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American football

Timothy W Churchill, Supriya Krishnan, Marc Weisskopf, Brandon Yates, Frank E Speizer, Jonathan H Kim, Lee E Nadler, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross Zafonte, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Professional American-style football players are among the largest athletes across contemporary sporting disciplines, and weight gain during the years of football participation is common. At present, the health implications of this early-life weight gain remain incompletely understood. We sought to define weight trajectories of former professional American-style football athletes and to establish their relationship with 5 health afflictions common in this population (cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive impairment, sleep apnea, and chronic pain)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Tianwu Chen, Austin Wetzler, Scott Singer, Michael Feldman, David Rubenstein, Gunnar Gillespie, Shiyi Chen, Merrick Wetzler
Background: Arena football is an indoor version of American football played in indoor arenas on a smaller field with 8 players per team. Only 1 study has evaluated injury rates in arena football, and no study had compared 2 distinct cohorts of players. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare injury rates in American versus Chinese athletes in the Chinese Arena Football League. Our hypothesis was that the rate of significant injuries (≥7 days of time lost from play) would be statistically significantly higher in Chinese athletes...
June 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Eric Schussler, Richard J Jagacinski, Susan E White, Ajit M Chaudhari, John A Buford, James A Onate
Background: Long term neurologic injury and concussion have been identified as risks from participation in American football. Altering tackling form has been recommended to reduce the risk of neurologic injury caused by head accelerations when tackling. The purpose of this research is to determine the inter-rater agreement and validity of the Qualitative Youth Tackling System (QYTS), a six-item feedback scale to correct tackling form, when utilized by novice and expert raters. Hypothesis: Experienced raters will have higher levels of agreement with each other and with motion capture when compared to novice raters...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Eric Schussler, Richard J Jagacinski, Susan E White, Ajit M Chaudhari, John A Buford, James A Onate
Background: Many organizations have introduced frameworks to reduce the incidence of football related concussions through proper equipment fitting, coach education, and alteration of tackling technique. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training in a vertical, head up tackling style on the number of head accelerations experienced while tackling in a controlled laboratory situation. The authors hypothesized that training in a head up tackling technique would reduce the severity of head acceleration experienced by participants...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
David Hooper, Adam Tenforde, Anthony Hackney
The Exercise-hypogonadal Male Condition (EHMC) has been described to occur in athletes who experience low serum testosterone and associated symptoms. While high volumes of endurance exercise can lead to reduced testosterone concentrations in men, similar changes may occur in other sports including anaerobic and power sports such as American football, and weight class sports such as wrestling. A reduced testosterone concentration alone does not necessarily warrant treatment, but when it is accompanied by symptoms of hypogonadism, such as fatigue, sexual dysfunction and/or low bone mineral density (BMD), an athlete's performance and/or health may suffer...
July 31, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Shigeto Nakagawa, Hiroto Hanai, Tatsuo Mae, Kenji Hayashida, Minoru Yoneda
Background: The combination of a glenoid defect and a Hill-Sachs lesion in a shoulder with anterior instability has recently been termed "bipolar bone loss," but the prevalence and influence of this condition on postoperative recurrence after arthroscopic Bankart repair are still unclear. Purpose: To investigate bipolar bone loss in male athletes using a new scoring system and to evaluate its efficacy by comparing it with the glenoid track concept. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Mary K Mulcahey, Andrew S Bernhardson, Colin P Murphy, Angela Chang, Tyler Zajac, George Sanchez, Anthony Sanchez, James M Whalen, Mark D Price, Thomas O Clanton, Matthew T Provencher
Background: American football is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with the knee, ankle, and shoulder most commonly involved. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology, characteristics, and imaging findings of ankle injuries in football players at the National Football League (NFL) Combine and determine the relationship to player position. We hypothesized that there would be a high relative incidence of ankle injuries in these players compared with other sports and that there would be a direct correlation between the incidence of ankle injuries and player position...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Corey Montgomery, Austin Porter, Christopher Parks, Brant Sachleben, R Dale Blasier, Brien Rabenhorst
Football remains a popular sport in the United States despite sometimes significant injuries, such as fractures and dislocations, occurring. The objective of this study was to evaluate pediatric extremity fractures and dislocations related to football. A retrospective review was conducted at a level 1 pediatric trauma center to identify patients who were treated specifically for American football-related injuries (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code E007.0). All patients with football-related injuries presenting to the emergency department during a 6-year period (2007-2012) were reviewed for inclusion in the study...
July 1, 2018: Orthopedics
Thomas A Daniel, Kyle M Townsend, Yun Wang, David S Martin, Jeffrey S Katz, Gopikrishna Deshpande
While social and behavioral effects of violence in the media have been studied extensively, much less is known about how sports affect perceptions of violence. The current study examined neurofunctional differences between fans and non-fans of North American football (a contact sport) while viewing violent imagery. Participants viewed images of violence in both football and non-football settings while high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from their brains. Neurological activation was compared between these violence types and between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Charlotte Baker, Steve Browning, Richard Charnigo, Terry Bunn, Wayne Sanderson
PURPOSE: American football is played by over 1 million high school athletes in the United States, and knee injuries are the third most common injury. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence return to play after knee injuries in high school football athletes and whether return to play differs for varsity and nonvarsity football players. METHODS: We used academic year 2006-2007 through 2009-2010 data from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study...
June 22, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Michael J McGinity, Ramesh Grandhi, Joel E Michalek, Jesse S Rodriguez, Aron M Trevino, Ashley C McGinity, Ali Seifi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195827.].
2018: PloS One
Salustio Carrasco López, Rossana Gómez-Campos, Jorge Méndez Cornejo, Lautaro Morales, Camilo Urra-Albornoz, Marco Cossio-Bolañosb
OBJECTIVES: a) To compare physical growth to the 2012 American standard from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); b) to analyze physical growth by chronological and biological age; c) to propose physical growth charts based on chronological and biological age. Methodology. A descriptive (cross-sectional) study was conducted in young Chilean football players based on weight, standing height, and sitting height. These were compared to the CDC- 2012 standard. Percentiles were developed using the LMS method...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Kenji Maeda, George Moll
Objectives . Document American football, National Football League (NFL), Lean State (LS) or Heavy State (FS) Public High School (PHS), sets similar player position mean body mass indexes (BMI). Review health risks related to BMI. Methods . Public accessible 2014-2015 football rosters were used to calculate individual player's BMI for four PHS teams about each LS and FS Capital City and 32 NFL teams. Mean BMI were compared for male player positions: quarterback (Q), backfield (B), and line (L) players. Results ...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
Nicole Schwab, Lili-Naz Hazrati
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is considered to be a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Recently there has been a significant amount of media attention surrounding the commonness of CTE in professional athletes, particularly American football, based on several postmortem case series. However, despite the persuasive claims made by the media about CTE, research on the disease and the effects of mTBI in general remain in its infancy. Commonly cited case series studying CTE are limited by methodological biases, pathological inconsistencies, insufficient clinical data, and a reliance on inherently biased postmortem data...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Paolo Caravaggi, Alberto Leardini, Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler
Head and neck injuries are common in contact sports such as American football. Different mechanisms can produce such injuries, including compressive impact forces on the crown of the helmet with the neck in a flexed chin-down position. The aim of this paper was developing and testing a novel Cervical Spine Protection Device (CSPD) designed to keep the neck within its safe physiological range. The cervical spine range of motion (ROM) of ten participants was measured under four conditions: free; wearing a football gear; wearing the CSPD; and wearing the CSPD underneath the gear...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Jean Baptiste Tary, Roberto Henry Herrera, Mirko van der Baan
The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) has played a key role in the analysis of time-frequency information in many different fields of science and engineering. It builds on the classical short-time Fourier transform but allows for variable time-frequency resolution. Yet, interpretation of the resulting spectral decomposition is often hindered by smearing and leakage of individual frequency components. Computation of instantaneous frequencies, combined by frequency reassignment, may then be applied by highly localized techniques, such as the synchrosqueezing transform and ConceFT, in order to reduce these effects...
August 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
James R Ross, Moin Khan, Benjamin C Noonan, Christopher M Larson, Bryan T Kelly, Asheesh Bedi
Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) morphology can lead to range-of-motion deficits in football players. It is therefore important for physicians treating these players to be aware of the location and implications of FAI morphology. Purpose/Questions: We sought to characterize the radiographic deformity and dynamic impingement observed in a consecutive series of American football linemen with symptomatic, mechanical hip pain who underwent surgical treatment for FAI and to use software analysis to identify the location of impingement and terminal range of motion and the effects of simulated correction...
July 2018: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
Tharmegan Tharmaratnam, Mina A Iskandar, Tyler C Tabobondung, Iqdam Tobbia, Prasaanthan Gopee-Ramanan, Taylor A Tabobondung
Repetitive head trauma provides a favorable milieu for the onset of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. The result of long-lasting head trauma is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a disease process well-recognized in boxers, military personnel, and more recently, in American football players. CTE is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with hallmarks of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) aggregates and intercellular lesions of neurofibrillary tangles. The criteria for CTE diagnosis requires at least 1-2 focal perivascular lesions of p-tau in the cerebral cortex, at the depth of the sulci...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Scott L Zuckerman, Bryson B Reynolds, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Andrew W Kuhn, Jacob T Chadwell, Sarah E Goodale, Claire E Lafferty, Kyle T Langford, Lydia J McKeithan, Paul Kirby, Gary S Solomon
OBJECTIVE Amid the public health controversy surrounding American football, a helmet that can reduce linear and rotational acceleration has the potential to decrease forces transmitted to the brain. The authors hypothesized that a football helmet with an outer shell would reduce both linear and rotational acceleration. The authors' objectives were to 1) determine an optimal material for a shock-absorbing outer shell and 2) examine the ability of an outer shell to reduce linear and/or rotational acceleration...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Calvin Kuo, Lyndia Wu, Jesus Loza, Daniel Senif, Scott C Anderson, David B Camarillo
Previous research has sought to quantify head impact exposure using wearable kinematic sensors. However, many sensors suffer from poor accuracy in estimating impact kinematics and count, motivating the need for additional independent impact exposure quantification for comparison. Here, we equipped seven collegiate American football players with instrumented mouthguards, and video recorded practices and games to compare video-based and sensor-based exposure rates and impact location distributions. Over 50 player-hours, we identified 271 helmet contact periods in video, while the instrumented mouthguard sensor recorded 2,032 discrete head impacts...
2018: PloS One
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