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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231468/parkinson-sac-domain-mutation-in-synaptojanin-1-impairs-clathrin-uncoating-at-synapses-and-triggers-dystrophic-changes-in-dopaminergic-axons
#1
Mian Cao, Yumei Wu, Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Amber J McCartney, Heather Wheeler, Eric A Bushong, Daniela Boassa, Mark H Ellisman, Timothy A Ryan, Pietro De Camilli
Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231043/transient-oxytocin-signaling-primes-the-development-and-function-of-excitatory-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Silvia Ripamonti, Mateusz C Ambrozkiewicz, Francesca Guzzi, Marta Gravati, Gerardo Biella, Ingo Bormuth, Matthieu Hammer, Liam P Tuffy, Albrecht Sigler, Hiroshi Kawabe, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Mauro Toselli, Nils Brose, Marco Parenti, JeongSeop Rhee
Beyond its role in parturition and lactation, oxytocin influences higher brain processes that control social behavior of mammals, and perturbed oxytocin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how oxytocin exactly regulates neuronal function. We show that early, transient oxytocin exposure in vitro inhibits the development of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, leading to reduced dendrite complexity, synapse density, and excitatory transmission, while sparing GABAergic neurons...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230843/glucose-utilization-still-in-the-synapse
#3
A Jon Stoessl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230174/a-hydrophobic-patch-surrounding-trp154-in-human-neuroserpin-controls-the-helix-f-dynamics-with-implications-in-inhibition-and-aggregation
#4
Mohammad Farhan Ali, Abhinav Kaushik, Charu Kapil, Dinesh Gupta, Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri
Neuroserpin (NS) mediated inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is important for brain development, synapse formation and memory. Aberrations in helix F and β-sheet A movement during inhibition can directly lead to epilepsy or dementia. Conserved W154 residue in a hydrophobic patch between helix F and β-sheet A is ideally placed to control their movement during inhibition. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation on wild type (WT) NS and its two variants (W154A and W154P) demonstrated partial deformation in helix F and conformational differences in strands 1A and 2A only in W154P...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229400/trans-synaptic-retrograde-degeneration-in-the-human-visual-system-slow-silent-and-real
#5
REVIEW
Marc Dinkin
Degeneration of neuron and axons following injury to cells with which they synapse is termed trans-synaptic degeneration. This phenomenon may be seen in postsynaptic neurons (anterograde) or in presynaptic neurons (retrograde). Retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) of the retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fiber layer following injury to the occipital lobe has been well documented histologically in animal studies, but its occurrence in the human retina was, for many years, felt to be limited to cases of neonatal injury during a critical period of neuronal development...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229087/modeling-williams-syndrome-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Thanathom Chailangkarn, Alysson R Muotri
The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) like never before has opened novel opportunity to study diseases in relevant cell types. In our recent study, Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, that is caused by hemizygous deletion of 25-28 genes on chromosome 7, is of interest because of its unique cognitive and social profiles. Little is known about haploinsufficiency effect of those deleted genes on molecular and cellular phenotypes at the neural level due to the lack of relevant human cellular model...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229081/usefulness-of-oblique-multiplanar-images-on-multi-detector-computed-tomography-for-diagnosing-intersigmoid-hernia
#7
Kenta Kumagai, Masato Yoshioka, Masatake Iida, Kazuhiro Kudoh, Hiroshi Uchinami, Tasuku Watanabe, Yuzo Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Intersigmoid hernia is a hernia of the small intestine into the intersigmoid fossa. Because the cavity of the intersigmoid fossa is so small, the preoperative detection of incarcerated intestine and/or mesenteric convergence is very difficult. We report a case of intersigmoid hernia in which the incarcerated bowel and mesenteric convergence could be visualized by oblique multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). CASE REPORT: An 82-year-old man with small bowel obstruction was treated conservatively with a long intestinal tube...
December 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228723/presynaptic-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-trkb-receptor-cooperate-in-the-elimination-of-redundant-motor-nerve-terminals-during-development
#8
Laura Nadal, Neus Garcia, Erica Hurtado, Anna Simó, Marta Tomàs, Maria A Lanuza, Victor Cilleros, Josep Tomàs
The development of the nervous system involves the overproduction of synapses but connectivity is refined by Hebbian activity-dependent axonal competition. The newborn skeletal muscle fibers are polyinnervated but, at the end of the competition process, some days later, become innervated by a single axon. We used quantitative confocal imaging of the autofluorescent axons from transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice to investigate the possible cooperation of the muscarinic autoreceptors (mAChR, M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes) and the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the control of axonal elimination after the mice Levator auris longus (LAL) muscle had been exposed to several selective antagonist of the corresponding receptor pathways in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228581/spaceflight-induced-synaptic-modifications-within-hair-cells-of-the-mammalian-utricle
#9
David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228333/the-interplay-of-axonal-energy-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-anchoring
#10
REVIEW
Zu-Hang Sheng
Mitochondria are key cellular power plants essential for neuronal growth, survival, function, and regeneration after injury. Given their unique morphological features, neurons face exceptional challenges in maintaining energy homeostasis at distal synapses and growth cones where energy is in high demand. Efficient regulation of mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring is critical for neurons to meet altered energy requirements. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport have been implicated in several major neurological disorders...
February 19, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228258/clonal-expansion-of-lgr5-positive-cells-from-mammalian-cochlea-and-high-purity-generation-of-sensory-hair-cells
#11
Will J McLean, Xiaolei Yin, Lin Lu, Danielle R Lenz, Dalton McLean, Robert Langer, Jeffrey M Karp, Albert S B Edge
Death of cochlear hair cells, which do not regenerate, is a cause of hearing loss in a high percentage of the population. Currently, no approach exists to obtain large numbers of cochlear hair cells. Here, using a small-molecule approach, we show significant expansion (>2,000-fold) of cochlear supporting cells expressing and maintaining Lgr5, an epithelial stem cell marker, in response to stimulation of Wnt signaling by a GSK3β inhibitor and transcriptional activation by a histone deacetylase inhibitor...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228251/spatial-and-temporal-regulation-of-receptor-endocytosis-in-neuronal-dendrites-revealed-by-imaging-of-single-vesicle-formation
#12
Morgane Rosendale, Damien Jullié, Daniel Choquet, David Perrais
Endocytosis in neuronal dendrites is known to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD). However, the inability to detect endocytosis directly in living neurons has hampered studies of its dynamics and regulation. Here, we visualized the formation of individual endocytic vesicles containing pHluorin-tagged receptors with high temporal resolution in the dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. We show that transferrin receptors (TfRs) are constitutively internalized at optically static clathrin-coated structures...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227909/neuromorphic-circuit-modeling-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#13
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
We have designed a neuromorphic circuit that models directional selectivity in the visual cortex, where selected neurons fire depending on the direction of object motion, along with the size and orientation of the object. The neuromorphic circuit is biomimetic. It consists of neurons and synapses, and models biological mechanisms. Neurons (including the Axon Hillock and the Dendritic Arbor) are designed with CMOS technology and synapses (both excitatory and inhibitory) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Transistors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227907/understanding-the-role-of-astrocytic-gaba-in-simulated-neural-networks
#14
Kerstin Lenk, Eero Raisanen, Jari A K Hyttinen, Kerstin Lenk, Eero Raisanen, Jari A K Hyttinen, Kerstin Lenk, Jari Ak Hyttinen, Eero Raisanen
Astrocytes actively influence the behavior of the surrounding neuronal network including changes of the synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. These dynamics are altered in diseases like Alzheimer's, where the release of the gliotransmitter GABA is increased by affected, so called reactive astrocytes. In this paper, we aim to simulate a neural network with altered astrocytic GABA release. Therefore, we use our developed neuron-astrocyte model, called INEXA, which includes astrocyte controlled tripartite synapses and the astrocyte-astrocyte interaction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227905/a-supervised-learning-rule-for-classification-of-spatiotemporal-spike-patterns
#15
Lilin Guo, Zhenzhong Wang, Malek Adjouadi, Lilin Guo, Zhenzhong Wang, Malek Adjouadi, Lilin Guo, Zhenzhong Wang, Malek Adjouadi
This study introduces a novel supervised algorithm for spiking neurons that take into consideration synapse delays and axonal delays associated with weights. It can be utilized for both classification and association and uses several biologically influenced properties, such as axonal and synaptic delays. This algorithm also takes into consideration spike-timing-dependent plasticity as in Remote Supervised Method (ReSuMe). This paper focuses on the classification aspect alone. Spiked neurons trained according to this proposed learning rule are capable of classifying different categories by the associated sequences of precisely timed spikes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227903/development-of-a-detailed-model-of-calcium-dynamics-at-the-postsynaptic-spine-of-an-excitatory-synapse
#16
Eric Y Hu, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Eric Y Hu, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Eric Y Hu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
Postsynaptic calcium dynamics play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, but are often difficult to measure in experimental protocols due to their relatively fast rise and decay times, and the small spine dimensions. To circumvent these limitations, we propose to develop a computational model of calcium dynamics in the postsynaptic spine. This model integrates the main elements that participate in calcium concentration influx, efflux, diffusion and buffering. These consist of (i) spine geometry; (ii) calcium influx through NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC); (iii) calcium efflux with plasma membrane calcium pumps (PMCA) and sodium-calcium exchangers (NCX); (iv) intracellular calcium stores; and (v) calcium buffers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227164/dynamical-information-encoding-in-neural-adaptation
#17
Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu, Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu, Si Wu, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Yuanyuan Mi, Wenhao Zhang, Luozheng Li
Adaptation refers to the general phenomenon that a neural system dynamically adjusts its response property according to the statistics of external inputs. In response to a prolonged constant stimulation, neuronal firing rates always first increase dramatically at the onset of the stimulation; and afterwards, they decrease rapidly to a low level close to background activity. This attenuation of neural activity seems to be contradictory to our experience that we can still sense the stimulus after the neural system is adapted...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226766/a-neuromorphic-circuit-mimicking-biological-short-term-memory
#18
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
Research shows that the way we remember things for a few seconds is a different mechanism from the way we remember things for a longer time. Short-term memory is based on persistently firing neurons, whereas storing information for a longer time is based on strengthening the synapses or even forming new neural connections. Information about location and appearance of an object is segregated and processed by separate neurons. Furthermore neurons can continue firing using different mechanisms. Here, we have designed a biomimetic neuromorphic circuit that mimics short-term memory by firing neurons, using biological mechanisms to remember location and shape of an object...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226226/microglia-function-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-health-and-neurodegeneration
#19
Marco Colonna, Oleg Butovsky
Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair. Microglia serve as brain macrophages but are distinct from other tissue macrophages owing to their unique homeostatic phenotype and tight regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. They are responsible for the elimination of microbes, dead cells, redundant synapses, protein aggregates, and other particulate and soluble antigens that may endanger the CNS. Furthermore, as the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines, microglia are pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225710/chronic-stress-exacerbates-neuropathic-pain-via-the-integration-of-stress-affect-related-information-with-nociceptive-information-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#20
Ming-Jia Li, Ling-Yu Liu, Lin Chen, Jie Cai, You Wan, Guo-Gang Xing
Exacerbation of pain by chronic stress and co-morbidity of pain with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression, represent significant clinical challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether chronic forced swim (FS) stress-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain is mediated by the integration of stress-affect related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We first demonstrated that chronic FS stress (CFSS) indeed produces both depressive-like behaviors and exacerbation of spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced mechanical allodynia in rats...
December 29, 2016: Pain
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