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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334522/themes-in-literature-related-to-incidence-risk-and-prevention-of-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-on-immunosuppressive-therapy
#1
Stefanie L Rashti
BACKGROUND: Solid-organ transplants provide a second chance to thousands of critically ill patients with end-organ failure each year. Immunosuppressants are administered to patients to prevent graft rejection of a transplanted organ, such as a heart, kidney, or liver, while placing the recipient at greater risk for infection and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The literature provides evidence of various cancers that have been found to develop in patients' posttransplantation...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334182/designing-3d-biological-surfaces-via-the-breath-figure-method
#2
REVIEW
Shuangshuang Chen, Su Gao, Jiange Jing, Qinghua Lu
The fabrication of biointerfaces that mimic cellular physiological environments is critical to understanding cell behaviors in vitro and for the design of tissue engineering. Breath figure is a self-assemble method that uses water droplets condensed from moisture as template and ends up with a highly ordered hexagonal pore array; this approach is used to fabricate various biological substrates. This progress report provides an overview of strategies to achieve topographical modifications and chemical-patterned arrays, such as modulation of the pore size, shape and selective decoration of the honeycomb holes...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334013/understanding-teacher-change-a-national-survey-of-u-s-physical-educators
#3
Ben D Kern, Kim C Graber
Physical education is critical to addressing childhood obesity, yet many school-based programs do not meet established quality standards and teachers are called upon to change. Little is known about how change is initiated and its associated internal and external factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education teacher change that was self-initiated and externally initiated and to examine dispositions toward the change process relative to initiation. METHOD: A random national sample of physical educators representing each SHAPE America - Society of Health and Physical Educators regional district participated in a survey measuring past programming changes, primary initiators of change, and teachers' dispositions toward change...
January 15, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333643/race-sex-and-discrimination-in-school-settings-a-multilevel-analysis-of-associations-with-delinquency
#4
Brittany D Chambers, Jennifer Toller Erausquin
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical phase of development and experimentation with delinquent behaviors. There is a growing body of literature exploring individual and structural impacts of discrimination on health outcomes and delinquent behaviors. However, there is limited research assessing how school diversity and discrimination impact students' delinquent behaviors. In response, the purpose of this study was to assess if individual- and school-level indicators of discrimination and diversity were associated with student delinquent behaviors among African American and White students...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#5
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330906/generating-retinoic-acid-gradients-by-local-degradation-during-craniofacial-development-one-cell-s-cue-is-another-cell-s-poison
#6
REVIEW
Aditi Dubey, Rebecca E Rose, Drew R Jones, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
Retinoic acid (RA) is a vital morphogen for early patterning and organogenesis in the developing embryo. RA is a diffusible, lipophilic molecule that signals via nuclear RA receptor heterodimeric units that regulate gene expression by interacting with RA response elements in promoters of a significant number of genes. For precise RA signaling, a robust gradient of the morphogen is required. The developing embryo contains regions that produce RA, and specific intracellular concentrations of RA are created through local degradation mediated by Cyp26 enzymes...
January 13, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330699/accounting-of-ghg-emissions-and-removals-from-forest-management-a-long-road-from-kyoto-to-paris
#7
REVIEW
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330298/stemness-is-enhanced-in-gastric-cancer-by-a-set-pp2a-e2f1-axis
#8
Shuhei Enjoji, Ryotaro Yabe, Shunya Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Masashi Sakurai, Yusuke Sakai, Hiroko Takenouchi, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Hiroko Oshima, Masanobu Oshima, Michael P Vitek, Tetsuya Matsuura, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuya Usui, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chemotherapies against gastric cancer often fail, with cancer recurrence due potentially to the persistence of cancer stem cells. This unique subpopulation of cells in tumors possess the ability to self-renew and de-differentiate. These cancer stem cells are critical for initiation, maintenance, metastasis, and relapse of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms supporting cancer stemness remain largely unknown...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329530/design-and-evaluation-of-a-mobile-application-to-assist-the-self-monitoring-of-the-chronic-kidney-disease-in-developing-countries
#9
Alvaro Sobrinho, Leandro Dias da Silva, Angelo Perkusich, Maria Eliete Pinheiro, Paulo Cunha
BACKGROUND: The chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide critical problem, especially in developing countries. CKD patients usually begin their treatment in advanced stages, which requires dialysis and kidney transplantation, and consequently, affects mortality rates. This issue is faced by a mobile health (mHealth) application (app) that aims to assist the early diagnosis and self-monitoring of the disease progression. METHODS: A user-centered design (UCD) approach involving health professionals (nurse and nephrologists) and target users guided the development process of the app between 2012 and 2016...
January 12, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328867/glioma-stem-cell-niches-in-human-glioblastoma-are-periarteriolar
#10
Vashendriya V V Hira, Diana A Aderetti, Cornelis J F van Noorden
Survival of primary brain tumor (glioblastoma) patients is seriously hampered by glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are distinct therapy-resistant self-replicating pluripotent cancer cells. GSCs reside in GSC niches, which are specific protective microenvironments in glioblastoma tumors. We have recently found that GSC niches are hypoxic periarteriolar, whereas in most studies, GSC niches are identified as hypoxic perivascular. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on perivascular GSC niches to establish whether these are periarteriolar, pericapillary, perivenular, and/or perilymphatic...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#11
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327386/self-healing-of-a-confined-phase-change-memory-device-with-a-metallic-surfactant-layer
#12
Yujun Xie, Wanki Kim, Yerin Kim, Sangbum Kim, Jemima Gonsalves, Matthew BrightSky, Chung Lam, Yu Zhu, Judy J Cha
Understanding and possibly recovering from the failure mechanisms of phase change memories (PCMs) are critical to improving their cycle life. Extensive electrical testing and postfailure electron microscopy analysis have shown that stuck-set failure can be recovered. Here, self-healing of novel confined PCM devices is directly shown by controlling the electromigration of the phase change material at the nanoscale. In contrast to the current mushroom PCM, the confined PCM has a metallic surfactant layer, which enables effective Joule heating to control the phase change material even in the presence of a large void...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326894/comparison-study-for-body-image-education-of-domestic-and-overseas-female-college-students
#13
Tae-Young Kim
The 2016 health education index showed such tendency as well including their raised obesity index, and reported that they are much interested in body images appearing externally. Accordingly, in this study, we conducted the self-reported questionnaire aimed at a total of 389 subjects composed of domestic (n= 226) and overseas (n= 163) female college students from Asia, Europe, and Latin America so as to investigate their body images for face, figure and health through questionnaires. In this context, a survey was conducted with the method of this study, consequently indicating that overseas subjects are more greatly positive and active to body images (face, figure, and health) by health level, exercise preferences, extent of body activities and body weight than domestic ones...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326381/b1a-b-cells-require-autophagy-for-metabolic-homeostasis-and-self-renewal
#14
Alexander J Clarke, Thomas Riffelmacher, Daniel Braas, Richard J Cornall, Anna Katharina Simon
Specific metabolic programs are activated by immune cells to fulfill their functional roles, which include adaptations to their microenvironment. B1 B cells are tissue-resident, innate-like B cells. They have many distinct properties, such as the capacity to self-renew and the ability to rapidly respond to a limited repertoire of epitopes. The metabolic pathways that support these functions are unknown. We show that B1 B cells are bioenergetically more active than B2 B cells, with higher rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and depend on glycolysis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325839/the-effect-of-low-load-exercise-on-joint-pain-function-and-activities-of-daily-living-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#15
Jason Peeler, Jacquie Ripat
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis has a lifetime risk of nearly one in two, with obese individuals being most susceptible. While exercise is universally recognized as a critical component for management, unsafe or ineffective exercise frequently leads to exacerbation of joint symptoms. AIM: Evaluate the effect of a 12week lower body positive pressure (LBPP) supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee pain, joint function, and performance of daily activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)...
January 8, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325439/quit-outcomes-and-program-utilization-by-mode-of-entry-among-clients-enrolling-in-a-quitline
#16
Uma S Nair, Ryan C Reikowsky, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Judith S Gordon
PURPOSE: To investigate how mode of entry into a quitline influences program utilization and quit outcomes among clients seeking cessation services. DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of clients receiving quitline services from January 2011 to June 2016. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Arizona Smokers' Helpline. PARTICIPANTS: Enrolled clients completed a 7-month follow-up (N = 18 650). MEASURES: The independent variable was referral mode of entry (ie, proactive, passive, and self-referral)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324960/impact-of-critical-illness-news-on-the-family-hermeneutic-phenomenological-study
#17
Anabela Pereira Mendes
OBJECTIVE: Understand the impact of critical-illness news on the experience of family members at an Intensive Care Unit. METHOD: Phenomenological approach according to Van Manen's method. Open interviews were held with 21 family members. From analysis and interpretation of the data, three essential themes were identified: the unexpected; the pronouncement of death; and the impact on self-caring within the family. The study complied with the ethical principles inherent to research involving humans...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324562/effectiveness-of-interventions-to-prevent-pre-frailty-and-frailty-progression-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#18
João Apóstolo, Richard Cooke, Elzbieta Bobrowicz-Campos, Silvina Santana, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten, Federico Germini, Barbara D'Avanzo, Holly Gwyther, Carol Holland
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions for preventing frailty progression in older adults. INTRODUCTION: Frailty is an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Evidence supporting the malleability of frailty, its prevention and treatment, has been presented. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 and over, explicitly identified as pre-frail or frail, who had been undergoing interventions focusing on the prevention of frailty progression...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324417/robust-object-co-segmentation-using-background-prior
#19
Junwei Han, Rong Quan, Dingwen Zhang, Feiping Nie
Given a set of images that contain objects from a common category, object co-segmentation aims at automatically discovering and segmenting such common objects from each image. During the past few years, object co-segmentation has received great attention in the computer vision community. However, the existing approaches are usually designed with misleading assumptions, unscalable priors, or subjective computational models, which do not have sufficient robustness for dealing with complex and unconstrained real-world image contents...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323720/tfcp2l1-safeguards-the-maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#20
Hongwei Sun, Yu You, Mengmeng Guo, Xiaohu Wang, Yan Zhang, Shoudong Ye
Tfcp2l1 is a transcription factor critical for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of Tfcp2l1 in controlling hESC activity and showed that Tfcp2l1 is functionally important in the maintenance of hESC identity. Tfcp2l1 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Forced expression of Tfcp2l1 promoted hESC self-renewal. Functional analysis of the mutant forms of Tfcp2l1 revealed that both the CP2- and SAM-like domains are indispensable for Tfcp2l1 to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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