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Neuroplastic training

Patrick Welsh
Objective: To report 2 cases of lateral elbow tendinopathy treated with a novel adaptation of tendon neuroplastic training (TNT). Clinical features: Patient 1: A 61-year-old male machine operator presented with one year of bilateral lateral elbow pain related to his occupation of using torque wrenches. Patient 2: A 37-year-old male electrician presented with two months of recurrent left lateral elbow pain related to repetitive motions of gripping and pulling at work...
August 2018: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Alexander Törpel, Fabian Herold, Dennis Hamacher, Notger G Müller, Lutz Schega
Aging is accompanied by a decrease in physical capabilities (e.g., strength loss) and cognitive decline. The observed bidirectional relationship between physical activity and brain health suggests that physical activities could be beneficial to maintain and improve brain functioning (e.g., cognitive performance). However, the exercise type (e.g., resistance training, endurance training) and their exercise variables (e.g., load, duration, frequency) for an effective physical activity that optimally enhance cognitive performance are still unknown...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Qing Gao, Yi Yu, Xiaolong Su, Zhongping Tao, Mu Zhang, Yifeng Wang, Jinsong Leng, Jorge Sepulcre, Huafu Chen
Training-induced neuroplasticity has been described in athletes' population. However, it remains largely unknown how regular training and sports proficiency modifies neuronal circuits in the human brain. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry and stepwise functional connectivity (SFC) analyses to uncover connectivity changes in the functional stream architecture in student-athletes at early stages of sensorimotor skill training. Thirty-two second-year student-athletes whose major was little-ball sports and thirty-four nonathlete controls were recruited for the study...
September 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Kyle L Ploense, Xiang Li, Danay Baker-Andresen, Amanda E Carr, Nick Woodward, Jared Bagley, Karen K Szumlinski, Timothy W Bredy, Tod E Kippin
Repeated cocaine administration induces many long-term structural and molecular changes in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and are known to underlie aspects of cocaine-seeking behavior. DNA methylation is a key long-lasting epigenetic determinant of gene expression and is implicated in neuroplasticity, however, the extent to which this epigenetic modification is involved in the neuroplasticity associated with drug addiction has received limited attention. Here, we examine the relation between DNA methylation and gene expression within the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) following limited cocaine self-administration (1h/ day), prolonged cocaine self-administration (6h/ day), and saline self-administration (1h/ day)...
September 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Rita Mara Soares Gutierrez, Caroline Cristiano Real, Catharine Ranieri Scaranzi, Priscila Crespo Garcia, Dalton Lustosa Oliveira, Luiz Roberto Britto, Raquel Simoni Pires
The aging process is associated with structural and functional changes in the nervous system. Considering that exercise can improve the quality of life of the elderly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise protocols with different motor demands on synaptic protein expression (i.e., synapsin-I and synaptophysin). Cognitive and motor brain areas and the motor performance of adult and aged animals were analyzed. Adult (7 months old) and aged (18 months old) male Wistar rats were used...
September 21, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Lindsey K Lepley, Dustin R Grooms, Julie P Burland, Steven M Davi, Jennifer L Mosher, Marc L Cormier, Adam S Lepley
OBJECTIVES: Substantial changes in neural function are historically present after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and are not rectified with traditional rehabilitation. Cross-exercise is a potential means to enhance neural excitability and improve recovery after ACLR. Hence our purpose, was to detail changes in brain activation, neural excitability and patient-reported outcomes in a cohort that completed an 8-week quadriceps-focused eccentric cross-exercise training program immediately following ACLR...
September 5, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Paul J Zak
Buddhism shares with science the task of examining the mind empirically. But Buddhism has pursued, for two millennia, direct investigation of the mind through penetrating introspection. Neuroscience, on the other hand, relies on third-person knowledge in the form of scientific observation. In the book that is the subject of this review, two friends, one a Buddhist monk trained as a molecular biologist, and the other, a distinguished neuroscientist, offer their perspectives on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, epistemology, meditation, and neuroplasticity ...
November 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Carolina C Alcantara, Luisa F García-Salazar, Marcela A Silva-Couto, Gabriela L Santos, Darcy S Reisman, Thiago L Russo
Background: Research over the last two decades has highlighted the critical role of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain neuroplasticity. Studies suggest that physical exercise may have a positive impact on the release of BDNF and therefore, brain plasticity. These results in animal and human studies have potential implications for the recovery from damage to the brain and for interventions that aim to facilitate neuroplasticity and, therefore, the rehabilitation process. Purpose: The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature investigating how aerobic exercises and functional task training influence BDNF concentrations post-stroke in humans and animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Niki Pandria, Alkinoos Athanasiou, Nikos Terzopoulos, Evangelos Paraskevopoulos, Maria Karagianni, Charis Styliadis, Chrysoula Kourtidou-Papadeli, Athanasia Pataka, Evgenia Lymperaki, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Smoking and stress cooccur in different stages of a nicotine addiction cycle, affecting brain function and showing additive impact on different physiological responses. Resting-state functional connectivity has shown potential in identifying these alterations. Nicotine addiction has been associated with detrimental effects on functional integrity of the central nervous system, including the organization of resting-state networks. Prolonged stress may result in enhanced activation of the default mode network (DMN)...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Henri J Huttunen, J Matias Palva, Laura Lindberg, Satu Palva, Ville Saarela, Elina Karvonen, Marja-Leena Latvala, Johanna Liinamaa, Sigrid Booms, Eero Castrén, Hannu Uusitalo
Amblyopia is a common visual disorder that is treatable in childhood. However, therapies have limited efficacy in adult patients with amblyopia. Fluoxetine can reinstate early-life critical period-like neuronal plasticity and has been used to recover functional vision in adult rats with amblyopia. We conducted a Phase 2, randomized (fluoxetine vs. placebo), double-blind, multicenter clinical trial examined whether or not fluoxetine can improve visual acuity in amblyopic adults. This interventional trial included 42 participants diagnosed with moderate to severe amblyopia...
August 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
K E Brown, J L Neva, S J Feldman, W R Staines, L A Boyd
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which somatosensory information is incorporated to inform motor output. Given its important behavioural implications, understanding the influence of healthy aging on the underlying neurophysiology of sensorimotor integration and whether it is modifiable through intervention is important. The aims of the current work were to: 1) profile aging-related differences in sensorimotor integration, and 2) to determine if sensorimotor integration in older adults can be modulated in response to sensory training...
October 2, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Maria Pasquini, Stefano Lai, Cristina Spalletti, Marina Cracchiolo, Sara Conti, Alessandro Panarese, Matteo Caleo, Silvestro Micera
Rodent models are decisive for translational research in healthy and pathological conditions of motor function thanks to specific similarities with humans. Here, we present an upgraded version of the M-Platform, a robotic device previously designed to train mice during forelimb retraction tasks. This new version significantly extends its possibilities for murine experiments during motor tasks: 1) an actuation system for friction adjustment allows to automatically adapt pulling difficulty; 2) the device can be used both for training, with a retraction task, and for assessment, with an isometric task; and 3) the platform can be integrated with a neurophysiology systems to record simultaneous cortical neural activity...
September 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Yu-Chi Huang, Tun-Wei Hsu, Chau-Peng Leong, Han-Chin Hsieh, Wei-Che Lin
Background: Early detection and intervention for post-stroke dysphagia could reduce the incidence of pulmonary complications and mortality. The aims of this study were to investigate the benefits of swallowing therapy in swallowing function and brain neuro-plasticity and to explore the relationship between swallowing function recovery and neuroplasticity after swallowing therapy in cerebral and brainstem stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods: We collected 17 subacute stroke patients with dysphagia (11 cerebral stroke patients with a median age of 76 years and 6 brainstem stroke patients with a median age of 70 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Abel Torres-Espín, Eric Beaudry, Keith Fenrich, Karim Fouad
Rehabilitative motor training is currently one of the most widely used approaches to promote moderate recovery following injuries of the central nervous system. Such training is generally applied in the clinical setting, whereas it is not standard in preclinical research. This is a concern as it is becoming increasingly apparent that neuroplasticity enhancing treatments require training or some form of activity as a co-therapy to promote functional recovery. Despite the importance of training and the many open questions regarding its mechanistic consequences, its use in preclinical animal models is rather limited...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Weitao Zhang, Fangshi Zhao, Wen Qin, Lin Ma
Recent resting-state fMRI studies have revealed neuroplastic alterations after long-term training. However, the neuroplastic changes that occur in professional traditional Chinese Pingju opera actors remain unclear. Twenty professional traditional Chinese Pingju opera actors and 20 age-, sex-, and handedness-matched laymen were recruited. Resting-state fMRI was obtained by using an echo-planar imaging sequence, and two metrics, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo), were utilized to assess spontaneous neural activity during resting state...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jed A Diekfuss, Dustin R Grooms, Weihong Yuan, Jonathan Dudley, Kim D Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Jonathan D Ellis, Daniel K Schneider, James Leach, Scott Bonnette, Gregory D Myer
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to present a unique prospective neurological dataset for participants who experienced an ACL injury. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal case-control. METHODS: High school female soccer athletes were evaluated using functional magnetic resonance imaging to capture resting-state brain connectivity prior to their competitive season. Two of these athletes later experienced an ACL injury (ACLI). We matched these ACLI participants with eight teammates who did not go on to sustain an ACL injury (uninjured controls, Con) based on age, grade, sex, height, and weight to examine differences in preseason connectivity...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Kathrin Rehfeld, Angie Lüders, Anita Hökelmann, Volkmar Lessmann, Joern Kaufmann, Tanja Brigadski, Patrick Müller, Notger G Müller
Animal research indicates that a combination of physical activity and sensory enrichment has the largest and the only sustaining effect on adult neuroplasticity. Dancing has been suggested as a human homologue to this combined intervention as it poses demands on both physical and cognitive functions. For the present exploratory study, we designed an especially challenging dance program in which our elderly participants constantly had to learn novel and increasingly difficult choreographies. This six-month-long program was compared to conventional fitness training matched for intensity...
2018: PloS One
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to induce structural plasticity in the human brain and to enhance cognitive functions. While previous studies focused on aerobic exercise, suggesting a link between increased cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise-induced neuroplasticity, recent findings have suggested that whole-body exercise with minor metabolic demands elicits beneficial effects on brain structure as well. In the present study, we tested if balance training, challenging the sensory-motor system and vestibular self-motion perception, induces structural plasticity...
October 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Glen M Doniger, Michal Schnaider Beeri, Alex Bahar-Fuchs, Amihai Gottlieb, Anastasia Tkachov, Hagar Kenan, Abigail Livny, Yotam Bahat, Hadar Sharon, Oran Ben-Gal, Maya Cohen, Gabi Zeilig, Meir Plotnik
Introduction: Ubiquity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) coupled with relatively ineffectual pharmacologic treatments has spurred interest in nonpharmacologic lifestyle interventions for prevention or risk reduction. However, evidence of neuroplasticity notwithstanding, there are few scientifically rigorous, ecologically relevant brain training studies focused on building cognitive reserve in middle age to protect against cognitive decline. This pilot study will examine the ability of virtual reality (VR) cognitive training to improve cognition and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in middle-aged individuals at high AD risk due to parental history...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
K Hoorelbeke, E H W Koster
2007 marks a shift in scientific literature on the cognitive vulnerabilities of depression. Preceded by a vast amount of studies exploring neuroplasticity and cognitive transfer effects, Siegle e.a. (Cognit Ther Res 2007; 31: 235-62) published the findings of a proof-of-principle study in which cognitive control training (cct) was applied to treat depression. This denotes an evolution towards clinically oriented cct studies targeting reduction of the vulnerability mechanisms of depression. Following this publication, several studies tested the effects of cct on emotional vulnerability...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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