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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084260/indoor-air-pollution-aggravates-asthma-in-chinese-children-and-induces-the-changes-in-serum-level-of-mir-155
#1
Qingbin Liu, Wei Wang, Wei Jing
Indoor air pollution is associated with childhood asthma but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to explore the relationship between indoor air pollution and pediatric asthma, and the potential molecular mechanism. The serum level of miR-155 was measured by real-time qPCR in 180 Chinese children with asthma caused by air pollution (an asthma group). Meanwhile, 180 healthy subjects were selected as a control group. HCHO, NO2 , and particles (PM10 , PM2.5 , and PM1 ) were measured. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were analyzed to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthma risk...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075567/risk-factors-for-nonunion-of-bone-fracture-in-pediatric-patients-an-inception-cohort-study-of-237-033-fractures
#2
Robert Zura, Sue C Kaste, Michael J Heffernan, William K Accousti, Dominic Gargiulo, Zhe Wang, R Grant Steen
Adult fracture nonunion risk is related to injury severity and surgical technique, yet nonunion is not fully explained by these risk factors alone; biological risk factors are also important. We test a hypothesis that risk factors associated with pediatric fracture nonunion are similar to adult nonunion risk factors.Inception cohort study in a large payer database of pediatric fracture patients (0-17 years) in the United States in calendar year 2011. Continuous enrollment in the database was required for 12 months, to allow time to capture a nonunion diagnosis...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013229/assessing-pediatric-tobacco-exposure-using-parent-report-comparison-with-hair-nicotine
#3
Judith A Groner, Ana M Rule, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Joseph M Collaco, Angela Moss, Susanne E Tanski, Robert McMillen, Regina M Whitmore, Jonathan D Klein, Jonathan P Winickoff, Karen Wilson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between screening questions for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and biomarker results using hair nicotine levels. Our ultimate goal was to develop sensitive and valid screening tools in pediatric clinical settings for SHS exposure. METHODS: Investigators developed a core set of questions regarding exposure. Data from two separate ongoing studies of well children and those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were used to assess the concordance between responses and hair nicotine levels...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004403/a-cross-sectional-study-of-smoking-behaviors-and-attitudes-of-parents-in-pediatric-primary-care-settings
#4
Aleksandra Ratajczak, Karol Ratajczak, Wojciech Feleszko
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is considered an important public health issue in pediatric population. In this study, we aimed to investigate parents' knowledge on side effects of passive smoking and counseling for parental smoking among pediatricians and family practitioners. Participants were biological parents of pediatric patients up to the age of 18 years old who attended Pediatric Hospital of Medical University of Warsaw. The questionnaire included 28 questions and queries on environmental tobacco smoke in children's environment...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972339/exploring-the-barriers-and-incentive-architecture-for-modifying-smoke-exposures-among-asthmatics
#5
Craig Tower, Arlene Butz, Cassia Lewis-Land, Meng Zhu, Mandeep S Jassal
BACKGROUND: The socio-structural barriers for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among children with asthma may be insurmountable for low-income caregivers. Health promoting financial incentives (HPFIs) are increasingly being used in the adult population to motivate and sustain tobacco-reduction behaviors. We assessed barriers to SHSe reduction and means to overcome them through the design of an HPFI-based, caregiver-targeted SHSe reduction study. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods design, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews among low-income primary caregivers of children with asthma residing in Baltimore City...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934017/trends-in-healthcare-provider-advice-on-youth-tobacco-use-2011-2015
#6
Hongying Dai, Mark Clements
INTRODUCTION: The American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement to recommend screening all adolescents for tobacco and other drug use in 2011. This study sought to evaluate the trends of health professional screening and advice on youth tobacco use since then. METHODS: Data from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed to report the changes in tobacco screening and advice among 46,554 U.S. middle and high school students. Logistic regressions were used to assess trends and factors associated with screening or advice on tobacco use and to examine whether screening or advice on tobacco use was associated with quit behaviors...
August 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932341/a-framework-for-measurement-and-harmonization-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-etiologic-research-studies-the-pediatric-ms-tool-kit
#7
Sandra Magalhaes, Brenda Banwell, Amit Bar-Or, Isabel Fortier, Heather E Hanwell, Ming Lim, Georg E Matt, Rinze F Neuteboom, David L O'Riordan, Paul K Schneider, Maura Pugliatti, Bryna Shatenstein, Catherine M Tansey, Evangeline Wassmer, Christina Wolfson
BACKGROUND: While studying the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children has several methodological advantages over studying etiology in adults, studies are limited by small sample sizes. OBJECTIVE: Using a rigorous methodological process, we developed the Pediatric MS Tool-Kit, a measurement framework that includes a minimal set of core variables to assess etiological risk factors. METHODS: We solicited input from the International Pediatric MS Study Group to select three risk factors: environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, sun exposure, and vitamin D intake...
June 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922642/a-mixed-methods-approach-to-evaluate-partnerships-and-implementation-of-the-massachusetts-prevention-and-wellness-trust-fund
#8
Rebekka M Lee, Shoba Ramanadhan, Gina R Kruse, Charles Deutsch
Background: Strong partnerships are critical to integrate evidence-based prevention interventions within clinical and community-based settings, offering multilevel and sustainable solutions to complex health issues. As part of Massachusetts' 2012 health reform, The Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) funded nine local partnerships throughout the state to address hypertension, pediatric asthma, falls among older adults, and tobacco use. The initiative was designed to improve health outcomes through prevention and disease management strategies and reduce healthcare costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895740/kids-safe-and-smokefree-kiss-multilevel-intervention-to-reduce-child-tobacco-smoke-exposure-long-term-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Stephen J Lepore, Bradley N Collins, Donna L Coffman, Jonathan P Winickoff, Uma S Nair, Beth Moughan, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Daniel Taylor, David Fleece, Melissa Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Pediatricians following clinical practice guidelines for tobacco intervention (“Ask, Advise, and Refer” [AAR]) can motivate parents to reduce child tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). However, brief clinic interventions are unable to provide the more intensive, evidence-based behavioral treatments that facilitate the knowledge, skills, and confidence that parents need to both reduce child TSE and quit smoking. We hypothesized that a multilevel treatment model integrating pediatric clinic-level AAR with individual-level, telephone counseling would promote greater long-term (12-month) child TSE reduction and parent smoking cessation than clinic-level AAR alone...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785060/cost-effectiveness-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-for-pregnant-smokers-to-improve-offspring-lung-function-at-birth-and-reduce-childhood-wheeze-asthma
#10
Leah Yieh, Cindy T McEvoy, Scott W Hoffman, Aaron B Caughey, Kelvin D MacDonald, Dmitry Dukhovny
OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of supplemental vitamin C for pregnant tobacco smokers and its effects on the prevalence of pediatric asthma, asthma-related mortality, and associated costs. STUDY DESIGN: A decision-analytic model built via TreeAge compared the outcome of asthma in a theoretical annual cohort of 480,000 children born to pregnant smokers through 18 years of life. Vitamin C supplementation (500 mg/day) with a standard prenatal vitamin was compared to a prenatal vitamin (60 mg/day)...
July 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766143/when-should-screening-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-for-adult-behaviors-start
#11
Adrian A Maung, Robert D Becher, Kevin M Schuster, Kimberly A Davis
Background: Care of patients with trauma is not only limited to the sustained physical injuries but also requires addressing social issues, such as substance abuse and interpersonal violence, which are responsible for trauma-related recidivism. This study investigates whether there are age-related variations in these problematic social behaviors to analyze whether there is an age cut-off at which point adolescents should be screened for adult social behaviors. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with trauma aged 12-21 admitted to an urban Level 1 adult and pediatric trauma center between February 2013 and April 2016...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738388/tympanic-membrane-perforation-repair-using-porcine-small-intestinal-submucosal-grafting
#12
Robert J Yawn, Matthew M Dedmon, Brendan P O'Connell, Frank W Virgin, Alejandro Rivas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of porcine small intestinal submucosal grafts for tympanic membrane repair. PATIENTS: Adult and pediatric patients with tympanic membrane perforations with and without chronic otitits media, and perforations after removal of cholesteatoma. INTERVENTION: Endoscopic or microscopic tympanic membrane repair using porcine small intestinal submucosal grafts (Biodesign). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Perforation closure, bone and air pure-tone averages (PTA), air-bone gap (ABG), and word recognition scores (WRS) were recorded as outcome measures...
June 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735573/adolescent-consumption-of-sports-drinks
#13
Kyla Cordrey, Sarah A Keim, Ruth Milanaik, Andrew Adesman
BACKGROUND: Sports drinks are aggressively marketed to teenagers to replenish fluids and/or electrolytes. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, typical adolescent physical activity does not require sports drink rehydration. Given US obesity rates and that sugar-sweetened sports drinks add superfluous calories to the diet, it is important to assess adolescent sports drink consumption and changes over time. METHODS: Researchers in the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey and 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey collected nationally representative samples of US high school students about sports drink consumption...
June 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686953/prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-bronchial-asthma-in-children-in-santo-domingo-dominican-republic
#14
Stephanie G Mejias, Kamleshun Ramphul
Background Bronchial asthma is an important health problem worldwide. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of bronchial asthma among school children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of asthma and its related risk factors among school children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study using a modified questionnaire was conducted in Santo Domingo among 600 children aged three to 11 eleven years...
February 20, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672146/childcare-providers-possession-or-use-of-marijuana-tobacco-or-alcohol-while-caring-for-children-a-comparison-of-us-state-regulations
#15
Elyse R Grossman, Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Natasha Frost, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate US state regulations regarding marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol to determine the extent to which states attempt to govern these substances in early care and education (ECE) settings. METHODS: Two independent reviewers assessed regulations enacted by December 2016 for all states and the District of Columbia. Reviewers compared regulations to national standards on the possession or use of marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol in ECE settings. RESULTS: Fewer states regulated marijuana than tobacco or alcohol in ECE settings...
June 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501831/urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-metabolites-among-3-year-old-children-from-krakow-poland
#16
Elżbieta Sochacka-Tatara, Renata Majewska, Frederica P Perera, David Camann, John Spengler, Kylie Wheelock, Agata Sowa, Ryszard Jacek, Elżbieta Mróz, Agnieszka Pac
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in the environment and can adversely affect human health. The aim of the present study is to describe the level of PAHs exposure in children living in Kraków, one of the most polluted cities in Poland, and to determine the relationship of urinary biomarkers with environmental PAHsexposure. Urinary monohydroxy metabolites (OH-PAHs) of 20 PAHs were assessed in 218 three-year old children, of which only 10 were present in nearly all the samples: monohydroxy metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenantrene and pyrene...
July 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494321/clinical-practice-guideline-hoarseness-dysphonia-update
#17
Robert J Stachler, David O Francis, Seth R Schwartz, Cecelia C Damask, German P Digoy, Helene J Krouse, Scott J McCoy, Daniel R Ouellette, Rita R Patel, Charles Charlie W Reavis, Libby J Smith, Marshall Smith, Steven W Strode, Peak Woo, Lorraine C Nnacheta
Objective This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on treating patients who present with dysphonia, which is characterized by altered vocal quality, pitch, loudness, or vocal effort that impairs communication and/or quality of life. Dysphonia affects nearly one-third of the population at some point in its life. This guideline applies to all age groups evaluated in a setting where dysphonia would be identified or managed. It is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and treat patients with dysphonia...
March 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494316/clinical-practice-guideline-hoarseness-dysphonia-update-executive-summary
#18
Robert J Stachler, David O Francis, Seth R Schwartz, Cecelia C Damask, German P Digoy, Helene J Krouse, Scott J McCoy, Daniel R Ouellette, Rita R Patel, Charles Charlie W Reavis, Libby J Smith, Marshall Smith, Steven W Strode, Peak Woo, Lorraine C Nnacheta
Objective This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on treating patients presenting with dysphonia, which is characterized by altered vocal quality, pitch, loudness, or vocal effort that impairs communication and/or quality of life. Dysphonia affects nearly one-third of the population at some point in its life. This guideline applies to all age groups evaluated in a setting where dysphonia would be identified or managed. It is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and treat patients with dysphonia...
March 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475963/comparison-of-urine-4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanol-and-cotinine-for-assessment-of-active-and-passive-smoke-exposure-in-urban-adolescents
#19
Neal L Benowitz, Natalie Nardone, Shonul Jain, Delia A Dempsey, Newton Addo, Gideon St Helen, Peyton Jacob
Background: Many adolescents are exposed to tobacco smoke, from either active smoking (CS) or secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Tobacco-specific biomarkers of exposure include cotinine (detects use in past 2-4 days) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL; detects use for a month or longer). NNAL is expected to detect more intermittent tobacco exposure. We compared NNAL and cotinine as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco in urban adolescents and determined the optimal NNAL cutoff point to distinguish CS from SHS exposure...
March 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445636/economic-burden-of-pediatric-asthma-annual-cost-of-disease-in-iran
#20
Laleh Sharifi, Raheleh Dashti, Zahra Pourpak, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Masoud Movahedi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Habib Soheili, Saied Bokaie, Anoushiravan Kazemnejad, Mostafa Moin
Background: Asthma is the first cause of children hospitalization and need for emergency and impose high economic burden on the families and governments. We aimed to investigate the economic burden of pediatric asthma and its contribution to family health budget in Iran. Methods: Overall, 283 pediatric asthmatic patients, who referred to two tertiary pediatric referral centers in Tehran capital of Iran, included from 2010-2012. Direct and indirect asthma-related costs were recorded during one-year period...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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