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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#1
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#2
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087765/synapsin-ii-regulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-is-dependent-on-interneuron-subtype
#3
Pedro Feliciano, Heidi Matos, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synapsins are epilepsy susceptibility genes that encode phosphoproteins reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause epileptic activity. We systematically investigated how SynII affects synchronous and asynchronous release components of inhibitory transmission in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We found that the asynchronous GABAergic release component is diminished in SynII deleted (SynII(-)) slices...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077511/altered-connectivity-and-synapse-maturation-of-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome
#4
F Scharkowski, Michael Frotscher, David Lutz, Martin Korte, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as the most common monogenetic cause of cognitive impairment and autism indicates how tightly the dysregulation of synapse development is linked to cognitive deficits. Symptoms of FXS include excessive adherence to patterns that point to compromised hippocampal network formation. Surprisingly, one of the most complex hippocampal synapses connecting the dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 pyramidal neurons has not been analyzed in FXS yet. Intriguingly, we found altered synaptic function between DG and CA3 in a mouse model of FXS (fmr1 knockout [KO]) demonstrated by increased mossy fiber-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency at CA3 pyramidal neurons together with increased connectivity between granule cells and CA3 neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076783/cdyl-deficiency-disrupts-neuronal-migration-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epilepsy
#5
Rui Qin, Shuai Cao, Tianjie Lyu, Cai Qi, Weiguang Zhang, Yun Wang
During brain development, the correct migration of newborn neurons is one of the determinants of circuit formation, and neuronal migration defects may lead to neurological and psychiatric disorders. The molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal migration and related disorders are poorly understood. Here, we report that Chromodomain Y-like (CDYL) is critical for neuronal migration in mice. Knocking down CDYL caused neuronal migration defects and disrupted both mobility and multipolar-to-bipolar transition of migrating neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071723/hcn1-channels-reduce-the-rate-of-exocytosis-from-a-subset-of-cortical-synaptic-terminals
#6
Zhuo Huang, Gengyu Li, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Lujan, Mala M Shah
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1) channels are predominantly located in pyramidal cell dendrites within the cortex. Recent evidence suggests these channels also exist pre-synaptically in a subset of synaptic terminals within the mature entorhinal cortex (EC). Inhibition of pre-synaptic HCN channels enhances miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto EC layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these channels decrease the release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#7
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#8
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated to acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal, and in pathological conditions like Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker evoked-NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069762/orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-respond-to-sound-and-activate-primary-auditory-cortex-neurons
#9
Daniel E Winkowski, Daniel A Nagode, Kevin J Donaldson, Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory environments change over a wide dynamic range and sensory processing can change rapidly to facilitate stable perception. While rapid changes may occur throughout the sensory processing pathway, cortical changes are believed to profoundly influence perception. Prior stimulation studies showed that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can modify receptive fields and sensory coding in A1, but the engagement of OFC during listening and the pathways mediating OFC influences on A1 are unknown. We show in mice that OFC neurons respond to sounds consistent with a role of OFC in audition...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069411/age-related-alterations-of-neuronal-excitability-and-voltage-dependent-ca-2-current-in-a-spontaneous-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Hua-Long Wang, Xiao-Hui Xian, Qiao-Yun Song, Chao Pang, Jia-Lei Wang, Ming-Wei Wang, Wen-Bin Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a progressive dysfunction of central neurons, and senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), a spontaneous AD mouse model, appears to be an excellent model to investigate the process of AD. Previous studies have indicated that neuronal excitability is impaired in transgenic AD mice. In this study, the cognition of SAMP8 mice was tested using the passive avoidance task and Morris water maze; whole-cell current-clamp recordings were used to evaluate the neuronal excitability, including the resting membrane potential, the number of action potentials, and after-hyperpolarization; and the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current in hippocampal slices was measured using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings...
January 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068338/spikelets-in-pyramidal-neurons-action-potentials-initiated-in-the-axon-initial-segment-that-do-not-activate-the-soma
#11
Martina Michalikova, Michiel W H Remme, Richard Kempter
Spikelets are small spike-like depolarizations that can be measured in somatic intracellular recordings. Their origin in pyramidal neurons remains controversial. To explain spikelet generation, we propose a novel single-cell mechanism: somato-dendritic input generates action potentials at the axon initial segment that may fail to activate the soma and manifest as somatic spikelets. Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations of compartmental neuron models, we identified four key factors controlling spikelet generation: (1) difference in firing threshold, (2) impedance mismatch, and (3) electrotonic separation between the soma and the axon initial segment, as well as (4) input amplitude...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067280/increase-in-%C3%AE-tubulin-modifications-in-the-neuronal-processes-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-both-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizure-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Hang Thi Vu, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Mitsutoshi Setou, Koji Ikegami
Neurodegeneration includes acute changes and slow-developing alterations, both of which partly involve common cellular machinery. During neurodegeneration, neuronal processes are impaired along with dysregulated post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cytoskeletal proteins. In neuronal processes, tubulin undergoes unique PTMs including a branched form of modification called glutamylation and loss of the C-terminal tyrosine residue and the penultimate glutamic acid residue forming Δ2-tubulin. Here, we investigated the state of two PTMs, glutamylation and Δ2 form, in both acute and slow-developing neurodegenerations, using a newly generated monoclonal antibody, DTE41, which had 2-fold higher affinity to glutamylated Δ2-tubulin, than to unmodified Δ2-tubulin...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063855/low-dietary-soy-isoflavonoids-increase-hippocampal-spine-synapse-density-in-ovariectomized-rats
#13
Neil J MacLusky, Gladis Thomas, Csaba Leranth
High dietary intake of plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) can affect brain structure and function. The effects of phytoestrogen intake within the range of normal animal and human dietary consumption, however, remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the isoflavonoids present in a standard low phytoestrogen laboratory rat chow on spine synapse density in the stratum radiatum of area CA1 of the hippocampus. Weanling rats (22 days old) were fed either standard chow (Teklad 2018), a nutritionally comparable diet without soy (Teklad 2016) or a custom diet containing Teklad 2016 supplemented with the principal soy isoflavonoids, daidzein and genistein, for 40 days...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#14
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#15
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053310/simultaneous-high-speed-imaging-and-optogenetic-inhibition-in-the-intact-mouse-brain
#16
Serena Bovetti, Claudio Moretti, Stefano Zucca, Marco Dal Maschio, Paolo Bonifazi, Tommaso Fellin
Genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators can report and manipulate the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, applying imaging and optogenetics simultaneously has been difficult to establish in the mammalian brain, even though combining the techniques would provide a powerful approach to reveal the functional organization of neural circuits. Here, we developed a technique based on patterned two-photon illumination to allow fast scanless imaging of GCaMP6 signals in the intact mouse brain at the same time as single-photon optogenetic inhibition with Archaerhodopsin...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052448/the-can-in-network-a-biologically-inspired-model-for-self-sustained-theta-oscillations-and-memory-maintenance-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Francesco Giovannini, Beate Knauer, Motoharu Yoshida, Laure Buhry
During working memory tasks, the hippocampus exhibits synchronous theta-band activity, which is thought to be correlated with the short-term memory maintenance of salient stimuli. Recent studies indicate that the hippocampus contains the necessary circuitry allowing it to generate and sustain theta oscillations without the need of extrinsic drive. However, the cellular and network mechanisms supporting synchronous rhythmic activity are far from being fully understood. Based on electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal pyramidal CA1 cells, we present a possible mechanism for the maintenance of such rhythmic theta-band activity in the isolated hippocampus...
January 3, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052245/medial-and-lateral-entorhinal-cortex-differentially-excite-deep-versus-superficial-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Arjun V Masurkar, Kalyan V Srinivas, David H Brann, Richard Warren, Daniel C Lowes, Steven A Siegelbaum
Although hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs) were thought to comprise a uniform population, recent evidence supports two distinct sublayers along the radial axis, with deep neurons more likely to form place cells than superficial neurons. CA1 PNs also differ along the transverse axis with regard to direct inputs from entorhinal cortex (EC), with medial EC (MEC) providing spatial information to PNs toward CA2 (proximal CA1) and lateral EC (LEC) providing non-spatial information to PNs toward subiculum (distal CA1)...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052244/brain-state-dependence-of-hippocampal-subthreshold-activity-in-awake-mice
#19
Brad K Hulse, Evgueniy V Lubenov, Athanassios G Siapas
Monitoring the membrane potential of individual neurons has uncovered how single-cell properties contribute to network processing across different brain states in neocortex. In contrast, the subthreshold modulation of hippocampal neurons by brain state has not been systematically characterized. To address this, we combined whole-cell recordings from dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons with multisite extracellular recordings and behavioral measurements in awake mice. We show that the average membrane potential, amplitude of subthreshold fluctuations, and distance to spike threshold are all modulated by brain state...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051768/creb-overexpression-in-dorsal-ca1-ameliorates-long-term-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats
#20
Xiao-Wen Yu, Daniel M Curlik, M Matthew Oh, Jerry Cp Yin, John F Disterhoft
The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents facilitates cognition, and increases intrinsic excitability. However, it has yet to be tested if increasing CREB expression also ameliorates age-related behavioral and biophysical deficits...
January 4, 2017: ELife
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