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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#1
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#2
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928441/effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-on-spreading-depolarization-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#3
Ching-Huei Lin, Shih-Pin Hsu, Ting-Chun Cheng, Chin-Wei Huang, Yao-Chang Chiang, I-Han Hsiao, Ming-Hsueh Lee, Mei-Lin Shen, Dong Chuan Wu, Ning Zhou
Epilepsy and spreading depolarization (SD) are both episodic brain disorders and often exist together in the same individual. In CA1 pyramidal neurons of mouse hippocampal slices, induction of SD evoked epileptiform activities, including the ictal-like bursts, which occurred during the repolarizing phase of SD, and the subsequent generation of paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDSs), which are characterized by mild depolarization plateau with overriding spikes. The duration of the ictal-like activity was correlated with both the recovery time and the depolarization potential of SD, whereas the parameters of PDSs were not significantly correlated with the parameters of SD...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927423/primary-cilia-modulate-tlr4-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-hippocampal-neurons
#4
Hyunjung Baek, Hyo Jung Shin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Nara Shin, Sena Kim, Min-Hee Yi, Enji Zhang, Jinpyo Hong, Joon Won Kang, Yonghyun Kim, Cuk-Seong Kim, Dong Woon Kim
BACKGROUND: The primary cilium is an organelle that can act as a master regulator of cellular signaling. Despite the presence of primary cilia in hippocampal neurons, their function is not fully understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium influences interleukin (IL)-1β-induced NF-κB signaling, ultimately mediating the inflammatory response. We, therefore, investigated ciliary function and NF-κB signaling in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in conjunction with ciliary length analysis...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924188/dopamine-d1-receptor-subtype-mediates-acute-stress-induced-dendritic-growth-in-excitatory-neurons-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-contributes-to-suppression-of-stress-susceptibility-in-mice
#5
R Shinohara, M Taniguchi, A T Ehrlich, K Yokogawa, Y Deguchi, Y Cherasse, M Lazarus, Y Urade, A Ogawa, S Kitaoka, A Sawa, S Narumiya, T Furuyashiki
Dopamine in prefrontal cortices is implicated in cognitive and emotional functions, and the dysfunction of prefrontal dopamine has been associated with cognitive and emotional deficits in mental illnesses. These findings have led to clinical trials of dopamine-targeting drugs and brain imaging of dopamine receptors in patients with mental illnesses. Rodent studies have suggested that dopaminergic pathway projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) suppresses stress susceptibility. Although various types of mPFC neurons express several dopamine receptor subtypes, previous studies neither isolated a role of dopamine receptor subtype nor identified the site of its action in mPFC...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922155/phospho-tau-accumulation-and-structural-alterations-of-the-golgi-apparatus-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-p301s%C3%A2-tauopathy-mouse-model
#6
Alejandro Antón-Fernández, Jesús Merchán-Rubira, Jesús Avila, Félix Hernández, Javier DeFelipe, Alberto Muñoz
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a highly dynamic organelle involved in the processing and sorting of cellular proteins. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has been shown to decrease in size and become fragmented in neocortical and hippocampal neuronal subpopulations. This fragmentation and decrease in size of the GA in AD has been related to the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, the involvement of other pathological factors associated with the course of the disease, such as the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates, cannot be ruled out, since both pathologies are present in AD patients...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#7
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#8
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921695/frequency-dependent-regulation-of-intrinsic-excitability-by-voltage-activated-membrane-conductances-computational-modeling-and-dynamic-clamp
#9
Attila Szűcs, Anikó Rátkai, Katalin Schlett, Ramon Huerta
As one of the most unique properties of nerve cells, their intrinsic excitability allows them to transform synaptic inputs into action potentials. This process reflects a complex interplay between the synaptic inputs and the voltage-dependent membrane currents of the postsynaptic neuron. While neurons in natural conditions mostly fire under the action of intense synaptic bombardment and receive fluctuating patterns of excitation and inhibition, conventional techniques to characterize intrinsic excitability mainly utilize static means of stimulation...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#11
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919852/dendritic-properties-control-energy-efficiency-of-action-potentials-in-cortical-pyramidal-cells
#12
Guosheng Yi, Jiang Wang, Xile Wei, Bin Deng
Neural computation is performed by transforming input signals into sequences of action potentials (APs), which is metabolically expensive and limited by the energy available to the brain. The metabolic efficiency of single AP has important consequences for the computational power of the cell, which is determined by its biophysical properties and morphologies. Here we adopt biophysically-based two-compartment models to investigate how dendrites affect energy efficiency of APs in cortical pyramidal neurons. We measure the Na(+) entry during the spike and examine how it is efficiently used for generating AP depolarization...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919467/distribution-of-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-and-tau-phosphorylated-at-tyrosine-18-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-and-in-the-human-hippocampus
#13
Christoph Köhler, Vivien Timpa, Maja Dinekov
PURPOSE: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has been shown to phosphorylate tyrosine 18 of tau in vitro. It has been proposed that increased immunoreactivity for double-phosphorylated Syk in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease cases indicates a not yet defined neurodegenerative process. To investigate this possibility we have studied Syk and tau phosphorylated at tyrosine 18 (pTyr18) in transgenic mice and human hippocampi. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence labeling and Western blotting and compared the distribution of Syk double-phosphorylated at tyrosines 525 and 526 and pTyr18 in human tau transgenic pR5 mice and human hippocampi with low and high Braak stages for neurofibrillary tangle pathology...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919253/the-influence-of-acidic-media-on-the-effect-of-beta-amyloid-peptide-on-the-function-of-glycine-receptor-in-hippocampal-neurons
#15
J V Bukanova, E I Solntseva, R V Kondratenko, V G Skrebitsky
We have previously shown that application of beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ) at picomolar/nanomolar concentrations caused a decrease in the peak amplitude and acceleration of desensitization of the glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons (Bukanova et al., 2016). The aim of this work was to study the effect of Aβ on IGly in an acidified medium. The relevance of this work is determined by the fact that the pathogenic effects of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease are usually accompanied by inflammatory processes and acidosis...
September 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917666/hippocampal-neurophysiology-is-modified-by-a-disease-associated-c-terminal-fragment-of-tau-protein
#16
Francesco Tamagnini, Darren A Walsh, Jon T Brown, Marie K Bondulich, Diane P Hanger, Andrew D Randall
The accumulation of cleaved tau fragments in the brain is associated with several tauopathies. For this reason, we recently developed a transgenic mouse that selectively accumulates a C-Terminal 35 kDa human tau fragment (Tau35). These animals develop progressive motor and spatial memory impairment, paralleled by increased hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity. In this neurophysiological study, we focused on the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory encoding. The accumulation of Tau35 results in a significant increase of short-term facilitation of the synaptic response in the theta frequency range (10 Hz), without affecting basal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915251/computational-analysis-of-network-activity-and-spatial-reach-of-sharp-wave-ripples
#17
Sadullah Canakci, Muhammed Faruk Toy, Ahmet Fatih Inci, Xin Liu, Duygu Kuzum
Network oscillations of different frequencies, durations and amplitudes are hypothesized to coordinate information processing and transfer across brain areas. Among these oscillations, hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs) are one of the most prominent. SPW-Rs occurring in the hippocampus are suggested to play essential roles in memory consolidation as well as information transfer to the neocortex. To-date, most of the knowledge about SPW-Rs comes from experimental studies averaging responses from neuronal populations monitored by conventional microelectrodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914419/social-isolation-during-adolescence-induces-anxiety-behaviors-and-enhances-firing-activity-in-bla-pyramidal-neurons-via-mglur5-upregulation
#18
Song Lin, Xin Li, Yi-Hua Chen, Feng Gao, Hao Chen, Neng-Yuan Hu, Lang Huang, Zheng-Yi Luo, Ji-Hong Liu, Qiang-Long You, Ya-Nan Yin, Ze-Lin Li, Xiao-Wen Li, Zhuo-Jun Du, Jian-Ming Yang, Tian-Ming Gao
Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence contributes to the occurrence of psychiatric disorders and profoundly affects brain development and adult behavior. Although the impact of social isolation during adolescence on anxiety behaviors has been well studied, much less is known about the onset and underlying mechanisms of these behaviors. We observed that following 2 weeks, but not 1 week, of social isolation, adolescent mice exhibited anxiety behaviors. Strikingly, the mGluR5 protein levels in the amygdala increased concomitantly with anxiety behaviors, and both intraperitoneal administration and intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of MPEP, a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist, normalized anxiety behaviors...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913981/age-dependent-expression-of-nav1-9-channels-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-pyramidal-neurons-in-rats
#19
Maciej Gawlak, Bartłomiej Szulczyk, Adam Berlowski, Katarzyna Grzelka, Anna Stachurska, Justyna Pelka, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Maciej Malecki, Przemyslaw Kurowski, Ewa Nurowska, Pawel Szulczyk
Developmental changes that occur in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence alter behavior. These behavioral alterations likely stem from changes in prefrontal cortex neuronal activity, which may depend on the properties and expression of ion channels. Nav1.9 sodium channels conduct a Na(+) current that is TTX resistant with a low threshold and noninactivating over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Nav1.9 channels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer II and V pyramidal neurons in young (20-day-old), late adolescent (60-day-old) and adult (6-7-month-old) rats...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913780/anxiolytic-like-effects-of-%C3%AE-asarone-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-pain
#20
Jiao Tian, Zhen Tian, Shu-Li Qin, Pu-Yu Zhao, Xun Jiang, Zhen Tian
α-asarone (ASR) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and it has extensive biological effects. Clinically, anxiety disorder is a common comorbidity of chronic pain. However, limited information is available regarding the effects of ASR on chronic pain-related anxiety. This study aims to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of ASR in chronic pain mice. Chronic inflammatory pain was induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Behavioral tests, western-blot analysis and whole-cell patch recordings were performed to evaluate the subsequent events...
September 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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