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Hyo-Jung Lee, In-Ho Kwon, Hong-Goo Lee, Yong-Bin Kwon, Hye-Min Woo, Sang-Min Cho, Youn-Woong Choi, Jinmann Chon, Kibum Kim, Dong-Wook Kim, Chun-Woong Park
This study presents the effect of a spiral mouthpiece design in a carrier-based dry powder inhalation on particle aerosol characteristics. Two kinds of mouthpieces, with spiral and non-spiral shaped flow channels, were fabricated by 3D-printing; particle image velocimetry and Anderson cascade impactor were performed to evaluate the drug aerosol characteristics. The obtained experimental results were in agreement with the simulation results of the computational fluid dynamics analysis. The spiral channel created a strong swirl motion of the air flow emitted from the mouthpiece exit, which produced angular momentum rather than the axial flow velocity in the forward direction...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Silvia Voci, Bertrand Goudeau, Giovanni Valenti, Andreas Lesch, Milica Jovic, Stefania Rapino, Francesco Paolucci, Stephane Arbault, Neso Sojic
Herein is reported a surface-confined microscopy based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) which allows to image the plasma membrane of single cells at the interface with an electrode. By analyzing photoluminescence (PL), ECL and AFM images of mammalian CHO cells, we demonstrate that, in contrast to the wide-field fluorescence, ECL emission is confined to the immediate vicinity of the electrode surface and only the basal membrane of the cell becomes lumi-nescent. The resulting ECL microscopy reveals details which are not resolved by classic fluorescence microscopy, without any light irradiation and specific setup...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kwing To Lai, Iryna Antonyshyn, Yurii Prots, Martin Valldor
Novel bichalcogenides with the general composition (Li2 TM)ChO (TM = Mn, Co; Ch = S, Se) were synthesized by single-step solid-state reactions. These compounds possess cubic anti-perovskite crystal structure with Pm3̅ m symmetry; TM and Li are disordered on the crystallographic site 3c. According to Goldschmidt tolerance factor calculations, the available space at the 3c site is too large for Li+ and TM2+ ions. As cathode materials, all title compounds perform less prominent in lithium-ion battery setups in comparison to the already known TM = Fe homologue; e...
October 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Patricia D A Rohs, Jackson Buss, Sue I Sim, Georgia R Squyres, Veerasak Srisuknimit, Mandy Smith, Hongbaek Cho, Megan Sjodt, Andrew C Kruse, Ethan C Garner, Suzanne Walker, Daniel E Kahne, Thomas G Bernhardt
Cell elongation in rod-shaped bacteria is mediated by the Rod system, a conserved morphogenic complex that spatially controls cell wall assembly by the glycan polymerase RodA and crosslinking enzyme PBP2. Using Escherichia coli as a model system, we identified a PBP2 variant that promotes Rod system function when essential accessory components of the machinery are inactivated. This PBP2 variant hyperactivates cell wall synthesis in vivo and stimulates the activity of RodA-PBP2 complexes in vitro. Cells with the activated synthase also exhibited enhanced polymerization of the actin-like MreB component of the Rod system...
October 18, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Adel Boueiz, Betty Pham, Robert Chase, Andrew Lamb, Sool Lee, Zun Zar Chi Naing, Michael H Cho, Margaret M Parker, Phuwanat Sakornsakolpat, Craig P Hersh, James D Crapo, Andrew B Stergachis, Ruth Tal-Singer, Dawn L DeMeo, Edwin K Silverman, Xiaobo Zhou, Peter J Castaldi
RATIONALE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple associations with emphysema apico-basal distribution (EABD), but the biological functions of these variants are unknown. METHODS: To characterize the functions of EABD-associated variants, we integrated GWAS results with 1) expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) from the GTEx project and subjects in the COPDGene Study and 2) cell type epigenomic marks from the Roadmap Epigenomics project...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Youngsun T Cho, Norman H Lam, Martina Starc, Nicole Santamauro, Aleksandar Savic, Caroline K Diehl, Charles H Schleifer, Flora Moujaes, Vinod H Srihari, Grega Repovs, John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
Reward processing and cognition are disrupted in schizophrenia (SCZ), yet how these processes interface is unknown. In SCZ, deficits in reward representation may affect motivated, goal-directed behaviors. To test this, we examined the effects of monetary reward on spatial working memory (WM) performance in patients with SCZ. To capture complimentary effects, we tested biophysically grounded computational models of neuropharmacologic manipulations onto a canonical fronto-parietal association cortical microcircuit capable of WM computations...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Woosuk Cho, Young Jin Lim, Sun-Me Lee, Jong Hwa Kim, Jun Ho Song, Ji-Sang Yu, Young-Jun Kim, Min-Sik Park
A facile Mn surface doping process is proposed to improve the structural and thermal stability of Ni-rich layered cathode materials (Ni ≥ 80%) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. In this work, we demonstrate that the surface structure of Ni-rich layered cathode materials can be stabilized by the introduction of a thin Mn-rich surface layer. This layer effectively reduces the direct exposure of highly reactive Ni at the surface, thus improving thermal stability and mitigating side reactions associated with a highly reactive Ni that cause the loss of reversible capacity...
October 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinyoung Park, Hongmin Lee, Namshik Han, Sojung Kwak, Han-Teo Lee, Jae-Hwan Kim, Keonjin Kang, Byoung Ha Youn, Jae-Hyun Yang, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Jong-Sun Kang, Seon-Young Kim, Jeung-Whan Han, Hong-Duk Youn, Eun-Jung Cho
Constitutive heterochromatin undergoes a dynamic clustering and spatial reorganization during myogenic differentiation. However the detailed mechanisms and its role in cell differentiation remain largely elusive. Here, we report the identification of a muscle-specific long non-coding RNA, ChRO1, involved in constitutive heterochromatin reorganization. ChRO1 is induced during terminal differentiation of myoblasts, and is specifically localized to the chromocenters in myotubes. ChRO1 is required for efficient cell differentiation, with global impacts on gene expression...
October 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yonghyun Nam, Jong Ho Jhee, Junhee Cho, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hyunjung Shin
Motivation: Immune diseases have a strong genetic component with Mendelian patterns of inheritance. While the tight association has been a major understanding in the underlying pathophysiology for the category of immune diseases, the common features of these diseases remain unclear. Based on the potential commonality among immune genes, we design Gene Ranker for key gene identification. Methods: Gene Ranker is a network-based gene scoring algorithm that initially constructs a backbone network based on protein interactions...
October 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Ira Praharaj, James A Platts-Mills, Sunita Taneja, Kalpana Antony, Krista Yuhas, Jorge Flores, Iksung Cho, Nita Bhandari, R Revathy, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Timothy McMurry, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Background: Rotavirus vaccine (RV) efficacy estimates in low-resource settings are lower than in developed countries. We detected co-infections in cases of severe rotavirus diarrhea in a RV efficacy trial to determine whether these negatively impacted RV efficacy estimates. Methods: We performed TaqMan Array Card assays for enteropathogens on stools from rotavirus EIA positive diarrhea episodes and all severe episodes (Vesikari score >= 11), from a phase III vaccine efficacy trial of Rotavac®, a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine, carried out across three sites in India...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kyeong Hwa Ryu, Jin Il Moon, Hye Jin Baek, Soo Buem Cho, Bo Hwa Choi, Hyo Jung An, Dae Hyun Song
RATIONALE: Brachial plexus schwannomas are rare benign tumors that are derived from Schwann cells. Because they are rare, and because of the complexity of the anatomy of the neck, these tumors can be a challenge to diagnose for radiologists and clinicians. In the present study, we describe a clinical case of brachial plexus schwannoma detected on ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and presenting as a palpable neck mass. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 49-year-old woman had a palpable mass in the right neck, which had been there for the last 1 year...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dong Hyun Kim, Eunae Cho, Sung Bum Cho, Sung Kyu Choi, Sunmin Kim, Jieun Yu, Young-Il Koh, Da Woon Sim, Chung Hwan Jun
RATIONALE: Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with metastases to the right atrium (RA) and lungs are rare, with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the treatment outcomes in patients with advanced HCCs remain unsatisfactory. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old man presented to our hospital for dyspnea on exertion and abdominal pain. DIAGNOSES: HCC and extra-hepatic metastases to the lung and RA. INTERVENTIONS: Multidisciplinary treatment including radiotherapy (RT), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and sorafenib...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sung Young Lee, Hyeok Dong Lee, Young-Shin Cho, Seung Hoon Han
RATIONALE: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection is effective in treating focal dystonia. However, there are no prior reports regarding the treatment of progressive focal dystonia by a single BTX-A injection that affect a distant muscle. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 19-year-old male was referred to the rehabilitation clinic with a complaint of involuntary movement in his left big toe. The involuntary movement pattern was initially observed in the abduction direction only; however, it progressed to irregular mixed patterns in the flexion and abduction directions...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jinseok Lee, Do-Hun Jang, Sujin Park, Seonghwan Cho
In this paper, we present an ultra-low power heart rate (HR) monitoring photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor using a heartbeat locked loop (HBLL). The HBLL generates a narrow window that turns on the LED and analog-front-end only when a peak is expected in the PPG signal. The prototype PPG sensor implemented in 0.18μm CMOS has an effective duty-cycle of 0.01% and consumes only 43.4μW at a heart rate of 60bpm, which is the lowest power consumption compared with previous state-of-the-art PPG sensors. The HR error of the proposed sensor is less than 2...
October 18, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Donguk Kim, Mokwon Lee, Youngsong Cho, Deok-Soo Kim
The beta-complex is a construct derived from the Voronoi diagram of spherical balls of arbitrary radii and has proven a powerful capability for proximity reasoning among spherical balls in three-dimensional space. Important applications related to molecular shapes in structural/computational molecular biology have been correctly, efficiently, and conveniently solved in the unified framework of the beta-complex and the Voronoi diagram. The beta-complex is a generalization of the alpha-complex. However, there are similarities and dissimilarities between the two complexes and it is necessary to correctly understand these similarities and dissimilarities to choose the right complex to solve application problems at hand...
October 18, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Young Ree Kim, Yeojun Yun, Seung Geon Bae, Dahee Park, Suhyun Kim, Jae Myun Lee, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Yang Soo Kim, Keun Hwa Lee
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was reported in China in 2009 and in South Korea in 2012. We found retrospective evidence of SFTS virus infection in South Korea in 2010, suggesting that infections in South Korea occurred before previously reported and were more concurrent with those in China.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ki Hong Choi, Seongwook Han, Ga Yeon Lee, Jin Oh Choi, Eun Seok Jeon, Hae Young Lee, Sang Eun Lee, Jae Joong Kim, Shung Chull Chae, Sang Hong Baek, Seok Min Kang, Dong Ju Choi, Byung Su Yoo, Kye Hun Kim, Myeong Chan Cho, Hyun Young Park, Byung Hee Oh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prognostic impact of left axis deviation (LAD) on clinical outcomes in acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) with left bundle branch block (LBBB) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of axis deviation in acute heart failure patients with LBBB. METHODS: Between March 2011 and February 2014, 292 consecutive AHFS patients with LBBB were recruited from 10 tertiary university hospitals. They were divided into groups with no LAD (n=189) or with LAD (n=103) groups according to QRS axis <-30 degree...
November 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Jeffery Chakedis, Eliza W Beal, Alexandra G Lopez-Aguiar, George Poultsides, Eleftherios Makris, Flavio G Rocha, Zaheer Kanji, Sharon Weber, Alexander Fisher, Ryan Fields, Bradley A Krasnick, Kamran Idrees, Paula Marincola-Smith, Clifford Cho, Megan Beems, Timothy M Pawlik, Shishir K Maithel, Carl R Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff
INTRODUCTION: Patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) often have an indolent disease course yet the outcomes for patients with metastatic NET undergoing surgery for non-hormonal (NH) symptoms of GI obstruction, bleeding, or pain is not known. METHODS: We identified patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic NET who underwent resection from 2000 to 2016 at 8 academic institutions who participated in the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group. RESULTS: Of 581 patients with metastatic NET to liver (61...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Dong Hui Cho, Seok Jung Jo, Jae Hoon Lee, Tae Jun Song, Do Hyun Park, Sung Koo Lee, Myung-Hwan Kim, Sang Soo Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) is increasingly accepted as an effective treatment option in patients who require drainage for acute cholecystitis. A newly designed lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has been introduced recently in this procedure. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of the newly designed LAMS in patients with acute cholecystitis who were unsuitable for cholecystectomy. METHODS: Between Mar 2017 and Oct 2017, 22 patients with acute cholecystitis who were unsuitable for cholecystectomy underwent EUS-GBD with the newly designed LAMS...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Han Zhang, Jaehoon Cho, James Buxbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a commonly performed procedure to manage pancreaticobiliary disease. Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common adverse event of ERCP with a significant burden of morbidity and cost. RECENT FINDINGS: Appropriate indication and counseling is mandatory especially for patients at increased risk for PEP such as those with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreatic indications, and a prior history of PEP...
October 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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