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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426965/formation-and-maintenance-of-functional-spines-in-the-absence-of-presynaptic-glutamate-release
#1
Albrecht Sigler, Won Chan Oh, Cordelia Imig, Bekir Altas, Hiroshi Kawabe, Benjamin H Cooper, Hyung-Bae Kwon, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Nils Brose
Dendritic spines are the major transmitter reception compartments of glutamatergic synapses in most principal neurons of the mammalian brain and play a key role in the function of nerve cell circuits. The formation of functional spine synapses is thought to be critically dependent on presynaptic glutamatergic signaling. By analyzing CA1 pyramidal neurons in mutant hippocampal slice cultures that are essentially devoid of presynaptic transmitter release, we demonstrate that the formation and maintenance of dendrites and functional spines are independent of synaptic glutamate release...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425495/the-biglen-gpr171-peptide-receptor-system-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-contextual-fear-conditioning
#2
Erin N Bobeck, Ivone Gomes, Darlene Pena, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem, Mihaly Mezei, Lakshmi A Devi
Studies show that neuropeptide-receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. Since GPR171, a recently deorphanized receptor for the abundant neuropeptide BigLEN, is expressed in the BLA, we investigated its role in fear and anxiety-like behaviors. To carry out these studies we identified small molecule ligands using a homology model of GPR171 to virtually screen a library of compounds. One of the hits, MS0021570_1, was identified as a GPR171 antagonist based on its ability to block (i) BigLEN-mediated activation of GPR171 in heterologous cells, (ii) BigLEN-mediated hyperpolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons, and (iii) feeding induced by DREADD-mediated activation of BigLEN containing AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424320/trpa1-expression-and-its-functional-activation-in-rodent-cortex
#3
Ehsan Kheradpezhouh, Julian M C Choy, Vincent R Daria, Ehsan Arabzadeh
TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel involved in pain sensation and neurogenic inflammation. Although TRPA1 is well established in a number of organs including the nervous system, its presence and function in the mammalian cortex remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of TRPA1 in rodent somatosensory cortex through immunostaining and investigate its functional activation by whole-cell electrophysiology, Ca(2+) imaging and two-photon photoswitching. Application of TRPA1 agonist (AITC) and antagonist (HC-030031) produced significant modulation of activity in layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in both rats and mice; AITC increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and depolarized neurons, and both effects were blocked by HC-030031...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422818/inhibition-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-alters-the-excitability-of-the-commissural-pyramidal-neuron-in-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-after-chronic-constriction-injury-to-the-sciatic-nerve
#4
Shi-Hao Gao, Lin-Lin Shen, Hui-Zhong Wen, Yan-Dong Zhao, Huai-Zhen Ruan
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 in the anterior cingulate cortex has an analgesic effect during sustained nociceptive hypersensitivity. However, the specific changes in different subtypes of anterior cingulate cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as the distinct effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 inhibition on different neuronal subtypes, have not been well studied. METHODS: Retrograde labeling combined with immunofluorescence, whole cell clamp recording, and behavioral tests combined with RNA interference were performed in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve...
April 19, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422371/effects-of-m1-and-m4-activation-on-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-ca1
#5
Catherine Thorn, Michael Popiolek, Eda Stark, Jeremy Edgerton
Hippocampal networks are particularly susceptible to dysfunction in many neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, and schizophrenia. CA1, a major output region of the hippocampus, receives glutamatergic input from both hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex, via the Schaffer collateral (SC) and temporoammonic (TA) pathways, respectively. SC and TA inputs to CA1 are thought to be differentially involved in the retrieval of previously stored memories versus the encoding of novel information, and switching between these two crucial hippocampal functions is thought to critically depend on acetylcholine (ACh) acting at muscarinic receptors...
April 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422010/synaptic-input-sequence-discrimination-on-behavioral-time-scales-mediated-by-reaction-diffusion-chemistry-in-dendrites
#6
Upinder Singh Bhalla
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here we show that synaptically-driven reaction-diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418837/rapamycin-promotes-differentiation-increasing-%C3%AE-iii-tubulin-neun-and-neurod-while-suppressing-nestin-expression-in-glioblastoma-cells
#7
Michela Ferrucci, Francesca Biagioni, Paola Lenzi, Stefano Gambardella, Rosangela Ferese, Maria Teresa Calierno, Alessandra Falleni, Alfonso Grimaldi, Alessandro Frati, Vincenzo Esposito, Cristina Limatola, Francesco Fornai
Glioblastoma cells feature mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) up-regulation which relates to a variety of effects such as: lower survival, higher infiltration, high stemness and radio- and chemo-resistance. Recently, it was demonstrated that mTOR may produce a gene shift leading to altered protein expression. Therefore, in the present study we administered different doses of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin to explore whether the transcription of specific genes are modified. By using a variety of methods we demonstrate that rapamycin stimulates gene transcription related to neuronal differentiation while inhibiting stemness related genes such as nestin...
March 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416811/gene-deficiency-and-pharmacological-inhibition-of-caspase-1-confers-resilience-to-chronic-social-defeat-stress-via-regulating-the-stability-of-surface-ampars
#8
M-X Li, H-L Zheng, Y Luo, J-G He, W Wang, J Han, L Zhang, X Wang, L Ni, H-Y Zhou, Z-L Hu, P-F Wu, Y Jin, L-H Long, H Zhang, G Hu, J-G Chen, F Wang
Both inflammatory processes and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders. However, the role of caspase-1, a classic inflammatory caspase, in behavioral responses to chronic stress remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of caspase-1 on preclinical murine models of depression. We found that loss of caspase-1 expression in Caspase-1(-/-) knockout mice alleviated chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors, whereas overexpression of caspase-1 in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) mice was sufficient to induce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415676/nitrobenzylthioinosine-mimics-adenosine-to-attenuate-the-epileptiform-discharge-of-hippocampal-neurons-from-epileptic-rats
#10
Hao Huang, Jing Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhong Luo, Dongxu Li, Xiaowei Qiu, Yan Peng, Zhongxiang Xu, Ping Xu, Zucai Xu
Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), a specific inhibitor of type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter, could regulate the extracellular adenosine concentration and have protective roles in seizures. However, the protection mechanism of NBTI in seizures remains poorly understood. Here, the expression pattern and subcellular distribution of adenosine A1 receptor were detected by Western blot analysis and double-labeling immunofluorescence staining in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine induced epileptic rat model. At 24 h after pilocarpine induced rat seizures, hippocampal slices were prepared and the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) amplitude of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1 region was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413826/medial-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-transplanted-into-hippocampus-integrate-in-a-functional-and-subtype-appropriate-manner
#11
Jui-Yi Hsieh, Scott C Baraban
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) transplantation rescues disease phenotypes in various preclinical models with interneuron deficiency or dysfunction, including epilepsy. While underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear to date, a simple explanation is that appropriate synaptic integration of MGE-derived interneurons elevates GABA-mediated inhibition and modifies the firing activity of excitatory neurons in the host brain. However, given the complexity of interneurons and potential for transplant-derived interneurons to integrate or alter the host network in unexpected ways, it remains unexplored whether synaptic connections formed by transplant-derived interneurons safely mirror those associated with endogenous interneurons...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410418/heterogeneous-firing-responses-predict-diverse-couplings-to-presynaptic-activity-in-mice-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#12
Yann Zerlaut, Alain Destexhe
In this study, we present a theoretical framework combining experimental characterizations and analytical calculus to capture the firing rate input-output properties of single neurons in the fluctuation-driven regime. Our framework consists of a two-step procedure to treat independently how the dendritic input translates into somatic fluctuation variables, and how the latter determine action potential firing. We use this framework to investigate the functional impact of the heterogeneity in firing responses found experimentally in young mice layer V pyramidal cells...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408413/distinct-physiological-maturation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neuron-subtypes-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Takeaki Miyamae, Kehui Chen, David A Lewis, Guillermo Gonzalez Burgos
Parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons control the timing of pyramidal cell output in cortical neuron networks. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PV(+) neuron activity is involved in cognitive function, suggesting that PV(+) neuron maturation is critical for cognitive development. The two major PV(+) neuron subtypes found in the PFC, chandelier (ChCs) and basket cells (BCs), are thought to play different roles in cortical circuits, but the trajectories of their physiological maturation have not been compared. Using two separate mouse lines, we found that in the mature PFC both ChCs and BCs are abundant in the superficial layer 2, but only BCs are present in deeper laminar locations...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407141/sensory-deprivation-triggers-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Hila Milshtein-Parush, Samuel Frere, Limor Regev, Coren Lahav, Amit Benbenishty, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu, Inbal Goshen, Inna Slutsky
Hippocampus, a temporal lobe structure involved in learning and memory, receives information from all sensory modalities. Despite extensive research on the role of sensory experience in cortical map plasticity, little is known about whether and how sensory experience regulates functioning of the hippocampal circuits. Here, we show that 9 ± 2 days of whisker deprivation during early mouse development depresses activity of CA3 pyramidal neurons by several principal mechanisms: decrease in release probability, increase in the fraction of silent synapses, and reduction in intrinsic excitability...
April 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406538/acetylcholine-modulates-gamma-frequency-oscillations-in-the-hippocampus-by-activation-of-muscarinic-m1-receptors
#15
Ruth T Betterton, Lisa M Broad, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Jack R Mellor
Modulation of gamma oscillations is important for the processing of information and the disruption of gamma oscillations is a prominent feature of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Gamma oscillations are generated by the interaction of excitatory and inhibitory neurons where their precise frequency and amplitude are controlled by the balance of excitation and inhibition. Acetylcholine enhances the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons and supresses both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission but the net modulatory effect on gamma oscillations is not known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404824/glycolytic-inhibition-by-2-deoxy-d-glucose-abolishes-both-neuronal-and-network-bursts-in-an-in-vitro-seizure-model
#16
Li-Rong Shao, Carl E Stafstrom
Neuronal activity is energy demanding and coupled to cellular metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of glycolytic inhibition with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) on basal membrane properties, spontaneous neuronal firing, and epileptiform network bursts in hippocampal slices. The effect of glycolytic inhibition on basal membrane properties was examined in hippocampal CA1 neurons, which are not ordinarily active spontaneously. Intracellular application of 2-DG did not significantly alter the membrane input resistance, action-potential threshold, firing pattern or input-output relationship of these neurons compared with simultaneously recorded neighboring neurons without intracellular 2-DG...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400803/pretreated-quercetin-protects-gerbil-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-from-transient-cerebral-ischemic-injury-by-increasing-the-expression-of-antioxidant-enzymes
#17
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, In Hye Kim, Jae Chul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Jong-Dai Kim, Il Jun Kang, Jun Hwi Cho, Bich Na Shin, Yang Hee Kim, Yun Lyul Lee, Seung Min Park
Quercetin (QE; 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), a well-known flavonoid, has been shown to prevent against neurodegenerative disorders and ischemic insults. However, few studies are reported regarding the neuroprotective mechanisms of QE after ischemic insults. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of QE on ischemic injury and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia. QE was pre-treated once daily for 15 days before ischemia...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394323/sharp-wave-ripples-during-learning-stabilize-the-hippocampal-spatial-map
#18
Lisa Roux, Bo Hu, Ronny Eichler, Eran Stark, György Buzsáki
Cognitive representation of the environment requires a stable hippocampal map, but the mechanisms maintaining a given map are unknown. Because sharp wave-ripples (SPW-R) orchestrate both retrospective and prospective spatial information, we hypothesized that disrupting neuronal activity during SPW-Rs affects spatial representation. Mice learned new sets of three goal locations daily in a multiwell maze. We used closed-loop SPW-R detection at goal locations to trigger optogenetic silencing of a subset of CA1 pyramidal neurons...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#19
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391591/syrian-hamster-neuroplasticity-mechanisms-fail-as-temperature-declines-to-15%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-but-histaminergic-neuromodulation-persists
#20
Jock S Hamilton, Sat M Chau, Kevin J Malins, Giancarlo G Ibanez, John M Horowitz, Barbara A Horwitz
Previous research suggests that hippocampal neurons in mammalian hibernators shift their major function from memory formation at euthermic brain temperatures (T b = ~37 °C) to modulation of hibernation bout duration as T b decreases. This role of hippocampal neurons during torpor is based in part on in vivo studies showing that histamine (HA) infused into ground squirrel hippocampi lengthened torpor bouts by ~50%. However, it was unclear if HA acted directly on hippocampal neurons or on downstream brain regions via HA spillover into lateral ventricles...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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