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Microbiome IBS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535609/microbiome-and-gut-dysbiosis
#1
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460770/probiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-where-are-we
#2
REVIEW
Giovanni Barbara, Cesare Cremon, Fernando Azpiroz
We have only recently begun to understand how alterations of the intestinal microbial ecosystem lead to the disruption of host-microbial interactions and are associated with diseases, including functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although we are still far from understanding the human microbiome, gut microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host and may represent a therapeutic option for diseases characterized by dysbiosis such as IBS...
December 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453528/intestinal-microbiome-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-before-and-after-gut-directed-hypnotherapy
#3
Johannes Peter, Camille Fournier, Bettina Keip, Nina Rittershaus, Nicola Stephanou-Rieser, Marija Durdevic, Clemens Dejaco, Maria Michalski, Gabriele Moser
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder with brain-gut-microbiome alterations. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (GHT) has been shown to improve quality of life and symptoms in IBS. This therapy targets psychological coping, central nervous processing and brain-gut interaction. Studies have also demonstrated effects of hypnosis on intestinal transit and the mucosal immune system. So far, no study has examined the effect of GHT on the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed at examining microbial composition, IBS symptoms, and psychological distress before and after GHT...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444291/endocrine-regulation-of-gut-function-a-role-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Dervla O'Malley
NEW FINDINGS: Pathophysiological changes linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) include stress and immune activation, changes in gastrointestinal microbial and bile acids profiles and sensitisation of extrinsic and intrinsic gut neurons. This review explores the potential role for L-cells in these pathophysiological changes. L-cells, which secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to nutrients, microbial factors, bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, may sense IBS-related changes in the luminal environment...
November 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423561/an-open-labeled-study-on-fecal-microbiota-transfer-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-reveals-improvement-in-abdominal-pain-associated-with-the-relative-abundance-of-akkermansia-muciniphila
#5
Rebeca M Cruz-Aguliar, Nina Wantia, Thomas Clavel, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Thorsten Buch, Monther Bajbouj, Dirk Haller, Dirk Busch, Roland M Schmid, Christoph K Stein-Thoeringer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The gut microbiota is altered in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and microbiota manipulations by diet or antibiotics can reduce its symptoms. As fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) in IBS is still controversial, we investigated the clinical and side effects of FMT in a cohort of IBS patients with recurrent, treatment refractory symptoms, and studied gut microbiota signatures. METHODS: Using an observational, prospective study design, we applied FMTs from one unrelated, healthy donor to 13 IBS patients...
November 13, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384950/development-of-the-pediatric-gut-microbiome-impact-on-health-and-disease
#6
Faith D Ihekweazu, James Versalovic
The intestinal microbiota are important in human growth and development. Microbial composition may yield insights into the temporal development of microbial communities and vulnerabilities to disorders of microbial ecology such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Discoveries of key microbiome features of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are lending new insights into possible therapies or preventative strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the development of the pediatric gastrointestinal microbiome, the influence of the microbiome on the developing brain through the gut-brain axis, and the impact of dysbiosis on disease development...
November 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335629/irritable-bowel-syndrome-following-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
Pete Dayananda, Mark H Wilcox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and the role of the gut microbiome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: PI-IBS is a recognized pathological entity and was estimated to affect 1 in 10 patients with infectious enteritis. CDI remains a major healthcare burden worldwide with a one in four chance of recurrence of symptoms following treatment...
October 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294792/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-prebiotics-probiotics-synbiotics-and-antibiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Alexander C Ford, Lucinda A Harris, Brian E Lacy, Eamonn M M Quigley, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder. Disturbances in the gastrointestinal microbiome may be involved in its aetiology. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics in IBS. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (up to July 2017). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adults with IBS, comparing prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics or antibiotics with placebo or no therapy were eligible...
November 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288077/the-role-of-inflammation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs
#9
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Alex Yu Sen Soh, Wayren Loke, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex, functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. Despite the global prevalence and disease burden of IBS, its underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Inflammation may play a pathogenic role in IBS. Studies have highlighted the persistence of mucosal inflammation at the microscopic and molecular level in IBS, with increased recruitment of enteroendocrine cells. Substantial overlaps between IBS and inflammatory bowel disease have also been reported...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189148/antibiotics-a-risk-factor-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-a-population-based-cohort
#10
Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Anne Line Engsbro, Peter Bytzer
OBJECTIVES: Use of antibiotics affects the composition of the gut microbiome. The microbiome is thought to play a role in development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but antibiotics as a possible risk factor for IBS has not been clarified. We aimed to explore if antibiotics is a risk factor for IBS by investigating use of antibiotics and development of IBS in a cohort from the Danish background population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An internet-based web panel representative of the Danish background population was invited to participate in a survey regarding the epidemiology of IBS in 2010, 2011 and 2013...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148765/relationships-of-microbiome-markers-with-extraintestinal-psychological-distress-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-in-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Emily B Hollister, Kevin C Cain, Robert J Shulman, Monica E Jarrett, Robert L Burr, Cynthia Ko, Jasmine Zia, Claire J Han, Margaret M Heitkemper
INTRODUCTION: Altered microbial diversity has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Less is known about the relationship of microbiome with extraintestinal pain and psychological distress symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in persons with IBS. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of fecal microbiota to GI symptoms, stool consistency, psychological distress, extraintestinal pain, and QOL in participants meeting Rome III criteria for IBS...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136337/the-effect-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-on-microbiota-composition-in-a-clinical-trial-of-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Keren Hod, Roy Dekel, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Ami Sperber, Yishai Ron, Mona Boaz, Shlomo Berliner, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND: Although probiotics are increasingly used in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), their mechanism of action has not been elucidated sufficiently. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a multispecies probiotic on enteric microbiota composition in women with diarrhea-predominant-IBS (IBS-D) and to determine whether these effects are associated with changes in IBS symptoms or inflammatory markers. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Rome III IBS-D women completed a two-week run-in period and eligible women were assigned at random to a probiotic capsule (BIO-25) or an indistinguishable placebo, twice daily for 8 weeks...
August 23, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026921/the-gut-microbiome-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Stacy Menees, William Chey
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered in clinical practice. It is a heterogeneous disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that an imbalance in gut bacterial communities, or "dysbiosis", may be a contributor to the pathophysiology of IBS. There is evidence to suggest that gut dysbiosis may lead to activation of the gut immune system with downstream effects on a variety of other factors of potential relevance to the pathophysiology of IBS...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009817/rome-foundation-working-team-report-on-post-infection-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Giovanni Barbara, Madhusudan Grover, Premysl Bercik, Maura Corsetti, Uday C Ghoshal, Lena Ohman, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The existence of post-infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) has been substantiated by epidemiology studies conducted in diverse geographic and clinical settings. However, the available evidence has not been well summarized and there is little guidance for diagnosis and treatment of PI-IBS. The ROME Foundation has produced a working team report was to summarize the available evidence on the pathophysiology of PI-IBS and provide guidance for diagnosis and treatment, based upon findings reported in the literature and clinical experience...
July 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935865/the-gut-microbiome-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-state-of-art-review
#15
REVIEW
Ahmed E Salem, Rajdeep Singh, Younan K Ayoub, Ahmed M Khairy, Gerard E Mullin
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, the physiology of which is not very well understood. There are multiple factors and pathways involved in pathogenesis of this entity. Among all, dysmotility, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, altered intestinal microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity play a major role. Over the last years, research has shown that the type of gut microbiome present in an individual plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of IBS...
June 20, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915224/characteristics-of-the-bacterial-microbiome-in-association-with-common-intestinal-parasites-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Lee O 'Brien Andersen, Thor Bech Johannesen, Anne Line Engsbro, Christen Rune Stensvold, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Peter Bytzer
OBJECTIVE: A low prevalence of intestinal parasites has been identified in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but potential associations with alterations in the bacterial microbiome remain largely unexplored. We aimed to investigate the relationship between parasites and bacteria in individuals with IBS in order to identify potential trans-kingdom microbial characteristics. DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from the Danish background population classified into IBS (n = 119), unspecific gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (n = 114), and asymptomatic controls (n = 186) based on the Rome III criteria for IBS...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876777/probiotics-ameliorate-stool-consistency-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#17
Jin Young Yoon, Jae Myung Cha, Ju Kyoung Oh, Pei Lei Tan, Sae Hun Kim, Min Seob Kwak, Jung Won Jeon, Hyun Phil Shin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacy of probiotics for improving clinical symptoms, altering the fecal microbiota, and regulating serum immune cytokine levels was investigated in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-constipation (IBS-C) or functional constipation (FC). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at Kyung Hee University Hospital between October 2016 and February 2017. Consecutive 18-75-year-old patients with diagnosis of IBS-C or FC (based on Rome IV criteria) consumed probiotics (3...
October 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777439/fecal-and-mucosa-associated-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Nitsan Maharshak, Yehuda Ringel, David Katibian, Ashley Lundqvist, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Only a few studies have explored differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls (HC). AIMS: To characterize and compare the microbiota in mucosal and fecal samples from carefully selected patients with IBS-D and HC. METHODS: The cohort was composed of 23 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 24 HC...
July 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748817/the-role-of-the-microbiome-for-human-health-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#19
M Hasan Mohajeri, Robert J M Brummer, Robert A Rastall, Rinse K Weersma, Hermie J M Harmsen, Marijke Faas, Manfred Eggersdorfer
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668957/no-significant-association-between-the-fecal-microbiome-and-the-presence-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-type-symptoms-in-patients-with-quiescent-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Oliver Shutkever, David J Gracie, Caroline Young, Henry M Wood, Morag Taylor, P John Hamlin, Alexander C Ford, Philip Quirke
Background: The microbiome is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Whether a distinct microbiome profile is associated with the reporting of IBS-type symptoms in IBD patients is uncertain. We aimed to resolve this issue using a cross-sectional study design. Methods: Using clinical disease activity indices, the Rome III criteria for IBS and fecal calprotectin levels, we divided IBD patients into 4 groups: IBS-type symptoms, quiescent disease, occult inflammation, and active disease...
June 8, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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