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clinical chemistry

K Sugawara, K Mori, K Yagi, S Aikou, Y Uemura, H Yamashita, Y Seto
Salvage esophagectomy (SALV) is potentially beneficial for patients with residual or relapsed esophageal carcinoma after definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT), although preoperatively identifying good candidates for SALV remains difficult. We investigated the prognostic impacts of inflammatory and nutritional status in patients undergoing SALV after dCRT. Forty-seven SALV patients were retrospectively reviewed, of whom 46 (98%) had squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (2%) adenocarcinoma. Possible prognostic factors included patients' demographic data, physical status, blood chemistry profiles, and clinical/pathological tumor features...
July 26, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Paul O Collinson, Amy K Saenger, Fred S Apple
The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) formed a Task Force on the Application of Cardiac Bio-markers (TF-CB) in 2008, re-designated in 2018 as a committee (C-CB), to produce educational materials on cardiac biomarkers. Established in June 2017, definitive tables covering the majority of high-sensitivity, contemporary and point-of-care (POC) cTn assays have been developed by the C-CB and are available on the IFCC website. These tables provide extensive information about assays' analytical characteristics and encompass information on diagnostic discriminants, particularly the 99th percentiles, as provided by the manufacturers...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Julie Kang, Jun Young Lee, İsa Taş, Kunal N More, Hangun Kim, Jeong-Hoon Park, Dong-Jo Chang
Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that activates oncogenic transformation in several solid tumors, including lung and breast cancers. Ganetespib, a most promising candidate among several HSP90 inhibitors under clinical trials, has entered Phase III clinical trials for cancer therapy. Despite numerous evidences validating HSP90 as a target of anticancer, there are few studies on PET agents targeting oncogenic HSP90. In this study, we synthesized and biologically evaluated a novel 18 F-labeled 5-resorcinolic triazolone derivative (1, [18 F]PTP-Ganetespib) based on ganetespib...
October 23, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jinghua Li, Jie Zhao, John A Rogers
Recent advances in materials chemistry and composite materials design establish the foundations for classes of electronics with physical form factors that bridge the gap between soft biological organisms and rigid microsystems technologies. Skin-interfaced platforms of this type have broad utility in continuous clinical-grade monitoring of physiological status, with the potential to significantly lower the cost and increase the efficacy of modern health care. Development of materials and device designs for power supply systems in this context is critically important, and it represents a rapidly expanding focus of research in the chemical sciences...
December 10, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Monika I Konaklieva
Over the past century, a multitude of derivatives of structural scaffolds with established antimicrobial potential have been prepared and tested, and a variety of new scaffolds have emerged. The effectiveness of antibiotics, however, is in sharp decline because of the emergence of drug-resistant microorganisms. The prevalence of drug resistance, both in clinical and community settings, is a consequence of bacterial ingenuity in altering pathways and/or cell morphology, making it a persistent threat to human health...
December 7, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Kaitlin Rascon, Goran Flajc, Carmine De Angelis, Xinli Liu, Meghana V Trivedi, Ekim Ekinci
OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of ribociclib (LEE011, Kisqali) in hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed using the terms 'Ribociclib', 'Kisqali', and 'LEE011' between May 2018 and November 2018. References of published articles and reviews were also assessed for additional information. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language preclinical and clinical studies on the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of ribociclib were evaluated...
December 7, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Weston J Smith, Guankui Wang, Hanmant Gaikwad, Vivian P Vu, Ernest Groman, David W A Bourne, Dmitri Simberg
Long blood half-life is one of the advantages of antibodies over small molecule drugs. At the same time, prolonged half-life is a problem for imaging applications or in the case of antibody-induced toxicities. There is a substantial need for antidotes that can quickly clear antibodies from systemic circulation and peripheral tissues. Engineered nanoparticles exhibit intrinsic affinity for clearance organs (mainly liver and spleen). trans-Cyclooctene (TCO) and methyltetrazine (MTZ) are versatile copper-free click chemistry components that are extensively being used for in vivo bioorthogonal couplings...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Lukas R H Gerken, Kerda Keevend, Yucheng Zhang, Fabian H L Starsich, Christian Eberhardt, Guido Panzarasa, Martin T Matter, Adrian Wichser, Andreas Boss, Antonia Neels, Inge K Herrmann
High-Z metal oxide nanoparticles hold promise as imaging probes and radio-enhancers. Hafnium dioxide nanoparticles have recently entered clinical evaluation. Despite promising early clinical findings, the potential of HfO2 as a matrix for multimodal theranostics is yet to be developed. Here, we investigate the physicochemical properties and the potential of HfO2-based nanoparticles for multimodal theranostic imaging. Undoped and lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+, and Gd3+)-doped HfO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with various moieties, including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and folic acid (FA)...
December 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
V Gavrysyuk, E Merenkova, G Gumeniuk, M Gumeniuk, Y Dziublyk
Immunosuppressants are traditionally administered in sarcoidosis patients with contraindications for the use of glucocorticosteroids (GCS), or in those with serious adverse reactions on GCS, as well as in the cases of GCS-therapy resistance. Aim - to study the effectiveness and safety of methotrexate monotherapy in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients with either GCS contraindication or adverse reactions. We examined 33 patients with st. II pulmonary sarcoidosis, 20 men and 13 women, 23-67 years of age. In all cases a general physical examination; chest computed tomography and spirometry were performed...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Hélène Kaplon, Janice M Reichert
For the past 10 years, the annual 'Antibodies to watch' articles have provided updates on key events in the late-stage development of antibody therapeutics, such as first regulatory review or approval, that occurred in the year before publication or were anticipated to occur during the year of publication. To commemorate the 10th anniversary of the article series and to celebrate the 2018 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and in Physiology or Medicine, which were given for work that is highly relevant to antibody therapeutics research and development, we expanded the scope of the data presented to include an overview of all commercial clinical development of antibody therapeutics and approval success rates for this class of molecules...
December 5, 2018: MAbs
Mariane Le Fur, Peter Caravan
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are widely used with clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 10 s of millions of doses of GBCAs are administered annually worldwide. GBCAs are hydrophilic, thermodynamically stable and kinetically inert gadolinium chelates. In clinical MRI, 5-10 millimoles of Gd ion is administered intravenously and the GBCA is rapidly eliminated intact primarily through the kidneys into the urine. It is now well-established that the Gd3+ ion, in some form(s), is partially retained in vivo...
December 5, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Marc Thelen, Florent Vanstapel, Pika Meško Brguljan, Bernard Gouget, Guilaine Boursier, Edward Barrett, Christos Kroupis, Maria Lohmander, Luděk Šprongl, Tatjana Vodnik, Francisco Bernabeu-Andreu, Ines Vukasović, Çiğdem Sönmez, Solveig Linko, Duilio Brugnoni, Michel Vaubourdolle, Willem Huisman, Mauro Panteghini
ISO15189:2012 requires medical laboratories to document metrological traceability of their results. While the ISO17511:2003 standard on metrological traceability in laboratory medicine requires the use of the highest available level in the traceability chain, it recognizes that for many measurands there is no reference above the manufacturer's selected measurement procedure and the manufacturer's working calibrator. Some immunoassays, although they intend to measure the same quantity and may even refer to the same reference material, unfortunately produce different results because of differences in analytical selectivity as manufacturers select different epitopes and antibodies for the same analyte...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Zhenhua Li, Deliang Shen, Shiqi Hu, Teng Su, Ke Huang, Feiran Liu, Lei Hou, Ke Cheng
Stem cell therapy is one of the promising strategies for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. However, the clinical application of stem cells transplantation is limited by low cell engraftment in the infarcted myocardium. Taking advantage of pretargeting and bioorthogonal chemistry, we engineered a pretargeting and bioorthogonal chemistry (PTBC) system to capture endogenous circulating stem cells and target them to the injured heart for effective repair. Two bioorthogonal antibodies were i.v. administrated with a pretargeting interval (48 h)...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Ashley A Reinke, Shih-Hon Li, Mark Warnock, Maxim E Shaydakov, Naga Sandhya Guntaka, Enming J Su, Jose A Diaz, Cory D Emal, Daniel A Lawrence
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) implicated in numerous pathological processes, including coronary heart disease, arterial and venous thrombosis, and chronic fibrotic diseases. These associations have made PAI-1 an attractive pharmaceutical target. However, the complexity of the serpin inhibitory mechanism, the inherent metastability of serpins, and the high-affinity association of PAI-1 with vitronectin in vivo has made it difficult to identify pharmacologically effective small-molecule inhibitors...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Melinda Poole, Jessica M Quimby, Tianhua Hu, Daizie Labelle, William Buhles
Mirtazapine is classified as a weight gain drug in cats, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficacy in cats experiencing unintended weight loss. This was a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study in client-owned cats ≥1 year of age, weighing ≥2 kg, with a documented loss (≥5%) in body weight. Cats were treated once daily with either 2 mg/cat mirtazapine transdermal ointment (n = 83) or placebo (n = 94) (Per Protocol population) applied to the inner surface of the pinna for 14 ± 3 days...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
KirkE Hevener, Tatsiana A Verstak, Katie E Lutat, Daniel L Riggsbee, Jeremiah W Mooney
The DNA topoisomerase enzymes are essential to cell function and are found ubiquitously in all domains of life. The various topoisomerase enzymes perform a wide range of functions related to the maintenance of DNA topology during DNA replication, and transcription are the targets of a wide range of antimicrobial and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Natural product-derived agents, such as the camptothecin, anthracycline, and podophyllotoxin drugs, have seen broad use in the treatment of many types of cancer. Selective targeting of the topoisomerase enzymes for cancer treatment continues to be a highly active area of basic and clinical research...
October 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Takashi Ikawa, Shigeaki Masuda, Shuji Akai
Fluorinated aromatic compounds are found in a variety of biologically active compounds, including clinical drugs and agrochemicals. Therefore, the synthesis of aryl fluorides is particularly important in the medicinal and process chemistry fields. In this paper, we report a method for the synthesis of aryl fluorides by benzyne fluorination under microflow conditions using the efficient Comet X-01 micromixer. In comparison to our previously reported method under ordinary batch conditions, this approach facilitates a significant reduction in reaction times, to ca...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Katrine Bych, Marta Hanna Mikš, Ted Johanson, Markus Jondelius Hederos, Louise Kristine Vigsnæs, Peter Becker
Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute an important, highly abundant part of mothers' milk delivering many health benefits to the neonate. Until recently, limited availability of HMOs has prevented their use in infant nutrition and impeded research into their biological effects. The shift from chemical synthesis to biotechnological manufacturing has made them accessible in quantities and at prices that are within reach for commercial applications, including infant formula. It accelerated the studies in the field of pre-clinical and clinical HMO biology...
November 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Tanu Kaushal, Gaurava Srivastava, Ashok Sharma, Arvind Singh Negi
Quinoxalines are benzopyrazines containing benzene and pyrazine rings fused together. In the recent past, quinoxalines have attracted Medicinal Chemists considerably for their syntheses and chemistry due to their distinct pharmacological activities. Diverse synthetic protocols have been developed via multicomponent reactions, single pot synthesis and combinatorial approach using efficient catalysts, reagents, and nano-composites etc. Further, the versatility of the quinoxaline core and its reasonable chemical simplicity devise it extremely promising source of bioactive compounds...
November 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Ryan C Fries, Saki Kadotani, Jordan P Vitt, David J Schaeffer
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral trazodone on echocardiographic variables, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in healthy cats. METHODS: Client-owned domestic cats between 2 and 8 years of age were recruited. Cats were considered healthy based on physical examination, complete blood count, blood chemistry profile, urinalysis, total thyroxine concentration, non-invasive BP measurement by Doppler method and a screening transthoracic echocardiogram with simultaneous electrocardiogram...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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