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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#1
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809843/tuning-in-the-hippocampal-theta-band-in-vitro-methodologies-for-recording-from-the-isolated-rodent-septohippocampal-circuit
#2
Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams
This protocol outlines the procedures for preparing and recording from the isolated whole hippocampus, of WT and transgenic mice, along with recent improvements in methodologies and applications for the study of theta oscillations. A simple characterization of the isolated hippocampal preparation is presented whereby the relationship between internal hippocampal theta oscillators is examined together with the activity of pyramidal cells, and GABAergic interneurons, of the cornu ammonis-1 (CA1) and subiculum (SUB) areas...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807873/neurophysiologically-informed-markers-of-individual-variability-and-pharmacological-manipulation-of-human-cortical-gamma
#3
A D Shaw, R J Moran, S D Muthukumaraswamy, J Brealy, D E Linden, K J Friston, K D Singh
The ability to quantify synaptic function at the level of cortical microcircuits from non-invasive data would be enormously useful in the study of neuronal processing in humans and the pathophysiology that attends many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we provide proof of principle that one can estimate inter-and intra-laminar interactions among specific neuronal populations using induced gamma responses in the visual cortex of human subjects - using dynamic causal modelling based upon the canonical microcircuit (CMC; a simplistic model of a cortical column)...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805794/large-scale-mapping-of-cortical-synaptic-projections-with-extracellular-electrode-arrays
#4
Mark Shein-Idelson, Lorenz Pammer, Mike Hemberger, Gilles Laurent
Understanding circuit computation in the nervous system requires sampling activity over large neural populations and maximizing the number of features that can be extracted. By combining planar arrays of extracellular electrodes with the three-layered cortex of turtles, we show that synaptic signals induced along individual axons as well as action potentials can be easily captured. Two types of information can be extracted from these signals, the neuronal subtype (inhibitory or excitatory)-whose identification is more reliable than with traditional measures such as action potential width-and a (partial) spatial map of functional axonal projections from individual neurons...
August 14, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794194/induced-oscillations-in-turtle-cortex-are-coherent-at-the-mesoscale-of-population-activity-but-not-at-the-microscale-of-the-membrane-potential-of-neurons
#5
Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
Bursts of oscillatory neural activity have been hypothesized to be a core mechanism by which remote brain regions can communicate. Such hypothesis raises the question to what extent oscillations are coherent across spatially distant neural populations. To address this question, we obtained local field potential (LFP) and membrane potential recordings from the visual cortex of turtle in response to visual stimulation of the retina. The time-frequency analysis of these recordings revealed pronounced bursts of oscillatory neural activity and a large trial-to-trial variability in the spectral and temporal properties of the observed oscillations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791395/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-inhibits-the-damage-of-rat-hippocampal-neurons-by-tlr4-myd88-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#6
Keyan Chen, Yingjie Sun, Yugang Diao, Liu Ji, Dandan Song, Tiezheng Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist on the damage of hippocampal neurons and the expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (Myd88)/nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signal pathway‑associated factors in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham operation (Sham); CPB; CPB + α7nAChR agonist PHA568487 (PHA); CPB + α7nAChR inhibitor MLA (MLA); and CPB + PHA568487 + TLR4 antagonist (CPT)...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790895/brain-metal-distribution-and-neuro-inflammatory-profiles-after-chronic-vanadium-administration-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#7
Oluwabusayo R Folarin, Amanda M Snyder, Douglas G Peters, Funmilayo Olopade, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783139/antipsychotic-induced-hdac2-transcription-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-leads-to-synaptic-and-cognitive-side-effects
#8
Daisuke Ibi, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Carolina Muguruza, Justin M Saunders, Supriya A Gaitonde, José L Moreno, Maryum K Ijaz, Vishaka Santosh, Alexey Kozlenkov, Terrell Holloway, Jeremy Seto, Aintzane García-Bea, Mitsumasa Kurita, Grace E Mosley, Yan Jiang, Daniel J Christoffel, Luis F Callado, Scott J Russo, Stella Dracheva, Juan F López-Giménez, Yongchao Ge, Carlos R Escalante, J Javier Meana, Schahram Akbarian, George W Huntley, Javier González-Maeso
Antipsychotic drugs remain the standard for schizophrenia treatment. Despite their effectiveness in treating hallucinations and delusions, prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medications leads to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia patients and animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying these negative effects on cognition remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that chronic antipsychotic drug exposure increases nuclear translocation of NF-κB in both mouse and human frontal cortex, a trafficking event triggered via 5-HT2A-receptor-dependent downregulation of the NF-κB repressor IκBα...
August 7, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782641/nitric-oxide-cgmp-signaling-via-guanylyl-cyclase-isoform-1-modulates-glutamate-and-gaba-release-in-somatosensory-cortex-of-mice
#9
Qi Wang, Evanthia Mergia, Doris Koesling, Thomas Mittmann
In hippocampus, two guanylyl cyclases (NO-GC1 and NO-GC2) are involved in the transduction of the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on synaptic transmission. However, the respective roles of the NO-GC isoforms on synaptic transmission are less clear in other regions of the brain. In the present study, we used knock-out mice deficient for the NO-GC1 isoform (NO-GC1 KO) to analyze its role in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission at pyramidal neurons in layers II/III of somatosensory cortex. NO-GC1 KO slices revealed reduced frequencies of miniature excitatory- and inhibitory-postsynaptic currents, increased paired-pulse ratios and decreased input-output curves of evoked signals, which indicated the reduction of glutamate and GABA release in NO-GC1 KO mice...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782435/rufinamide-pretreatment-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-gerbil-hippocampus
#10
Chan Woo Park, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, In Hye Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Bich-Na Shin, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Sung Koo Kim, Myoung Cheol Shin, Taek Geun Ohk, Jun Hwi Cho, Moo-Ho Won, Young Joo Lee, Jeong Yeol Seo, Joon Ha Park
OBJECTIVES: Rufinamide, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker, is widely used for the clinical treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Previous studies have demonstrated that VGSC blockers have neuroprotective properties against ischemic damage following experimental cerebral ischemia. However, protective effects of rufinamide against cerebral ischemic insults have not been addressed. Therefore, in the present study, we firstly examined neuroprotective effects of rufinamide using a gerbil model of transient global cerebral ischemia...
August 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779978/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-ethanol-on-the-pyramidal-tract-in-developing-rats
#11
Michael W Miller
Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons. Electron microscopic analyses of the pyramidal tracts of the offspring of pregnant rat dams fed a control diet ad libitum, pair-fed a liquid control diet, or fed an ethanol-containing diet ad libitum were performed...
August 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777754/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b3-msrb3-protein-associates-with-synaptic-vesicles-and-its-expression-changes-in-the-hippocampi-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#12
Stephanie L Adams, Laurent Benayoun, Kathy Tilton, Olivia R Chavez, Jayandra J Himali, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Sudha Seshadri, Ivana Delalle
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified susceptibility loci associated with decreased hippocampal volume, and found hippocampal subfield-specific effects at MSRB3 (methionine sulfoxide reductase-B3). The MSRB3 locus was also linked to increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we uncovered novel sites of MsrB3 expression in CA pyramidal layer and arteriolar walls by using automated immunohistochemistry on hippocampal sections from 23 individuals accompanied by neuropathology reports and clinical dementia rating scores...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776200/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-14-rgs14-is-expressed-pre-and-postsynaptically-in-neurons-of-hippocampus-basal-ganglia-and-amygdala-of-monkey-and-human-brain
#13
Katherine E Squires, Kyle J Gerber, Jean-Francois Pare, Mary Rose Branch, Yoland Smith, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional signaling protein primarily expressed in mouse pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area CA2 where it regulates synaptic plasticity important for learning and memory. However, very little is known about RGS14 protein expression in the primate brain. Here, we validate the specificity of a new polyclonal RGS14 antibody that recognizes not only full-length RGS14 protein in primate, but also lower molecular weight forms of RGS14 protein matching previously predicted human splice variants...
August 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772124/proximodistal-heterogeneity-of-hippocampal-ca3-pyramidal-neuron-intrinsic-properties-connectivity-and-reactivation-during-memory-recall
#14
Qian Sun, Alaba Sotayo, Alejandro S Cazzulino, Anna M Snyder, Christine A Denny, Steven A Siegelbaum
The hippocampal CA3 region is classically viewed as a homogeneous autoassociative network critical for associative memory and pattern completion. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a striking heterogeneity along the transverse, or proximodistal, axis of CA3 in spatial encoding and memory. Here we report the presence of striking proximodistal gradients in intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic connectivity for dorsal CA3. A decreasing gradient of mossy fiber synaptic strength along the proximodistal axis is mirrored by an increasing gradient of direct synaptic excitation from entorhinal cortex...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772121/cell-type-specific-translation-profiling-reveals-a-novel-strategy-for-treating-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
Sophie R Thomson, Sang S Seo, Stephanie A Barnes, Susana R Louros, Melania Muscas, Owen Dando, Caoimhe Kirby, David J A Wyllie, Giles E Hardingham, Peter C Kind, Emily K Osterweil
Excessive mRNA translation downstream of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) is a core pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FX); however, the differentially translating mRNAs that contribute to altered neural function are not known. We used translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) and RNA-seq to identify mistranslating mRNAs in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the FX mouse model (Fmr1(-/y)) hippocampus, which exhibit exaggerated mGlu1/5-induced long-term synaptic depression (LTD). In these neurons, we find that the Chrm4 transcript encoding muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 4 (M4) is excessively translated, and synthesis of M4 downstream of mGlu5 activation is mimicked and occluded...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768803/modulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-excitation-inhibition-balance-rescues-social-behavior-in-cntnap2-deficient-mice
#16
Aslihan Selimbeyoglu, Christina K Kim, Masatoshi Inoue, Soo Yeun Lee, Alice S O Hong, Isaac Kauvar, Charu Ramakrishnan, Lief E Fenno, Thomas J Davidson, Matthew Wright, Karl Deisseroth
Alterations in the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition (E:I balance) have been implicated in the neural circuit activity-based processes that contribute to autism phenotypes. We investigated whether acutely reducing E:I balance in mouse brain could correct deficits in social behavior. We used mice lacking the CNTNAP2 gene, which has been implicated in autism, and achieved a temporally precise reduction in E:I balance in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) either by optogenetically increasing the excitability of inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) neurons or decreasing the excitability of excitatory pyramidal neurons...
August 2, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768741/theta-frequency-selectivity-in-the-somatic-spike-triggered-average-of-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-is-dependent-on-hcn-channels
#17
Anindita Das, Rishikesh Narayanan
The ability to distill specific frequencies from complex spatiotemporal patterns of afferent inputs is a pivotal functional requirement for neurons residing in networks receiving frequency-multiplexed inputs. Although the expression of theta-frequency subthreshold resonance is established in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, it is not known if their spike initiation dynamics manifest spectral selectivity or if their intrinsic properties are tuned to process gamma-frequency inputs. Here, we measured the spike-triggered average (STA) of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons through electrophysiological recordings and quantified spectral selectivity in their spike initiation dynamics and their coincidence detection window (CDW)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766957/immunohistochemical-detection-of-c9orf72-protein-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-motor-neurone-disease-patterns-of-immunostaining-and-an-evaluation-of-commercial-antibodies
#18
Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew C Robinson, Sara Rollinson, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Shangxi Xiao, Janice Robertson, David M A Mann
We have employed as 'gold standards' two in-house, well-characterised and validated polyclonal antibodies, C9-L and C9-S, which detect the longer and shorter forms of C9orf72, and have compared seven other commercially available antibodies with these in order to evaluate the utility of the latter as credible tools for the demonstration of C9orf72. C9-L and C9-S antibodies immunostained cytoplasmic 'speckles', and the nuclear membrane, respectively, in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and in patients with ALS alone...
August 2, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766701/rationale-for-an-adjunctive-therapy-with-fenofibrate-in-pharmacoresistant-nocturnal-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Monica Puligheddu, Miriam Melis, Giuliano Pillolla, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Giovanni Mario Terzano, Sonia Aroni, Claudia Sagheddu, Francesco Marrosu, Marco Pistis, Anna Lisa Muntoni
OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an idiopathic partial epilepsy with a family history in about 25% of cases, with autosomal dominant inheritance (autosomal dominant NFLE [ADNFLE]). Traditional antiepileptic drugs are effective in about 55% of patients, whereas the rest remains refractory. One of the key pathogenetic mechanisms is a gain of function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the mutated α4 or β2 subunits. Fenofibrate, a common lipid-regulating drug, is an agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) that is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which negatively modulates the function of β2-containing nAChR...
August 2, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764767/monoamine-oxidase-b-is-elevated-in-alzheimer-disease-neurons-is-associated-with-%C3%AE-secretase-and-regulates-neuronal-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-levels
#20
Sophia Schedin-Weiss, Mitsuhiro Inoue, Lenka Hromadkova, Yasuhiro Teranishi, Natsuko Goto Yamamoto, Birgitta Wiehager, Nenad Bogdanovic, Bengt Winblad, Anna Sandebring-Matton, Susanne Frykman, Lars O Tjernberg
BACKGROUND: Increased levels of the pathogenic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), released from its precursor by the transmembrane protease γ-secretase, are found in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. Interestingly, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity is also increased in AD brain, but its role in AD pathogenesis is not known. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the increased MAO-B expression in AD brain starts several years before the onset of the disease. Here, we show a potential connection between MAO-B, γ-secretase and Aβ in neurons...
August 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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