were published in seven journals, namely: British Journal of Nutrition (6), Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (6), Journal of Food Science (5), Trends in Food Science and Technology (5), American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (4), Food Chemistry (4) and Journal of Nutrition (4)...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Pedro Miguel Pimenta Gois, João Ravasco, Hélio Faustino, Alexandre Trindade
Maleimide chemistry stands out in the bioconjugation toolbox by virtue of its synthetic accessibility, excellent reactivity and practicability. The second-generation of clinically approved ADCs and much of the current ADC pipeline in clinical trials contain the maleimide linkage. However, thiosuccinimide linkages are now known to be less robust than once thought, and ergo correlated with suboptimal pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety profiles in some ADC constructs. Though rational design of novel generations of maleimides and maleimide-type reagents have been reported to address the shortcomings of classical maleimides, allowing the formation of robust bioconjugate linkages...
August 10, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Namy George, M Asha Asokan, A Ajish, S Surya, V Vishnu, Rajasree G Pai, Subin Mary Zachariah
Dihydropyrimidinones are extremely advantageous small sized molecules owning adaptable pharmaceutical properties. With a molecular formula C4H6N2O, they hold a wide range of biological activities. It is a heterocyclic moiety having two N-atoms at positions 1 and 3. They are derivatives of pyrimidine containing an additional ketone group. They have inspired development of a wide range of synthetic methods for preparation and chemical transformations. Taking into consideration their structural similarity and involvement with DNA and RNA, they have become very imperative in the world of synthetic organic chemistry...
August 7, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Christopher Southan, Joanna L Sharman, Elena Faccenda, Adam J Pawson, Simon D Harding, Jamie A Davies
Connecting chemistry to pharmacology has been an objective of Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb) and its precursor the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Database (IUPHAR-DB) since 2003. This has been achieved by populating our database with expert-curated relationships between documents, assays, quantitative results, chemical structures, their locations within the documents, and the protein targets in the assays (D-A-R-C-P). A wide range of challenges associated with this are described in this perspective, using illustrative examples from GtoPdb entries...
July 31, 2018: ACS Omega
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