keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Synapses

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#1
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932970/bayesian-inference-of-synaptic-quantal-parameters-from-correlated-vesicle-release
#2
Alex D Bird, Mark J Wall, Magnus J E Richardson
Synaptic transmission is both history-dependent and stochastic, resulting in varying responses to presentations of the same presynaptic stimulus. This complicates attempts to infer synaptic parameters and has led to the proposal of a number of different strategies for their quantification. Recently Bayesian approaches have been applied to make more efficient use of the data collected in paired intracellular recordings. Methods have been developed that either provide a complete model of the distribution of amplitudes for isolated responses or approximate the amplitude distributions of a train of post-synaptic potentials, with correct short-term synaptic dynamics but neglecting correlations...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932955/what-do-we-really-know-about-5-ht1a-receptor-signaling-in-neuronal-cells
#3
REVIEW
Paulina S Rojas, Jenny L Fiedler
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932203/neural-connection-supporting-endogenous-5-hydroxytryptamine-influence-on-autonomic-activity-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Hao-Qiang Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lin Liu, Jin-Lian Li, Ya-Cheng Lu, Ying-Ying Yu, Hui Li, Ting Zhang, Ying-Shing Chan, Fu-Xing Zhang, Yun-Qing Li
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) enhances or suppresses signal outflow to influence emotion-/cognition-based function performances and, putatively, the autonomic responses. The top-down cortical modulation of autonomic activities may be mediated in part through projections from mPFC to brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC). The abundant and heterogeneous densities of 5-HT fibers across laminae in mPFC suggest serotonergic innervation of mPFC-DVC projection neurons whereby endogenous 5-HT acts to regulate autonomic activities...
December 1, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930290/gamma-motor-neurons-survive-and-exacerbate-alpha-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-als
#5
Melanie Lalancette-Hebert, Aarti Sharma, Alexander K Lyashchenko, Neil A Shneider
The molecular and cellular basis of selective motor neuron (MN) vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not known. In genetically distinct mouse models of familial ALS expressing mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), and fused in sarcoma (FUS), we demonstrate selective degeneration of alpha MNs (α-MNs) and complete sparing of gamma MNs (γ-MNs), which selectively innervate muscle spindles. Resistant γ-MNs are distinct from vulnerable α-MNs in that they lack synaptic contacts from primary afferent (IA) fibers...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929113/a-feedforward-inhibitory-circuit-mediated-by-cb1-expressing-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
William J Wright, Oliver M Schlüter, Yan Dong
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) gates motivated behaviors through the functional output of principle medium spiny neurons (MSNs), while dysfunctional output of NAc MSNs contributes to a variety of psychiatric disorders. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are sparsely distributed throughout the NAc, forming local feedforward inhibitory circuits. It remains elusive how FSI-based feedforward circuits regulate the output of NAc MSNs. Here, we investigated a distinct subpopulation of NAc FSIs that express the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1)...
December 8, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928723/boosting-weakened-synapses-to-treat-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Robert J McDonald, Scott H Deibel
This paper highlights a recent report by Roy and colleagues showing that boosting plasticity in synapses activated during initial memory encoding ameliorates memory impairments found in the early stages of the familial version of Alzheimer's disease. Our goal was to describe the main features of the report and evaluate the approach and implications of the work.
December 7, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927957/the-proteome-of-bloc-1-genetic-defects-identifies-the-arp2-3-actin-polymerization-complex-to-function-downstream-of-the-schizophrenia-susceptibility-factor-dysbindin-at-the-synapse
#8
Avanti Gokhale, Cortnie Hartwig, Amanda H Freeman, Ravi Das, Stephanie A Zlatic, Rachel Vistein, Amelia Burch, Guillemette Carrot, Arielle F Lewis, Sheldon Nelms, Dion K Dickman, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Daniel N Cox, Victor Faundez
: Proteome modifications downstream of monogenic or polygenic disorders have the potential to uncover novel molecular mechanisms participating in pathogenesis and/or extragenic modification of phenotypic expression. We tested this idea by determining the proteome sensitive to genetic defects in a locus encoding dysbindin, a protein required for synapse biology and implicated in schizophrenia risk. We applied quantitative mass spectrometry to identify proteins expressed in neuronal cells the abundance of which was altered after downregulation of the schizophrenia susceptibility factor dysbindin (Bloc1s8) or two other dysbindin-interacting polypeptides, which assemble into the octameric biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927794/nmj-morph-reveals-principal-components-of-synaptic-morphology-influencing-structure-function-relationships-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#9
Ross A Jones, Caitlan D Reich, Kosala N Dissanayake, Fanney Kristmundsdottir, Gordon S Findlater, Richard R Ribchester, Martin W Simmen, Thomas H Gillingwater
The ability to form synapses is one of the fundamental properties required by the mammalian nervous system to generate network connectivity. Structural and functional diversity among synaptic populations is a key hallmark of network diversity, and yet we know comparatively little about the morphological principles that govern variability in the size, shape and strength of synapses. Using the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ) as an experimentally accessible model synapse, we report on the development of a robust, standardized methodology to facilitate comparative morphometric analysis of synapses ('NMJ-morph')...
December 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927785/dopaminergic-treatment-weakens-medium-spiny-neuron-collateral-inhibition-in-the-parkinsonian-striatum
#10
Wei Wei, Shengyuan Ding, Fu-Ming Zhou
The striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are critical to both motor and cognitive functions. A potential regulator of MSN activity is the GABAergic collateral axonal input from neighboring MSNs. These collateral axon terminals are further under the regulation of presynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors that may become dysfunctional when the intense striatal DA innervation is lost in Parkinson's disease (PD). We show here that DA D1 receptor-expressing MSNs (D1-MSNs) and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs (D2-MSNs) each formed high rate, one-way collateral connections with a homotypic preference in both normal and DA-denervated mouse striatum...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926876/potentiation-of-synaptic-glun2b-nmdar-currents-by-fyn-kinase-is-gated-through-bdnf-mediated-disinhibition-in-spinal-pain-processing
#11
Michael E Hildebrand, Jian Xu, Annemarie Dedek, Yi Li, Ameet S Sengar, Simon Beggs, Paul J Lombroso, Michael W Salter
In chronic pain states, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transforms the output of lamina I spinal neurons by decreasing synaptic inhibition. Pain hypersensitivity also depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and Src-family kinases, but the locus of NMDAR dysregulation remains unknown. Here, we show that NMDAR-mediated currents at lamina I synapses are potentiated in a peripheral nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. We find that BDNF mediates NMDAR potentiation through activation of TrkB and phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit by the Src-family kinase Fyn...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926833/conformational-plasticity-in-the-transsynaptic-neurexin-cerebellin-glutamate-receptor-adhesion-complex
#12
Shouqiang Cheng, Alpay B Seven, Jing Wang, Georgios Skiniotis, Engin Özkan
Synaptic specificity is a defining property of neural networks. In the cerebellum, synapses between parallel fiber neurons and Purkinje cells are specified by the simultaneous interactions of secreted protein cerebellin with pre-synaptic neurexin and post-synaptic delta-type glutamate receptors (GluD). Here, we determined the crystal structures of the trimeric C1q-like domain of rat cerebellin-1, and the first complete ectodomain of a GluD, rat GluD2. Cerebellin binds to the LNS6 domain of α- and β-neurexin-1 through a high-affinity interaction that involves its highly flexible N-terminal domain...
December 6, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924869/asic1a-regulates-insular-long-term-depression-and-is-required-for-the-extinction-of-conditioned-taste-aversion
#13
Wei-Guang Li, Ming-Gang Liu, Shining Deng, Yan-Mei Liu, Lin Shang, Jing Ding, Tsan-Ting Hsu, Qin Jiang, Ying Li, Fei Li, Michael Xi Zhu, Tian-Le Xu
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without altering the initial associative taste learning or its long-term retention...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924838/excitatory-post-synaptic-potential-mimicked-in-indium-zinc-oxide-synaptic-transistors-gated-by-methyl-cellulose-solid-electrolyte
#14
Liqiang Guo, Juan Wen, Jianning Ding, Changjin Wan, Guanggui Cheng
The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of biological synapses is mimicked in indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors gated by methyl cellulose solid electrolyte. These synaptic transistors show excellent electrical performance at an operating voltage of 0.8 V, Ion/off ratio of 2.5 × 10(6), and mobility of 38.4 cm(2)/Vs. After this device is connected to a resistance of 4 MΩ in series, it exhibits excellent characteristics as an inverter. A threshold potential of 0.3 V is achieved by changing the gate pulse amplitude, width, or number, which is analogous to biological EPSP...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923880/b-cell-antigen-extraction-is-regulated-by-physical-properties-of-antigen-presenting-cells
#15
Katelyn M Spillane, Pavel Tolar
Antibody production and affinity maturation are driven by B cell extraction and internalization of antigen from immune synapses. However, the extraction mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we develop DNA-based nanosensors to interrogate two previously proposed mechanisms, enzymatic liberation and mechanical force. Using antigens presented by either artificial substrates or live cells, we show that B cells primarily use force-dependent extraction and resort to enzymatic liberation only if mechanical forces fail to retrieve antigen...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923561/neuropathology-and-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-to-occupants-of-vehicles-targeted-by-underbody-blasts
#16
Flaubert Tchantchou, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leist, Joshua Vaughan, Parisa Rangghran, Adam Puche, Gary Fiskum
Many victims of blast-induced traumatic brain injury are occupants of military vehicles targeted by land mines. Recently improved vehicle designs protect these individuals against blast overpressure, leaving acceleration as the main force potentially responsible for brain injury. We recently developed a unique rat model of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration where exposure to acceleration as low as 50G acceleration force results in histopathological evidence of diffuse axonal injury and astrocyte activation, with no evidence of neuronal cell death...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921996/the-cns-connectome-of-a-tadpole-larva-of-ciona-intestinalis-l-highlights-sidedness-in-the-brain-of-a-chordate-sibling
#17
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis. Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920282/nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-other-antibody-mediated-disorders-of-the-synapse-the-2016-cotzias-lecture
#18
Josep Dalmau
Investigations during the last 10 years have revealed a group of disorders mediated by antibodies against ion channels and synaptic receptors, which cause both neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In this review, I discuss the process of discovery and immunologic triggers of these disorders, and use anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis to emphasize the importance of understanding the underlying physiopathologic mechanisms in those diseases. A better knowledge of these mechanisms reveals points of convergence with other disorders (e...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920150/heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-together-with-kinesin-1-steers-vesicular-acetylcholinesterase-movements-toward-the-synapse
#19
Anuttama Kulkarni, Yasmin Khan, Krishanu Ray
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, is distributed along the axon and enriched at the presynaptic basal lamina. It hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which inhibits synaptic transmission. Aberrant AChE activity and ectopic axonal accumulation of the enzyme are associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism that underlies AChE transport is still unclear. Here, we show that expression of Drosophila AChE tagged with photoactivable green fluorescent protein and m-Cherry (GPAC) in cholinergic neurons compensates for the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous AChE activity...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920147/accumbens-nnos-interneurons-regulate-cocaine-relapse
#20
Alexander C W Smith, Michael D Scofield, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, Daniela Neuhofer, Doug J Roberts-Wolfe, Sade Spencer, Neringa M Stankeviciute, Rachel Smith, Nicholas P Allen, Melissa R Lorang, William C Griffin, Heather A Boger, Peter W Kalivas
: Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine-seeking result from glutamate spillover initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
16972
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"