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Right isomerism

Mads P Sulbaek Andersen, Theis I Sølling, Lene Løffler Andersen, Aleksandra Volkova, Dvien Hovanessian, Connor Britzman, Ole John Nielsen, Timothy J Wallington
The chemical mechanisms of the OH radical, Cl-atom and O3 initiated oxidation of (Z)-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCl were studied at 296 ± 1 K in 10-700 Torr air of N2/O2 diluent. Cl atoms add to the [double bond splayed left]C[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond splayed right] double bond: 12 ± 5% to the terminal carbon and 85 ± 5% to the central carbon. In 700 Torr of air the products are CF3CHClCHO, HCOCl, CF3COCl, CF3CHO, (E)-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCl, CF3C(O)CHCl2, and CF3CHClCOCl...
November 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Patricia Garcia-Canadilla, Hector Dejea, Anne Bonnin, Vedrana Balicevic, Sven Loncaric, Chong Zhang, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra, Mariano Vázquez, Laurence H Jackson, Daniel J Stuckey, Cristoph Rau, Marco Stampanoni, Bart Bijnens, Andrew C Cook
BACKGROUND: In the era of increasingly successful corrective interventions in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), global and regional myocardial remodeling are emerging as important sources of long-term morbidity/mortality. Changes in organization of the myocardium in CHD, and in its mechanical properties, conduction, and blood supply, result in altered myocardial function both before and after surgery. To gain a better understanding and develop appropriate and individualized treatment strategies, the microscopic organization of cardiomyocytes, and their integration at a macroscopic level, needs to be completely understood...
October 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Han-Gook Cho, Lester Andrews
The insertion products of laser-ablated Pb atom reactions with ethane and mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrahalomethanes in excess argon were prepared and identified from their matrix infrared spectra on the basis of DFT computed frequencies and observed isotopic shifts. Unlike the lighter elements in group 14, the heaviest member lead exists primarily in the oxidation state 2+ using 6p orbitals in reaction products due to relativistic contraction of the 6s orbital. The C-Pb-X (X = H, F, Cl) bond is close to a right angle, indicating that Pb contributes mostly p-character to the C-Pb and Pb-X bonds...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Frederic R Lyimo, Pedro Pallangyo, Naizihijwa Majani, Theophylly L Mushi, Sulende Kubhoja
BACKGROUND: Congenital cardiac defects are not rare among neonates. Prompt assessment for life-threatening anomalies is essential for rapid management decisions and positive outcomes. Extracardiac anomalies can occur in congenital heart defects, and their presence increases morbidity and mortality in these neonates. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 31- month-old infant black girl in Tanzania who presented with an on-and-off history of difficulty in breathing, easy fatigability, facial and lower-limb swelling, recurrent respiratory tract infections, and failure to thrive...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Fatima Ali, Sonia Qureshi, Muneer Amanullah, Mehnaz Atiq
Objective: Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon cyanotic congenital heart defect. Echocardiography is the initial diagnostic tool. Complimentary non-invasive modalities like cardiac computerized tomographic angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have replaced the need for cardiac catheterization in difficult cases. This study aimed to determine the accuracy of echocardiography in diagnosing total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and to determine the factors that may decrease its sensitivity...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Takushi Fujimoto, Kenji Inaba, Hiroshi Kadokura
Formation of a disulfide bond is a critical step in the folding of numerous secretory and membrane proteins and catalyzed in vivo. A variety of mechanisms and protein structures have evolved to catalyze oxidative protein folding. Those enzymes that directly interact with a folding protein to accelerate its oxidative folding are mostly thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that belong to the thioredoxin superfamily. The enzymes of this class often use a CXXC active-site motif embedded in their thioredoxin-like fold to promote formation, isomerization, and reduction of a disulfide bond in their target proteins...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Xing Qiao, Lu Yang, Qun Gao, Shu Yang, Zhaojie Li, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the changes in free astaxanthin (F-AST) and astaxanthin esters (AST-E) in L. vannamei during iced storage and frozen storage were investigated. The liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) method was used to quantify molecular species of AST-E in shrimp during storage. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of auto-oxidation products, apo-12-astaxanthinal and apo-13-astaxanthinone DHA ester were identified as the major oxidation products of F-AST and AST-E in L...
October 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rana S Al-Zahrani, Samaher H Alharbi, Rawan M A Tuwaijri, Bayan T Alzomaili, Alaa Althubaiti, Talat Mesud Yelbuz
Background/Aim: Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is traditionally classified as a "conotruncal heart defect", implying that TGA evolves from abnormal development of the outflow tract (OFT) of the embryonic heart. However, recently published genetic data suggest that TGA may be linked to laterality gene defects rather than OFT gene defects. The aim of our study was to clarify whether there is any statistically significant link between TGA and clinically diagnosed laterality defects (heterotaxy)...
September 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Martin Audet, Raymond C Stevens
The first crystal structure of a G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) was that of the bovine rhodopsin, solved in 2000, and is a light receptor within retina rode cells that enables vision by transducing a conformational signal from the light-induced isomerization of retinal covalently bound to the receptor. More than seven years after this initial discovery and following more than twenty years of technological developments in GPCR expression, stabilization, and crystallography, the high-resolution structure of the adrenaline binding β2 -adrenergic receptor, a ligand diffusible receptor, was discovered...
September 21, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Onder Albayram, Peter Angeli, Elizabeth Bernstein, Sean Baxley, Ziang Gao, Kun Ping Lu, Xiao Zhen Zhou
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein heavily implicated in neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Phosphorylation of tau at Thr231 allows for the isomerization of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) into distinct cis and trans conformations. Cis, but not trans, p-tau is detectable not only in Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, but also right after traumatic brain injury depending on injury severity and frequency both in humans and animal models...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
Paula Mapelli-Brahm, Charles Desmarchelier, Marielle Margier, Emmanuelle Reboul, Antonio J Meléndez Martínez, Patrick Borel
SCOPE: Absorption mechanisms of phytoene (PT) and phytofluene (PTF) are poorly known. The main objectives of the study are to measure their micellization and intestinal cell uptake efficiencies and to compare them to those of commonly consumed carotenoids. Other objectives are to assess the involvement of protein(s) in their cellular uptake and whether they compete with other carotenoids for micellization and cellular uptake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tomato-extract-purified PT and PTF, mainly present as cis-isomers, are much better incorporated in synthetic mixed micelles than pure all-trans lycopene...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xue Dong, Stefania Mondello, Firas Kobeissy, Farid Talih, Raffaele Ferri, Yehia Mechref
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is now considered a prodromal stage of an α-synucleinopathy-related to neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's diseases. Emerging evidence has shown that post-translational modification or glycosylation are implicated in dynamic disease mechanisms and the onset of many pathological conditions. We hypothesized that the characterization of the glycosylation pattern of patients with RBD would be of great value to understand the pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms and represent potentially useful biomarkers for disease-associated molecular changes...
August 31, 2018: Electrophoresis
Peter J Canfield, Iain M Blake, Zheng-Li Cai, Ian J Luck, Elmars Krausz, Rika Kobayashi, Jeffrey R Reimers, Maxwell J Crossley
In the version of this Article originally published, the word 'stereoisomerism' was erroneously included in the label of the upper-right box of Fig. 1. The label within the box has been corrected and it now reads: "Constitutional isomerism (same formula, different connectivity)". This has been corrected in the online version of the Article.
September 2018: Nature Chemistry
Chao Feng, Amitava Roy, Carol Beth Post
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an essential player in immune signaling through its ability to couple multiple classes of membrane immunoreceptors to intracellular signaling pathways. Ligand binding leads to the recruitment of Syk to a phosphorylated cytoplasmic region of the receptors called ITAM. Syk binds to ITAM with high-affinity (nanomolar Kd ) via its tandem pair of SH2 domains. The affinity between Syk and ITAM is allosterically regulated by phosphorylation at Y130 in a linker connecting the tandem SH2 domains; when Y130 is phosphorylated, the binding affinity decreases (micromolar Kd )...
October 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Lindsay M Ryerson, Scott Pharis, Charissa Pockett, Reeni Soni, Deborah Fruitman, Kristine J Guleserian, Melissa Nater, Stephen C Raynor, Andrew S Mackie, Bryan Dicken
BACKGROUND: Infants with heterotaxy syndrome (HS) have abnormal lateralization of organs along the right-left body axis. Intestinal rotation abnormalities (IRAs) are a potential source of morbidity and mortality. For this study, our objective was to prospectively observe a cohort of infants with HS and determine the incidence and natural history of IRA. METHODS: Infants ≤6 months of age with HS were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Exclusion criteria were other congenital abnormalities that necessitated abdominal surgery...
August 2018: Pediatrics
Anwar Baban, Nicoletta Cantarutti, Rachele Adorisio, Roberta Lombardi, Giulio Calcagni, Eva Piano Mortari, Bruno Dallapiccola, Bruno Marino, Fiore Salvatore Iorio, Rita Carsetti, Maria Cristina Digilio, Salvatore Giannico, Fabrizio Drago, Adriano Carotti
BACKGROUND: Heterotaxy syndrome (HS) is a group of congenital disorders characterized by abnormal arrangement of thoraco-abdominal organs across the left-right axis of the body, classified as right (RAI) and left atrial isomerism (LAI)·We investigated the long-term survival and phenotypic spectrum in our HS cohort. Results are compared to literature data. METHODS: This is a single centre, observational, both retro and prospective study. Cardiac features, surgical management and abdominal ultrasound (US) of all HS patients were reviewed or investigated if missing...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Amaurilio O Nogueira, Yasmin Ingrid S Oliveira, Beatriz L Adjafre, Maria E Amaral de Moraes, Gislei F Aragão
Protium heptaphyllum Aubl. belongs to the Burseraceae family. It is commonly called 'almecegueira' and is known to produce an amorphous resin which has constituents such as α- and β-amyrin, taraxastan-3-oxo-20-ol and sitostenonein. The α- and β-amyrin from P. heptaphyllum have pharmacological activities in several systems, such as central and peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and immunological system. In this study, our objective was to review pharmacological activities and to gather more information on the mixture of α- and β-amyrin obtained from P...
July 13, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Paweł Mateusz Nowak, Katarzyna Olesek, Michał Woźniakiewicz, Paweł Kościelniak
Methcathinone (ephedrone), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), and 3-methylmethcathinone (metaphedrone) are toxicologically-important cathinone derivatives used commonly as designer drugs. In this work we show the first method allowing to separate simultaneously all these molecules in a chiral medium, ensuring good resolution between all enantiomers. Eight cyclodextrins have been tested as potential chiral selectors, the best results were obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin, unreported so far for efficient separation of cathinones...
October 2018: Electrophoresis
Iain M Dykes, Dorota Szumska, Linta Kuncheria, Rathi Puliyadi, Chiann-Mun Chen, Costis Papanayotou, Helen Lockstone, Christèle Dubourg, Véronique David, Jurgen E Schneider, Thomas M Keane, David J Adams, Steve D M Brown, Sandra Mercier, Sylvie Odent, Jérôme Collignon, Shoumo Bhattacharya
ZIC2 mutation is known to cause holoprosencephaly (HPE). A subset of ZIC2 HPE probands harbour cardiovascular and visceral anomalies suggestive of laterality defects. 3D-imaging of novel mouse Zic2 mutants uncovers, in addition to HPE, laterality defects in lungs, heart, vasculature and viscera. A strong bias towards right isomerism indicates a failure to establish left identity in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), a phenotype that cannot be explained simply by the defective ciliogenesis previously noted in Zic2 mutants...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Trisha V Vigneswaran, Caroline B Jones, Vita Zidere, Marietta Charakida, Owen I Miller, John M Simpson, Gurleen K Sharland
In this retrospective, observational study of fetuses diagnosed with a laterality disturbance we describe the findings and outcome of fetuses diagnosed between 1980 and 2017 at a tertiary fetal-pediatric cardiology unit. In addition we sought to identify features which impact on outcome. Left atrial isomerism (LAI) was diagnosed in 177 babies and right atrial isomerism (RAI) in 100. Major structural heart disease was present in all cases of RAI and 91% with LAI. Complete heart block (CHB) was present in 40% of LAI...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
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