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Combat Veteran

Dominic Murphy, Kirsten V Smith
Evidence suggests that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a poorer treatment response than nonveterans.  In this study, we explored heterogeneity in treatment response for 960 veterans in the United Kingdom with PTSD who had been offered a residential intervention consisting of a mixture of group sessions and individual trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). The primary outcome was PTSD score on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).  Covariates included depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol misuse, functional impairment, and sociodemographic characteristics...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Scott H Waltman, David Shearer, Bret A Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-traumatic nightmares (PTN) are a common and enduring problem for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other clinical presentations. PTN cause significant distress, are associated with large costs, and are an independent risk factor for suicide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for PTN exist. A previous review in this journal demonstrated that Prazosin, an alpha blocker, was a preferred pharmacological treatment for PTN and imagery rescripting therapy (IRT) was a preferred non-pharmacological treatment...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Kim J Masters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Jan Grimell
This psychological exegesis reconsiders biblical characters through recent theories on moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purposes of this article are to shed new light on these characters and to engage in conversations of what the findings may mean for pastoral care and their connections to theology. The findings include the proposal of four categorical types of combat veterans that illustrate the development of PTSD, resilience, moral injury, and unfaltering abidance to the warrior ethics...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Sharon A M Stevelink, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, David Pernet, Shirlee MacCrimmon, Laura Goodwin, Deirdre MacManus, Dominic Murphy, Norman Jones, Neil Greenberg, Roberto J Rona, Nicola T Fear, Simon Wessely
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of mental health outcomes in UK personnel at the end of the British involvement in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.AimsWe examined the prevalence of mental disorders and alcohol misuse, whether this differed between serving and ex-serving regular personnel and by deployment status. METHOD: This is the third phase of a military cohort study (2014-2016; n = 8093). The sample was based on participants from previous phases (2004-2006 and 2007-2009) and a new randomly selected sample of those who had joined the UK armed forces since 2009...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Melissa A McDiarmid, Patricia Gucer, Jose A Centeno, Todor Todorov, Katherine S Squibb
Environmental metal exposure, as well as dietary metals, may adversely affect semen quality even as others play an essential role in normal spermatogenesis and fertility. Measures of seminal fluid metals have therefore been of high interest in the last several decades but have shown inconsistent results in correlations with some semen quality parameters. As well, environmental metal measures across various body fluid matrices have not been consistently correlated contrary to what one might hypothesize based on a systemic body burden of metal...
October 6, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Stephen A Bishopp, Katelyn K Jetelina, Ellen Paddock, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, M Brad Cannell
Background: Despite veterans' preference hiring policies by law enforcement agencies, no studies have examined the nature or effects of military service or deployments on health outcomes. This study will examine the effect of military veteran status and deployment history on law enforcement officer (LEO)-involved shootings. Methods: Ten years of data were extracted from Dallas Police Department records. LEOs who were involved in a shooting in the past 10 years were frequency matched on sex to LEOs never involved in a shooting...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Alicia A Swan, Megan E Amuan, Sandra B Morissette, Erin P Finley, Blessen C Eapen, Carlos A Jaramillo, Mary Jo Pugh
OBJECTIVES: To examine long-term outcomes of self-reported physical and mental health among Post-9/11 Veterans stratified by traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity, we hypothesized that more severe TBI would be associated with significantly poorer outcomes. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal survey of physical and mental health status was conducted with a national cohort of Post-9/11 Veterans. We then used generalized linear models (GLM) to assess the unique contribution of TBI severity on long-term outcomes after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidity phenotypes, and deployment experiences...
October 1, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Joseph A Boscarino, Richard E Adams, Thomas G Urosevich, Stuart N Hoffman, H Lester Kirchner, Joseph J Boscarino, Carrie A Withey, Ryan J Dugan, Charles R Figley
We examined the effects of homecoming support on current mental health among 1730 deployed veterans from Vietnam, Iraq/Afghanistan, Persian Gulf, and other conflicts. The prevalence of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 5.4%, current depression was 8.3%, and 5.4% had suicidal thoughts in the past month. Overall, 26% of veterans had low homecoming support, which was more prevalent among Vietnam veterans (44.3%, p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regressions, controlling for demographics, combat exposure, number of deployments, trauma history, and operational theater, low postdeployment support was associated with PTSD (odds ratio, 2...
October 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Mascha van 't Wout-Frank, M Tracie Shea, Victoria C Larson, Benjamin D Greenberg, Noah S Philip
BACKGROUND: Facilitating neural activity using non-invasive brain stimulation may improve extinction-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we examined the feasibility of simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) application during virtual reality (VR) to reduce psychophysiological arousal and symptoms in Veterans with PTSD. METHODS: Twelve Veterans with PTSD received six combat-related VR exposure sessions during sham-controlled tDCS targeting ventromedial prefrontal cortex...
September 20, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jagriti Jackie Bhattarai, Mary E Oehlert, Daniel K Weber
The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (M-PTSD) is a 35-item screening instrument for combat-related PTSD (Keane, Caddell, & Taylor, 1988) that has been normed largely on veterans from the Vietnam era. Research on its psychometric properties with veterans across different periods of service (POS) remains limited; however, this is an important research endeavor because of the uniqueness in experiences across eras which may influence PTSD rates, symptom expression/complaints, and treatment completion/outcomes...
September 27, 2018: Psychological Services
Timothy W Brearly, Jared A Rowland, Sarah L Martindale, Robert D Shura, David Curry, Kathy H Taber
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparability of National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognitive Battery test scores across iPad application and web-based personal computer administration platforms. Original test norms were developed using a personal computer-based administration and no previous studies assessing platform comparability have been published. Method: Participants (N = 62; final analyzed sample n = 49) were combat-exposed post-deployment veterans without neurologic disorder, severe mental illness, current substance use disorder, or a history of moderate or severe traumatic brain injury...
September 27, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Michelle L Kelley, Abby L Braitman, Tyler D White, Sarah J Ehlke
OBJECTIVE: This study examines potential sex differences in 3 types of experiences (i.e., atrocities of war, cognitive and emotional changes from combat, and leadership failure or betrayal) that may result in moral injury (i.e., guilt, shame, inability to forgive one's self, inability to forgive others, and withdrawn behavior associated with these three types of experiences). In addition, we examine whether moral injury results in different associations with mental health and substance use outcomes for female versus male veterans...
September 20, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Marek S Kopacz, Donna Ames, Harold G Koenig
Background: Trust represents a complex emotion and interpersonal concept which assumes abandoning control over a given situation or set of circumstances, in turn yielding such control to another party. Advances in our knowledge of post-traumatic stress disorder and moral injury have underscored the need to more closely examine how trust stands to impact health outcomes in these disorders. The aim of the present study is to examine and identify relationships linking general trust with select health outcomes in a mixed sample of Veterans and Service members with a self-reported history of deployment to a combat theater and PTSD symptomatology...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Charles Maynard, Karin Nelson, Stephan D Fihn
OBJECTIVES: Military service is associated with an increased risk of disability and death after discharge. This study determined the relationships among characteristics, disability ratings, and 1-year mortality risks of veterans receiving compensation for service-connected health conditions (ie, conditions related to illnesses or injuries incurred or aggravated during military service). METHODS: This study included 4 010 720 living veterans who had ≥1 service-connected health condition and were receiving disability compensation on October 1, 2016...
September 17, 2018: Public Health Reports
Allison K Wilkerson, Thomas W Uhde, Kimberly Leslie, W Connor Freeman, Steven D LaRowe, Aicko Schumann, Bernadette M Cortese
Stress- and trauma-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by an increased sensitivity to threat cues. Given that threat detection is a critical function of olfaction and that combat trauma is commonly associated with burning odors, we sought a better understanding of general olfactory function as well as response to specific trauma-related (i.e. burning) odors in combat-related PTSD. Trauma-exposed combat veterans with ( N = 22) and without ( N = 25) PTSD were assessed for general and specific odor sensitivities using a variety of tools...
2018: Military Psychology
Samantha Hurst, Meghan Maiya, Danielle Casteel, Andrew J Sarkin, Salvatore Libretto, A Rani Elwy, Crystal L Park, Erik J Groessl
OBJECTIVE: Millions of military personnel and veterans live with chronic mental and physical health conditions that often do not respond well to pharmacological treatments. Serious side effects and lack of treatment response have led to widespread efforts to study and promote non-pharmacological and behavioral health treatments for many chronic health conditions. Yoga is an increasingly popular mind-body intervention that has growing research support for its efficacy and safety. Our objective was to explore the attitudes, perspectives, and preferences of military personnel and veterans toward yoga as a therapeutic modality, thus providing needed information for designing and promoting yoga interventions for this population...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Anne L Malaktaris, Brian A Buzzella, Maya E Siegel, Ursula S Myers, Kendall C Browne, Sonya B Norman, Abigail C Angkaw
Introduction: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to a variety of adverse mental and physical health outcomes including distressed relationships. Involving romantic partners in PTSD treatment appears to be a promising new avenue for PTSD treatment; however, additional research is necessary to clarify veteran preferences for inclusion of significant others in treatment and relationship characteristics that may influence such preferences. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) veterans' desire to include romantic partners in trauma-focused care (n = 74) and to explore psychological and relationship variables associated with preference for partner inclusion in PTSD treatment...
September 12, 2018: Military Medicine
Kimberly M Avallone, Erin R Smith, Sean Ma, Sean Gargan, Katherine E Porter, Caitlin C Authier, Brian Martis, Israel Liberzon, Sheila A M Rauch
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur in Veteran populations, particularly among Veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Extant research indicates that both TBI and PTSD can negatively impact pain broadly; however, less is known about how these variables impact one another. The current study examines the impact of self-reported post-concussive symptoms on both pain severity and pain interference among Veterans with PTSD who screened positive for a possible TBI, and subsequently, evaluates the potential mediating role of PTSD in these relationships...
September 12, 2018: Military Medicine
Donna L Schuman, Karen A Lawrence, Natalie Pope
This exploratory netnographic study is among the first to investigate military video blogs (milvlogs) posted by Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who self-published stories on military-related trauma to YouTube. Studies have shown that self-published milvlogs provide benefits such as education, social support, and self-management of chronic physical and psychological illness. The aim of this study was to explore combat veterans' milvlogs and to determine themes that emerged across the videos. We transcribed and analyzed content from 17 milvlogs...
September 10, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
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