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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333487/activation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-cognitive-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#1
C James Howell, Michael P Sceniak, Min Lang, Wenceslas Krakowiecki, Fatimah E Abouelsoud, Saloni U Lad, Heping Yu, David M Katz
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2; Amir et al., 1999), a transcriptional regulatory protein (Klose et al., 2005). Mouse models of RTT (Mecp2 mutants) exhibit excitatory hypoconnectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; Sceniak et al., 2015), a region critical for functions that are abnormal in RTT patients, ranging from learning and memory to regulation of visceral homeostasis (Riga et al...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330867/preferential-cholinergic-excitation-of-corticopontine-neurons
#2
Arielle L Baker, Ryan J O'Toole, Allan T Gulledge
Pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the neocortex comprise two broad classes of projection neurons: corticofugal neurons, including corticopontine (CPn) neurons, and intratelencephalic neurons, including commissural/callosal (COM) neurons. These non-overlapping neuron subpopulations represent discrete cortical output channels contributing to perception, decision making, and behaviour. CPn and COM neurons have distinct morphological and physiological characteristics, and divergent responses to modulatory transmitters such as serotonin and acetylcholine (ACh)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326273/spatial-representations-of-self-and-other-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Teruko Danjo, Taro Toyoizumi, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa
An animal's awareness of its location in space depends on the activity of place cells in the hippocampus. How the brain encodes the spatial position of others has not yet been identified. We investigated neuronal representations of other animals' locations in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus with an observational T-maze task in which one rat was required to observe another rat's trajectory to successfully retrieve a reward. Information reflecting the spatial location of both the self and the other was jointly and discretely encoded by CA1 pyramidal cells in the observer rat...
January 12, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326172/diversity-and-connectivity-of-layer-5-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#4
Nigro Maximiliano José, Yoshiko Hashikawa, Bernardo Rudy
Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo. However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323756/juvenile-taiep-rats-have-shorter-dendritic-trees-in-the-dorsal-field-of-the-hippocampus-without-spatial-learning-disabilities
#5
Adriana B Silva, Dolores A Bravo-Duran, Jose R Eguibar, Carmen Cortes
Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. However, until now there has been no detailed anatomical analysis of neurons in this mutant...
January 11, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322238/development-of-inhibitory-synaptic-inputs-on-layer-2-3-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Mari A Virtanen, Claudia Marvine Lacoh, Hubert Fiumelli, Markus Kosel, Shiva Tyagarajan, Mathias de Roo, Laszlo Vutskits
Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317696/unraveling-individual-differences-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-therapeutic-efficacy-of-methylphenidate
#7
Kristen A McLaurin, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M Booze, Amanda J Fairchild, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the heterogeneity of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), assignment of categorical diagnoses based on the level of impairment (e.g., Frascati criteria) obfuscates the well-acknowledged variability observed within the population of HIV-1+ individuals. The present study sought to elucidate the natural heterogeneity in adult HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats using three interrelated aims. First, heterogeneity of the HIV-1 transgene was examined using a pretest-posttest design to assess therapeutic efficacy of oral self-administration (OSA) of methylphenidate (MPH; 2...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#8
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317193/an-essential-role-for-neuregulin-4-in-the-growth-and-elaboration-of-developing-neocortical-pyramidal-dendrites
#9
Blanca Paramo, Sean Wyatt, Alun M Davies
Neuregulins, with the exception of neuregulin-4 (NRG4), have been shown to be extensively involved in many aspects of neural development and function and are implicated in several neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Here we provide the first evidence that NRG4 has a crucial function in the developing brain. We show that both the apical and basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons are markedly stunted in Nrg4-/- neonates in vivo compared with Nrg4+/+ littermates...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315524/neonatal-phenobarbital-exposure-disrupts-gabaergic-synaptic-maturation-in-rat-ca1-neurons
#10
Nour Al-Muhtasib, Alberto Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli
OBJECTIVE: Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of phenobarbital continues despite growing evidence that it exerts suboptimal seizure control and is associated with long-term alterations in brain structure, function, and behavior. Alterations following neonatal phenobarbital exposure include acute induction of neuronal apoptosis, disruption of synaptic development in the striatum, and a host of behavioral deficits. These behavioral deficits include those in learning and memory mediated by the hippocampus...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313229/effect-of-noopept-on-dynamics-of-intracellular-calcium-in-neurons-of-cultured-rat-hippocampal-slices
#11
S N Kolbaev, O P Aleksandrova, I N Sharonova, V G Skrebitsky
A neuroprotective and nootropic drug Noopept increased the frequency of spontaneous calcium transients in neurons of CA1 radial layer in cultured rat hippocampal slices. In contrast, the drug exerted no significant effect on intracellular calcium concentration and its dynamics in neurons of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer.
January 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312877/diagnostic-contribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-an-atypical-presentation-of-motor-neuron-disease
#12
Lorenzo Ugga, Cinzia Coppola, Sirio Cocozza, Dario Saracino, Ferdinando Caranci, Francesco Tuccillo, Elisabetta Signoriello, Sara Casertano, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Enrico Tedeschi
Motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease determining progressive and relentless motor deterioration involving both upper and lower motor neurons (UMN and LMN); several variants at onset are described. Here we describe a case of MND presenting as pure spastic monoparesis in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gave a substantial contribution in confirming the diagnosis and assessing the severity of UMN involvement. An isolated pyramidal syndrome, with complete absence of LMN signs, is a rare phenotype in the context of MND (less than 4% of total cases), especially if restricted to only one limb...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311744/mutations-in-vps15-perturb-neuronal-migration-in-mice-and-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-disease-in-humans
#13
Thomas Gstrein, Andrew Edwards, Anna Přistoupilová, Ines Leca, Martin Breuss, Sandra Pilat-Carotta, Andi H Hansen, Ratna Tripathy, Anna K Traunbauer, Tobias Hochstoeger, Gavril Rosoklija, Marco Repic, Lukas Landler, Viktor Stránecký, Gerhard Dürnberger, Thomas M Keane, Johannes Zuber, David J Adams, Jonathan Flint, Tomas Honzik, Marta Gut, Sergi Beltran, Karl Mechtler, Elliott Sherr, Stanislav Kmoch, Ivo Gut, David A Keays
The formation of the vertebrate brain requires the generation, migration, differentiation and survival of neurons. Genetic mutations that perturb these critical cellular events can result in malformations of the telencephalon, providing a molecular window into brain development. Here we report the identification of an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutant characterized by a fractured hippocampal pyramidal cell layer, attributable to defects in neuronal migration. We show that this is caused by a hypomorphic mutation in Vps15 that perturbs endosomal-lysosomal trafficking and autophagy, resulting in an upregulation of Nischarin, which inhibits Pak1 signaling...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306053/cd38-is-required-for-dendritic-organisation-in-visual-cortex-and-hippocampus
#14
Thom P Nelissen, Rosemary A Bamford, Shiro Tochitani, Kamuran Akkus, Aurimas Kudzinskas, Kenichiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, J Peter H Burbach, Hideo Matsuzaki, Asami Oguro-Ando
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioural deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behaviour. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioural phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behaviour. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and these behavioural phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioural phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297264/mirror-neurons-modeled-through-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-are-affected-by-channelopathies-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Gabriela Antunes, Samuel F Faria da Silva, Fabio M Simoes de Souza
Mirror neurons fire action potentials both when the agent performs a certain behavior and watches someone performing a similar action. Here, we present an original mirror neuron model based on the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) between two morpho-electrical models of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Both neurons fired spontaneously with basal firing rate that follows a Poisson distribution, and the STDP between them was modeled by the triplet algorithm. Our simulation results demonstrated that STDP is sufficient for the rise of mirror neuron function between the pairs of neocortical neurons...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295931/somatostatin-and-parvalbumin-inhibitory-synapses-onto-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-are-regulated-by-distinct-mechanisms
#16
Meryl E Horn, Roger A Nicoll
Excitation-inhibition balance is critical for optimal brain function, yet the mechanisms underlying the tuning of inhibition from different populations of inhibitory neurons are unclear. Here, we found evidence for two distinct pathways through which excitatory neurons cell-autonomously modulate inhibitory synapses. Synapses from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons onto hippocampal pyramidal neurons are regulated by neuronal firing, signaling through L-type calcium channels. Synapses from somatostatin-expressing interneurons are regulated by NMDA receptors, signaling through R-type calcium channels...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295823/the-stress-induced-transcription-factor-nr4a1-adjusts-mitochondrial-function-and-synapse-number-in-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Freddy Jeanneteau, Christian Barrère, Mariska Vos, Carlie Jm De Vries, Claude Rouillard, Daniel Levesque, Yann Dromard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Vanja Duric, Tina C Franklin, Ronald S Duman, David A Lewis, Stephen D Ginsberg, Margarita Arango-Lievano
The energetic costs of behavioral chronic stress are unlikely to be sustainable without neuronal plasticity. Mitochondria have the capacity to handle synaptic activity up to a limit before energetic depletion occurs. Protective mechanisms driven by the induction of neuronal genes likely evolved to buffer the consequences of chronic stress on excitatory neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this circuitry is vulnerable to excitotoxic insults. Little is known about the genes involved in mitochondrial adaptation to the build up of chronic stress...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290948/puerarin-attenuates-locomotor-and-cognitive-deficits-as-well-as-hippocampal-neuronal-injury-through-the-pi3k-akt1-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#18
Jinhao Tao, Yuehua Cui, Yu Duan, Nan Zhang, Congmin Wang, Fayong Zhang
Ischemic stroke causes irreversible damage to the brain. The hippocampus is a vulnerable region and plays an important role in cognition and locomotor activity. Puerarin is a phytoestrogen that has beneficial effects in treating neurological disorders. How puerarin protects against hippocampal injury and its molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with puerarin alone or together with LY294002 (an PI3K inhibitor) before ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288734/17%C3%AE-estradiol-e2-promotes-growth-and-stability-of-new-dendritic-spines-via-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-pathway-in-intact-mouse-cortex
#19
Shaofang Wang, Jun Zhu, Tonghui Xu
The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) remodels neural circuits at the synaptic level in the mammalian hippocampus and cortex. However, the underlying mechanism of synapse dynamics remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism, we traced individual dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons of the primary sensory cortex in adult female mice under E2 intervention using two-photon in vivo imaging microscopy. We confirmed the increase of the spine density upon E2 treatment in the intact mouse cortex. Furthermore, we found that this increase is due to the promotion of spine formation and the stability of newly formed spines...
December 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286389/differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-cortical-interneuron-precursors
#20
David J Tischfield, Stewart A Anderson
GABAergic cortical interneurons are a heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in regulating the output of excitatory pyramidal neurons as well as synchronizing the outputs of pyramidal neuron ensembles. Deficits in interneuron function have been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. The derivation of cortical interneurons from embryonic stem cells not only allows for the study of their development and function, but provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cortical interneuron-related disorders...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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