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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771287/term-or-preterm-cesarean-section-delivery-does-not-lead-to-long-term-detrimental-consequences-in-mice
#2
Morgane Chiesa, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological studies have provided contradictory data on the deleterious sequels of cesarean section (C-section) delivery and their links with developmental brain disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. To gain better insight on these issues, we have now compared physiological, morphological, and behavioral parameters in vaginal, term, and preterm C-section delivered mice. We report that C-section delivery does not lead to long-term behavioral alterations though preterm C-section delivery modifies communicative behaviors in pups...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768361/a-novel-kiaa0196-mutation-in-a-chinese-patient-with-spastic-paraplegia-8-a-case-report
#3
Limin Ma, Yingying Shi, Zhongcan Chen, Shujian Li, Weiwei Qin, Jiewen Zhang
RATIONALE: We report a case of Spastic paraplegia 8 (SPG8) with a novel mutation of KIAA0196 gene. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 12-year-old boy presented as ankle sprained, lower limb stiffness, abnormal gait since he was 5 years old. DIAGNOSES: The next generation sequence showed a novel c.1128delG (p.L376fs) mutation in KIAA0196 gene, the electromyography showed the pyramidal tract conduction dysfunction and deep sensory conduction abnormalities of lower limbs without motor neuron damage...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768201/activation-of-ephb2-forward-signaling-enhances-memory-consolidation
#4
Jessica M Alapin, Monica Dines, Maria Vassiliev, Tal Tamir, Alon Ram, Clifford Locke, Ji Yu, Raphael Lamprecht
EphB2 is involved in enhancing synaptic transmission and gene expression. To explore the roles of EphB2 in memory formation and enhancement, we used a photoactivatable EphB2 (optoEphB2) to activate EphB2 forward signaling in pyramidal neurons in lateral amygdala (LA). Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning, but not minutes afterward, enhanced long-term, but not short-term, auditory fear conditioning. Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning led to activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ responsive element binding (CREB) protein...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765314/underlying-mechanisms-of-cooperativity-input-specificity-and-associativity-of-long-term-potentiation-through-a-positive-feedback-of-local-protein-synthesis
#5
Lijie Hao, Zhuoqin Yang, Jinzhi Lei
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a specific form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that is a leading mechanism of learning and memory in mammals. The properties of cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity are essential for LTP; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, based on experimentally observed phenomena, we introduce a computational model of synaptic plasticity in a pyramidal cell to explore the mechanisms responsible for the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765299/src-kinase-dependent-rapid-non-genomic-modulation-of-hippocampal-spinogenesis-induced-by-androgen-and-estrogen
#6
Mika Soma, Jonghyuk Kim, Asami Kato, Suguru Kawato
Dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from an axon terminal at the synapse. Memories are stored in synapses which consist of spines and presynapses. Rapid modulations of dendritic spines induced by hippocampal sex steroids, including dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2), are essential for synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid non-genomic modulation through synaptic receptors of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) as well as its downstream kinase signaling, however, have not been well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763986/early-iv-injected-human-dermis-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-do-not-pass-through-damaged-blood-brain-barrier
#7
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Bich Na Shin, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae Chul Lee, Jeong-Ran Park, Se-Ran Yang, Sungwoo Ryoo, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Il Jun Kang, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won
There is lack of researches on effects of intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against transient cerebral ischemia (TCI). We investigated the disruption of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and examined entry of human dermis-derived MSCs (hDMSCs) into the damaged hippocampal CA1 area in a gerbil model of TCI, and their subsequent effects on neuroprotection and cognitive function. Impairments of neurons, and BBB were examined by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and Evans blue and immunoglobulin G (IgG) leakage...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760195/neuron-specific-hur-deficient-mice-spontaneously-develop-motor-neuron-disease
#8
Kevin Sun, Xiao Li, Xing Chen, Ying Bai, Gao Zhou, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Bruce Lamb, Thomas A Hamilton, Ching-Yi Lin, Yu-Shang Lee, Tomasz Herjan
Human Ag R (HuR) is an RNA binding protein in the ELAVL protein family. To study the neuron-specific function of HuR, we generated inducible, neuron-specific HuR-deficient mice of both sexes. After tamoxifen-induced deletion of HuR, these mice developed a phenotype consisting of poor balance, decreased movement, and decreased strength. They performed significantly worse on the rotarod test compared with littermate control mice, indicating coordination deficiency. Using the grip-strength test, it was also determined that the forelimbs of neuron-specific HuR-deficient mice were much weaker than littermate control mice...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760176/postnatal-ablation-of-synaptic-retinoic-acid-signaling-impairs-cortical-information-processing-and-sensory-discrimination-in-mice
#9
Esther Park, Michelle Tjia, Yi Zuo, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors (RARs) are well-established essential transcriptional regulators during embryonic development. Recent findings in cultured neurons identified an independent and critical post-transcriptional role of RA and RARα in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in mature neurons. However, the functional relevance of synaptic RA signaling in vivo has not been established. Here, using somatosensory cortex as a model system and the RARα conditional knockout mouse as a tool, we applied multiple genetic manipulations to delete RARα postnatally in specific populations of cortical neurons, and asked whether synaptic RA signaling observed in cultured neurons is involved in cortical information processing in vivo Indeed, conditional ablation of RARα in mice via a CaMKIIα-Cre or a layer 5-Cre driver line or via somatosensory cortex-specific viral expression of Cre-recombinase impaired whisker-dependent texture discrimination, suggesting a critical requirement of RARα expression in L5 pyramidal neurons of somatosensory cortex for normal tactile sensory processing...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755351/gastrodin-attenuates-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-induced-cognitive-deficits-via-regulating-a%C3%AE-related-proteins-and-reducing-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#10
Bo Liu, Jian-Mei Gao, Fei Li, Qi-Hai Gong, Jing-Shan Shi
Gastrodin (GAS), an active constituent extracted from Gastrodia elata Blume, is used to treat ischemic stroke, epilepsy, dizziness, and dementia for centuries in China. This study examined its effects on vascular dementia (VD) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. VD was established by ligation of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). A total of 7 days after BCCAO surgery, GAS (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was orally administered for 28 consecutive days to evaluate therapeutic effects. Cognitive function was tested by the Morris water maze...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750936/satb2-ablation-decreases-ptz-induced-seizure-susceptibility-and-pyramidal-neuronal-excitability
#11
Y Li, W Y Huang, C Y Lv, J Cong, W Jie, S J Li, T M Gao, J M Li
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is a transcriptional regulator and people with SATB2 mutation or duplication could display epilepsy. However, whether Satb2 is related with epilepsy and its mechanisms are largely unexplored. Here we found that the expression of Satb2 was decreased following the neuronal hyperactivities. Ablation of Satb2 in mice would decrease incidence and stage of seizure induced by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). At cellular levels, we found pyramidal neuronal excitability and excitatory synaptic inputs in CA1 were decreased in Satb2 mutant mice...
May 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745593/-high-frequency-stimulations-change-the-phase-locking-relationship-between-neuronal-firing-and-the-rhythms-of-field-potentials
#12
Weijian Ma, Zhouyan Feng, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Ziyan Cai
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully used to treat a variety of brain diseases in clinic. Recent investigations have suggested that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of electrical pulses used by DBS might change pathological rhythms in action potential firing of neurons, which may be one of the important mechanisms of DBS therapy. However, experimental data are required to confirm the hypothesis. In the present study, 1 min of 100 Hz HFS was applied to the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742958/mitochondrial-zn-2-accumulation-a-potential-trigger-of-hippocampal-ischemic-injury
#13
Sung G Ji, Yuliya V Medvedeva, Hwai-Lee Wang, Hong Z Yin, John H Weiss
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disabilities worldwide, and it has been long hoped that improved understanding of relevant injury mechanisms would yield targeted neuroprotective therapies. While Ca2+ overload during ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity has been identified as a major contributor, failures of glutamate targeted therapies to achieve desired clinical efficacy have dampened early hopes for the development of new treatments. However, additional studies examining possible contributions of Zn2+ , a highly prevalent cation in the brain, have provided new insights that may help to rekindle the enthusiasm...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742799/hippocampal-place-cell-dysfunction-and-the-effects-of-muscarinic-m-1-receptor-agonism-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Claire R Galloway, Kaushik Ravipati, Suyashi Singh, Evan P Lebois, Robert M Cohen, Allan I Levey, Joseph R Manns
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that disproportionately impacts memory and the hippocampus. However, it is unclear how AD pathology influences the activity of surviving neurons in the hippocampus to contribute to the memory symptoms in AD. One well-understood connection between spatial memory and neuronal activity in healthy brains is the activity of place cells, neurons in the hippocampus that fire preferentially in a specific location of a given environment (the place field of the place cell)...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#15
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740287/inhibition-of-glur-current-in-microvilli-of-sensory-neurons-via-na-microdomain-coupling-among-glur-hcn-channel-and-na-k-pump
#16
Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Mitsuru Saito, Jonghwa Won, Jin Young Bae, Hajime Sato, Hiroki Toyoda, Eriko Kuramoto, Mikihiko Kogo, Takuma Tanaka, Takeshi Kaneko, Seog Bae Oh, Yong Chul Bae, Youngnam Kang
Glutamatergic dendritic EPSPs evoked in cortical pyramidal neurons are depressed by activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels expressed in dendritic spines. This depression has been attributed to shunting effects of HCN current ( I h ) on input resistance or I h deactivation. Primary sensory neurons in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN) have the somata covered by spine-like microvilli that express HCN channels. In rat MTN neurons, we demonstrated that I h enhancement apparently diminished the glutamate receptor (GluR) current ( I GluR ) evoked by puff application of glutamate/AMPA and enhanced a transient outward current following I GluR (OT- I GluR )...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740284/ionic-mechanism-underlying-rebound-depolarization-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#17
Przemysław Kurowski, Katarzyna Grzelka, Paweł Szulczyk
Rebound depolarization (RD) occurs after membrane hyperpolarization and converts an arriving inhibitory signal into cell excitation. The purpose of our study was to clarify the ionic mechanism of RD in synaptically isolated layer V medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons in slices obtained from 58- to 62-day-old male rats. The RD was evoked after a step hyperpolarization below -80 mV, longer than 150 ms in 192 of 211 (91%) tested neurons. The amplitude of RD was 30.6 ± 1.2 mV above the resting membrane potential (-67...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740022/hyperactivity-of-rac1-gtpase-pathway-impairs-neuritogenesis-of-cortical-neurons-by-altering-actin-dynamics
#18
Valentina Zamboni, Maria Armentano, Gaia Berto, Elisa Ciraolo, Alessandra Ghigo, Donatella Garzotto, Alessandro Umbach, Ferdinando DiCunto, Elena Parmigiani, Marina Boido, Alessandro Vercelli, Nadia El-Assawy, Alessandro Mauro, Lorenzo Priano, Luisa Ponzoni, Luca Murru, Maria Passafaro, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
The small-GTPase Rac1 is a key molecular regulator linking extracellular signals to actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Loss-of-function mutations in RAC1 and other genes of the Rac signaling pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The Rac1 activity is negatively controlled by GAP proteins, however the effect of Rac1 hyperactivity on neuronal networking in vivo has been poorly studied. ArhGAP15 is a Rac-specific negative regulator, expressed in the main subtypes of pyramidal cortical neurons...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738844/removal-of-area-ca3-from-hippocampal-slices-induces-postsynaptic-plasticity-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-that-normalizes-ca1-pyramidal-cell-discharge
#19
Theodore C Dumas, Michael R Uttaro, Carolina Barriga, Tiffany Brinkley, Maryam Halavi, Susan N Wright, Michele Ferrante, Rebekah C Evans, Sarah L Hawes, Erin M Sanders
Neural networks that undergo acute insults display remarkable reorganization. This injury related plasticity is thought to permit recovery of function in the face of damage that cannot be reversed. Previously, an increase in the transmission strength at Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was observed after long-term activity reduction in organotypic hippocampal slices. Here we report that, following acute preparation of adult rat hippocampal slices and surgical removal of area CA3, input to area CA1 was reduced and Schaffer collateral synapses underwent functional strengthening...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733310/ex-utero-electroporation-and-organotypic-slice-cultures-of-embryonic-mouse-brains-for-live-imaging-of-migrating-gabaergic-interneurons
#20
Lara Eid, Mathieu Lachance, Gilles Hickson, Elsa Rossignol
GABAergic interneurons (INs) are critical components of neuronal networks that drive cognition and behavior. INs destined to populate the cortex migrate tangentially from their place of origin in the ventral telencephalon (including from the medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE, CGE)) to the dorsal cortical plate in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Different methodologies have been developed over the years to genetically manipulate specific pathways and investigate how they regulate the dynamic cytoskeletal changes required for proper IN migration...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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