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American football

Daniel E Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Robert H Brophy, Jeffrey T Johnston, David Schub, Scott A Rodeo, Matthew J Matava, Holly J Silvers, Brian Cole, Neal S ElAttrache, Timothy R McAdams, Bert R Mandelbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Steve H Monk, Andrew D Legarreta, Paul Kirby, Benjamin L Brett, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Aashim Bhatia, Gary S Solomon, Scott L Zuckerman
Sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health problem. The results of brain imaging studies following SRC have raised questions about long-term neurologic health, but the clinical implications of these findings remain unknown. A systematic review of brain imaging findings after SRC was performed utilizing the following inclusion criteria: football players, brain imaging within 6 months of SRC, and sample size >5. Studies were assessed for: 1) methodology, 2) imaging outcomes, and 3) number of positive statistical comparisons...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Erik E Swartz
Participation in any sport activity carries risk of cervical spine trauma, but certain activities have a higher risk than others, and hence, demand concerted efforts in developing prevention strategies. Prevention often includes efforts surrounding education of stakeholders, creating or modifying rules, and specific policies adopted for decreasing such risk. Stakeholders include sport clinicians, participants, coaches, parents, league administrators, officials, and the public. Thus, both athlete-specific and setting-specific factors must be considered and controlled to the extent possible for a multipronged approach for decreasing cervical spine injury risk...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologic condition that has been described in individuals who have been exposed to repetitive head impacts, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. CTE cannot currently be diagnosed during life. Clinical symptoms of CTE (including changes in mood, behavior, and cognition) are nonspecific and may develop after a latency phase following the injuries. Differential diagnosis based solely on clinical features is, therefore, difficult. For example, some younger patients who do not experience the latency phase (i...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Alexander Lin, Molly Charney, Martha E Shenton, Inga Katharina Koerte
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with repetitive head impact exposure, such as that resulting from sports-related concussive and subconcussive brain trauma. Currently, the only way to diagnose CTE is by using neuropathologic markers obtained postmortem. To diagnose CTE earlier, so that possible treatment interventions may be employed, there is a need to develop noninvasive in vivo biomarkers of CTE. Neuroimaging provides promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of CTE and may also help elucidate pathophysiologic changes that occur with chronic sports-related brain injury...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ann C Mckee, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Thor D Stein
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive head trauma, including concussion and subconcussion. CTE was first recognized in boxers nearly a century ago as "dementia pugilistica" or "punch drunk," but has been recently identified in contact sports athletes (including American football, ice hockey, soccer, baseball, rugby, boxing, and wrestling) and military veterans exposed to blast. Similar to many other neurodegenerative diseases, CTE is diagnosed conclusively only by neuropathologic examination of brain tissue...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Steven D'Ascanio, Michael L Alosco, Robert A Stern
Exposure to repetitive head impacts from contact sport participation (e.g., American football, boxing, soccer) is associated with the neurodegenerative disorder known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The neuropathology of CTE is becoming well defined, and diagnostic criteria have been developed and are being refined. The critical next step in this emerging field is the diagnosis of CTE during life. The objective of this chapter is to describe what is currently known about the clinical presentation and in vivo diagnosis of CTE...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Henrik Zetterberg, Bengt Winblad, Charles Bernick, Kristine Yaffe, Marek Majdan, Gunilla Johansson, Virginia Newcombe, Lars Nyberg, David Sharp, Olli Tenovuo, Kaj Blennow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically divided into a spectrum of severities, with mild TBI being the least severe form and a frequent occurrence in contact sports, such as ice hockey, American football, rugby, horse riding and boxing. Mild TBI is caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma that causes movement of the brain and stretching and tearing of axons, with diffuse axonal injury being a central pathogenic mechanism. Mild TBI is in principle synonymous with concussion; both have similar criteria in which the most important elements are acute alteration or loss of consciousness and/or post-traumatic amnesia following head trauma and no apparent brain changes on standard neuroimaging...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Peter Lisman, Mary Nadelen, Emily Hildebrand, Kyle Leppert, Sarah de la Motte
Few studies have investigated differences in functional movement assessment performance across scholastic levels of competition. This study examined Functional Movement Screen (FMS) performance in middle school (MS), high school (HS) and collegiate (COL) American football players and Y-Balance test (YBT) scores in MS and HS players. Functional movement measurements were collected for MS (N = 29; age = 12.8 ± 0.7 years), HS (N =52; age = 15.7 ± 1.2 years), and COL (N =77; age = 19.9 ± 1.4 years) football players prior to each group's competitive season...
September 2018: Biology of Sport
Andrew Murray, Alec Buttfield, Andrew Simpkin, John Sproule, Anthony P Turner
OBJECTIVES: It is commonplace to consider accelerometer load and any resultant neuromuscular fatigue in training programs. With these data becoming accepted in sport alongside wellness questionnaires this study aimed to investigate if a deeper analysis of the accelerometry data can provide actionable insight into training-induced disruptions. DESIGN: Accelerometer data from Collegiate American Football athletes (n=63) were collected during training and matches across a regular season...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yasuhiro Yuasa, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Tadao Isaka
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between toe muscular strength and the ability to change direction in athletes. Seventeen collegiate American-football players participated in the study (age 19.9 ± 0.9 years, competition experience 7.3 ± 1.7 years). Two types of measurements were performed to evaluate toe muscular strength: toe flexor strength with the metatarsophalangeal joint in the planter flexed position and toe-pushing force with the metatarsophalangeal joint in the dorsiflexed position...
September 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Muhammad Ali Chaudhary, Justin McCarty, Samir Shah, Zain Hashmi, Edward Caterson, Scott Goldberg, Craig Goolsby, Adil Haider, Eric Goralnick
BACKGROUND: In a decade, the US military reduced deaths from uncontrolled bleeding on the battlefield by 67%. This success, coupled with an increased incidence of mass shootings in the US, has led to multiple initiatives intent on translating hemorrhage-control readiness to the civilian sector. However, the best method to achieve widespread population-level hemorrhage-control readiness for civilians has not yet been elucidated. This study evaluates the implementation of American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control training at a National Football League stadium as a prospective model for general mass gathering site implementation...
November 10, 2018: Surgery
Brianna D McKay, Amelia A Miramonti, Zachary M Gillen, Todd J Leutzinger, Alegra I Mendez, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Joel T Cramer
McKay, BD, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, Leutzinger, TJ, Mendez, AI, Jenkins, NDM, and Cramer, JT. Normative reference values for high school-aged American football players: Proagility drill and 40-yard dash split times. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this short report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for the 10- and 20-yd split times (10YD and 20YD) during the 40-yd dash (40YD) as well as 10-yd split times during the proagility drill (PA) based on a large, nationally representative sample of high school-aged American football players in their freshman, sophomore, and junior classes...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Sarah Fraser, Michael Jakovac, Paul van Donkelaar
Repetitive subconcussive head impacts across a season of contact sports participation are associated with a number of deficits in brain function. To date, no research has investigated the effect of such head impact exposure on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). To address this issue, 179 elite, junior-level (age 19.6 ± 1.5 years) contact sport (ice hockey, American football) athletes were recruited for pre-season testing. Fifty-two non-concussed athletes returned for post-season testing. Fifteen non-contact sport athletes (age 20...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
David J Lessley, Richard W Kent, James R Funk, Christopher P Sherwood, Joseph M Cormier, Jeff R Crandall, Kristy B Arbogast, Barry S Myers
BACKGROUND: Concussions in American football remain a high priority of sports injury prevention programs. Detailed video review provides important information on causation, the outcomes of rule changes, and guidance on future injury prevention strategies. PURPOSE: Documentation of concussions sustained in National Football League games played during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons, including consideration of video views unavailable to the public. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
December 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Manickam Kumaravel, Pritish Bawa, Naoki Murai
Muscle injury accounts for about one-third of total sports-related injuries. The lower limb muscles have one of the highest predisposition for injury in high-level professional athletic sports, such as the National Football League. The commonest group of muscles injured among football players include the hamstrings, followed by the quadriceps. Muscle injuries lead to significant time, off the field and affect return to play. Sports physicians and teams have been keen on assessing such injuries and also relying on multiple tools to safely return the player back to the field...
November 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Jonathan D Cherry, Jesse Mez, John F Crary, Yorghos Tripodis, Victor E Alvarez, Ian Mahar, Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Raymond Nicks, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Patrick T Kiernan, Laney Evers, Sarah Svirsky, Katharine Babcock, Hannah M Gardner, Gaoyuan Meng, Christopher J Nowinski, Brett M Martin, Brigid Dwyer, Neil W Kowall, Robert C Cantu, Lee E Goldstein, Douglas I Katz, Robert A Stern, Lindsay A Farrer, Ann C McKee, Thor D Stein
The genetic basis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is poorly understood. Variation in transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B) has been associated with enhanced neuroinflammation during aging and with TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease, and rs3173615, a missense coding SNP in TMEM106B, has been implicated as a functional variant in these processes. Neuroinflammation and TDP-43 pathology are prominent features in CTE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in TMEM106B is associated with CTE risk, pathological features, and ante-mortem dementia...
November 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Ron Jadischke, David C Viano, Joe McCarthy, Albert I King
Objectives: Most biomechanical research on brain injury focuses on direct blows to the head. There are a few older studies that indicate craniocervical stretch could be a factor in concussion by causing strain in the upper spinal cord and brainstem. The objectives of this study are to assess the biomechanical response and estimate the strain in the upper cervical spine and brainstem from primary impact to the chest in American football. Methods: Impact testing was conducted to the chest of a stationary unhelmeted and helmeted anthropomorphic test device (ATD) as well as the laboratory reconstruction of two NFL game collisions resulting in concussion...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
J Sebastian Giudice, Gwansik Park, Kevin Kong, Ann Bailey, Richard Kent, Matthew B Panzer
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a set of Hybrid-III head and neck (HIII-HN) and impactor models that can be used to assess American football design modifications with established dummy-based injury metrics. The model was validated in two bare-head impact test configurations used by the National Football League and research groups to rank and assess helmet performance. The first configuration was a rigid pendulum impact to three locations on the HIII head (front, rear, side) at 3 m/s...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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