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Tyr p

Shigang Yu, Gang Wang, Juan Liao, Mei Tang
1. The TYR gene encodes tyrosinase, a multifunctional enzyme that is essential for melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes. This experiment involved the cloning and characterisation of the TYR gene in chicken. Five alternative splice variants were identified in the black feather bulb and designated as TYR-AS1, TYR-AS2, TYR-AS3, TYR-AS4, and TYR-AS5. 2. Among the 11 chicken tissues examined, the feather bulb, comb, and skin showed higher levels of all TYR variants. All TYR variants were expressed at significantly different levels in black and white feather bulbs (P<0...
October 8, 2018: British Poultry Science
Yuki Honda, Shogo Nakano, Sohei Ito, Mohammad Dadashipour, Zilian Zhang, Yutaka Kawarabayasi
We previously showed that the Y97N mutant of the ST0452 protein, isolated from Sulfolobus tokodaii , exhibited over 4-times higher N -acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlcNAc-1-P UTase) activity than that of the wild-type ST0452 protein. We determined the three-dimensional structure of the Y97N protein to explore the detailed mechanism underlying this activity increasing. Its overall structure was almost identical to that of the wild-type ST0452 protein (2GGO), with the 97th residue (Asn) interacting with the O5 atom of GlcNAc in the complex without metal ions...
October 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Wei Tang, Zhibin Zhao, Yuanyuan Chong, Chengfan Wu, Qingzhi Liu, Jingbo Yang, Rongbin Zhou, Zhe-Xiong Lian, Gaolin Liang
Many chronic liver diseases will advance to hepatic fibrosis and, if without timely intervention, liver cirrhosis or even hepatocellular carcinoma. Anti-inflammation could be a standard therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis treatment but a "smart" strategy of hepatic fibrosis-targeted, either self-assembly or slow release of an anti-inflammation drug ( e.g., dexamethasone, Dex), has not been reported. Herein, we rationally designed a hydrogelator precursor Nap-Phe-Phe-Lys(Dex)-Tyr(H2 PO3 )-OH (1-Dex-P) and proposed a tandem enzymatic strategy of self-assembly and slow release of Dex, with which the precursor exhibited much stronger anti-hepatic fibrosis effect than Dex both in vitro and in vivo...
October 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Jiachan Zhang, Changtao Wang, Chengtao Wang, Baoguo Sun, Cai Qi
The hydroalcoholic extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed residues (HYD-SBSR) is a potential skin whitening agent. To test this material as a potential skin whitening agent, we identified and quantified the main chemical constituents of HYD-SBSR by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-QQQ-MS). The anti-melanogenesis properties of HYD-SBSR on B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were analysed and the mechanism was measured on both the transcriptional and translational levels...
October 2, 2018: Food & Function
W A van der Zwan, T Brabander, B L R Kam, J J M Teunissen, R A Feelders, J Hofland, E P Krenning, W W de Herder
PURPOSE: Therapy with [177 Lu-DOTA,Tyr3 ]octreotate is effective in patients with grade I/II metastasized and/or inoperable bronchial neuroendocrine tumour (NET) or gastroenteropancreatic NET (GEP-NET). In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of salvage treatment with [177 Lu-DOTA,Tyr3 ]octreotate. METHODS: Patients with progressive bronchial NET or GEP-NET were selected for re-(re)treatment if they had benefited from initial peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (I-PRRT) with a minimal progression-free survival (PFS) of 18 months...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mikus Abolins-Abols, Etienne Kornobis, Paolo Ribeca, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Mark P Peterson, Ellen D Ketterson, Borja Milá
Color plays a prominent role in species recognition, therefore understanding the proximate basis of pigmentation can provide insight into reproductive isolation and speciation. Color differences between taxa may be the result of regulatory differences, or be caused by mutations in coding regions of the expressed genes. To investigate these two alternatives, we studied the pigment composition and the genetic basis of coloration in two divergent dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) subspecies, the slate-colored and Oregon juncos, which have evolved marked differences in plumage coloration since the Last Glacial Maximum...
September 25, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Gisele Luiza Pavan, Igor Tadeu Lazzarotto Bresolin, Aline Ferreira Velho Muzio, Daniele Celestino Cunha, Sonia Maria Alves Bueno
The behavior of human IgG and Fab fragments adsorption onto phospho-L-tyrosine immobilized on agarose (P-Tyr-agarose) was evaluated by pseudoaffinity chromatography. The effects of buffer systems MES, MOPS, Bis-Tris, Tris-HCl, and sodium phosphate (NaP) and pH on IgG adsorption were studied and high purity values were obtained (96%, based on ELISA analysis of albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulins A, G, and M) when IgG was purified from human plasma diluted in 10 mmol L-1 NaP buffer at pH 6.0. The capture of IgG by the P-Tyr-agarose was also promising, since 91% of the IgG was adsorbed when plasma was diluted in 25 mmol L-1 MES buffer at pH 5...
September 23, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Guohua Qi, Ying Zhang, Shuping Xu, Chuanping Li, Dandan Wang, Haijuan Li, Yongdong Jin
Metallic plasmonic nanoparticles have been intensively exploited as theranostic nanoprobes for plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPT) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. But the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with PPT-induced apoptosis between cancerous and normal cells have remained largely unknown or disputed. In this study, we designed an organelle-targeting theranostic plasmonic SERS nanoprobe (CDs-Ag/Au NS) composed of porous Ag/Au nanoshell (p-Ag/Au NSs) and carbon dots (CDs) for nucleus and mitochondria targeted PPT of cells...
October 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Anwar Baban, Monia Magliozzi, Bart Loeys, Rachele Adorisio, Viola Alesi, Aurelio Secinaro, Bernadette Corica, Luca Vricella, Harry C Dietz, Fabrizio Drago, Antonio Novelli, Antonio Amodeo
BACKGROUND: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare multisystemic disorder characterized by vascular and skeletal abnormalities, with considerable intra- and interfamilial variability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an 8-year-old male with clinical features of two distinct genetic disorders, namely LDS, manifesting in the first months by progressive aortic root dilatation, arterial tortuosity, bifid uvula, and inguinal hernias and oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) manifesting by white hair and skin that does not tan, nystagmus, reduced iris pigment with iris translucency, and reduced retinal pigment)...
September 15, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Shalev Gihaz, Margarita Kanteev, Yael Pazy, Ayelet Fishman
Enhanced stability in organic solvents is a desirable feature for enzymes implemented under industrial conditions. Lipases potential as biocatalysts is mainly limited by denaturation in polar alcohols. In this study we focused on selected solvent tunnels in lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 to improve its stability in methanol during biodiesel synthesis. Using rational mutagenesis, bulky aromatic residues were incorporated in order to occupy solvent channels and induce aromatic interactions leading to a better inner core packing...
September 14, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Masaki Kohno, Takatoshi Arakawa, Hiromi Ota, Tetsuya Mori, Tomoyuki Nishimoto, Shinya Fushinobu
Cyclic α-maltosyl-(1→6)-maltose (CMM, cyclo -{→6)-α-d-Glc p -(1→4)-α-d-Glc p -(1→6)-α-d-Glc p -(1→4)-α-d-Glc p -(1→}) is a cyclic glucotetrasaccharide with alternating α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages. CMM is composed of two maltose units and is one of the smallest cyclic glucooligosaccharides. While CMM is resistant to usual amylases, it is efficiently hydrolyzed by CMM hydrolase (CMMase), belonging to subfamily 20 of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13_20). Here, we determined the ligand-free crystal structure of CMMase from the soil-associated bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis  and its structures in complex with maltose, panose, and CMM to elucidate the structural basis of substrate recognition by CMMase...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
M Salaga, A Binienda, P Draczkowski, P Kosson, R Kordek, K Jozwiak, J Fichna
Protease inhibition has become a new possible approach in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. A serine exopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is responsible for inactivation of incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), a potent stimulator of intestinal epithelium regeneration and growth. Recently we showed that the novel peptide analog of endomorphin-2, EMDB-1 (Tyr-Pro-D-ClPhe-Phe-NH2 ) is a potent blocker of DPP IV and exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to design, synthesize and characterize the therapeutic activity and mechanism of action of a series of novel EMDB-1 analogs...
October 2018: Peptides
Vinay Kumar Dachuri, ChangWoo Lee, Sei-Heon Jang
Organic solvent-tolerant (OST) enzymes are widely applied in various industries due to their activity and stability in organic solvents, higher substrate solubility, and increased stereoselectivity. However, the criteria for identifying OST enzymes largely remain unresolved. In this study, we compared the amino acid composition of 19 OST esterases and 19 non-OST esterases. OST esterases have increased ratio of Ala and Arg residues and decreased ratio of Asn, Ile, Tyr, and Ser residues. Based on the amino acid composition analysis, we cloned acarboxylesterase (EstSP2)from a psychrophilic bacterium Sphingomonas glacialis PAMC 26605, and characterized the recombinant protein...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Melissa J Blumenthal, Charlotte Schutz, Graeme Meintjes, Zainab Mohamed, Marc Mendelson, Jon M Ambler, Denise Whitby, Romel D Mackelprang, Sinead Carse, Arieh A Katz, Georgia Schäfer
BACKGROUND: To determine if variations exist in the KSHV host receptor EPHA2's coding region that affect KSHV infectivity and/or KS prevalence among South African HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A retrospective candidate gene association study was performed on 150 patients which were randomly selected from a total of 756 HIV-infected patients and grouped according to their KS status and KSHV serodiagnosis; namely group 1: KS+ /KSHV+ ; group 2: KS- /KSHV+ ; group 3: KS- /KSHV- ...
October 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Esam A Orabi, Ann M English
Noncovalent interactions between Met and aromatic residues define a common Met-aromatic motif in proteins. Met oxidation to MetOn (n = 1 sulfoxide, n = 2 sulfone) alters protein stability and function. To predict the chemical and physical consequences of such oxidations, we modeled the chemistry and redox properties of MetOn-aromatic complexes in depth for comparison with our Met-aromatic models (E. A. Orabi and A. M. English, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2018, 122, 3760). We describe here ab initio quantum mechanical calculations at the MP2(full)/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory on complexes of MetOn (n = 1, 2; modeled by Me2SO and Me2SO2) with models of the side-chains of Phe (benzene, toluene), Trp (indole, 3-methylindole), Tyr (phenol, 4-methylphenol) and His (imidazole, 4-methylimidazole)...
September 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pedro P G Taucce, Clarissa Canedo, Júlia Soares Parreiras, Leandro O Drummond, Paulo Nogueira-Costa, Célio F B Haddad
We present a new phylogenetic hypothesis for Ischnocnema, a Neotropical brachycephaloid genus of ground-dwelling direct-developing frogs. We performed Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses using two nuclear (RAG1 and Tyr) and three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, tRNA-Val, and 16S rRNA) in a matrix comprising more than 80% of the described species. We recover Ischnocnema nanahallux outside the Ischnocnema parva series, and it is now unassigned to any species series, nor are Ischnocnema manezinho and Ischnocnema sambaqui...
November 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Juhui Choe, Kuk-Hwan Seol, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jin-Taek Hwang, Mooha Lee, Cheorun Jo
Objective: This study identified angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides in beef M. longissimus injected with thermolysin (80 ppm) and stored for 3 days at 5 °C. Methods: Crude peptides (molecular weight < 3 kDa) were obtained from the thermolysin hydrolysate and separated into seven fractions. Fraction V showing the highest ACE inhibitory activity was further fractionated, yielding subfractions V-15, V-m1, and V-m2, and selected for superior ACE inhibitory activity...
August 24, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Thomas Baumgartner, Giedré Zurauskaité, Yannick Wirz, Marc Meier, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a modifiable risk-factor in infection causing damage to human cells. As an adaptive response, cells catabolize Tyrosine to 3-Nitrotyrosine (Tyr-NO2) by nitrosylation. We investigated whether a more efficient reduction in oxidative stress, mirrored by a lowering of Tyrosine, and an increase in Tyr-NO2 and the Tyrosine/Tyr-NO2 ratio was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We measured Tyrosine and Tyr-NO2 in CAP patients from a previous randomized Swiss multicenter trial...
August 24, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mahmood Rasool, Arif Malik, Sulayman Waquar, Qura Tul-Ain, Tassadaq H Jafar, Rabia Rasool, Aasia Kalsoom, Muhammad A Ghafoor, Sheikh A Sehgal, Kalamegam Gauthaman, Muhammad I Naseer, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Peter N Pushparaj
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia, excessive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, formation of neurotoxic amyloid plaque, and tau protein aggregation. Based on literature survey, we have shortlisted three important target proteins (AChE, COX2, and MMP8) implicated in the pathogenesis of AD and 20 different phytocompounds for molecular docking experiments with these three target proteins. The 3D-structures of AChE, COX2, and MMP8 were predicted by homology modeling by MODELLER and the threading approach by using ITASSER...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dzmitry Melnikau, Saioa Elcoroaristizabal, Alan G Ryder
The accurate fluorescence analysis of complex, multi-fluorophore containing proteins requires the use of multi-dimensional measurement techniques. For the measurement of intrinsic fluorescence from tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) one needs tuneable UV excitation and for steady-state measurements like Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) simple pulsed Xe lamps are commonly used. Unfortunately, simultaneous multi-dimensional wavelength and time resolved measurement of intrinsic protein fluorescence in the 260 to 400 nm spectral range are challenging and typically required the use of very complex tuneable laser systems or multiple single excitation wavelength sources...
September 3, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
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