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American football

J Sebastian Giudice, Gwansik Park, Kevin Kong, Ann Bailey, Richard Kent, Matthew B Panzer
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a set of Hybrid-III head and neck (HIII-HN) and impactor models that can be used to assess American football design modifications with established dummy-based injury metrics. The model was validated in two bare-head impact test configurations used by the National Football League and research groups to rank and assess helmet performance. The first configuration was a rigid pendulum impact to three locations on the HIII head (front, rear, side) at 3 m/s...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ethan A Hood, Dennis W Klima, Kevin K Chui, Nicholas J Avallone
This study's objectives were to assess the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the King-Devick Test (KDT) during concussion screening and to analyze potential sport-specific differences in test performance across two sports. Two hundred and sixty-six high school male American football and soccer players recruited from four area high schools participated prior to the fall sports season. Main outcome measures included the KDT and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
October 18, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Ali-Asgar Najefi, Luckshmana Jeyaseelan, Matthew Welck
Turf toe is a condition that describes injury to the plantar metatarsophalangeal-sesamoid complex of the great toe.It is a relatively rare and debilitating condition, particularly seen in American footballers after the introduction of harder, artificial 'turf' surfaces.Turf toe represents a significant injury to the hallux and requires a high index of suspicion.If unrecognized, it can lead to chronic problems including reduced push-off strength, persistent pain, progressive deformity and eventual joint degeneration...
September 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Ann Bailey, James Funk, David Lessley, Chris Sherwood, Jeff Crandall, William Neale, Nathan Rose
Professional American football games are recorded in digital video with multiple cameras, often at high resolution and high frame rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a videogrammetry technique to calculate translational and rotational helmet velocity before, during and after a helmet impact. In total, 10 football impacts were staged in a National Football League (NFL) stadium by propelling helmeted 50th percentile male crash test dummies into each other or the ground at speeds and orientations representative of concussive impacts for NFL players...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Gavin A Davis, Michael Makdissi, Paul Bloomfield, Patrick Clifton, Ruben J Echemendia, Éanna Cian Falvey, Gordon Ward Fuller, Gary Green, Peter Rex Harcourt, Thomas Hill, Nathan McGuirk, Willem Meeuwisse, John W Orchard, Martin Raftery, Allen K Sills, Gary S Solomon, Alex Valadka, Paul McCrory
BACKGROUND: Video review has become an important tool in professional sporting codes to help sideline identification and management of players with a potential concussion. AIM: To assess current practices related to video review of concussion in professional sports internationally, and compare protocols and diagnostic criteria used to identify and manage potential concussions. METHODS: Current concussion management guidelines from professional national and international sporting codes were reviewed...
September 27, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ozan Gökler, İlker Koçak, Esra Aydoğan, Işıl Karanfil, Ceren Baş
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association between posterior channel benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and trauma that is frequently experienced by American football players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were classified into the following two groups: (1) a study group consisting of 63 male participants aged 18-30 years who had been playing American football for more than 2 years and (2) a control group consisting of 49 male participants aged 18-27 years with no history of otologic/vestibular disease or acute/chronic trauma...
August 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Mark Walsh, Eric Slattery, Arden McMath, Ronald Cox, Joshua Haworth
BACKGROUND: Balance and postural control are integral to training and sport performance. Demands on posture are contextual and vary in different ways depending on the specific physical activity. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that sustained exposure to environmental constraints, through specific sport participation, might lead to a persistent modification of postural control. METHODS: Double and single-leg postural sway were compared between ice hockey players, American football players and physically active college students...
October 2018: Gait & Posture
Scott L Zuckerman, Benjamin L Brett, Aaron Jeckell, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Allen K Sills, Gary S Solomon
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in the depths of one or more cortical sulci. Controversy over the risk of CTE and neurologic disorders later in life among contact sport athletes has taken hold in the public spotlight, most notably in American football. Players, parents, coaches, and legislators have taken action based on the commonly held notion that contact sports invariably lead to neurodegenerative disorders...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Grant Gillett
Patients with repeated minor head injury are a challenge to our clinical skills of neurodiagnosis because the relevant evidence objectively demonstrating their impairment was collected in New Zealand (although published in the BMJ and Lancet) and, at the time, was mired in controversy. The effects of repeated closed diffuse head injury are increasingly recognized worldwide, but now suffer from the relentless advance of imaging technology as the dominant form of neurodiagnosis and the considerable financial interests that underpin the refusal to recognize that acute accelerational injury is the most subtle and insidiously damaging (especially when seen in the light of biopsychosocial medicine), and potentially one of the most financially momentous (given the large incomes impacted and needing compensation) phenomena in modern sports medicine...
October 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Theodore R Bashore, Brandon Ally, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Joseph S Neimat, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, Scott A Wylie
American football is played in a dynamic environment that places considerable demands on a player's ability to make fast, precise reactions while controlling premature, impulsive reactions to spatial misinformation. We investigated the hypothesis that collegiate football players are more proficient than their non-athlete counterparts at controlling impulsive motor actions. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players ( n = 280) and non-athlete controls ( n = 32) completed a variant of the Simon conflict task, which quantifies choice reaction speed and the proficiency of controlling spatially driven response impulses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrew D Legarreta, Steve H Monk, Paul W Kirby, Benjamin L Brett, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Aashim Bhatia, Gary S Solomon, Scott L Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: Lasting neuroimaging changes after participation in American football are an increasing public health concern. The clinical relevance of imaging findings remains unknown. METHODS: A systematic review was performed with the following inclusion criteria: football players, brain imaging ≥2 years from previous concussion or retirement, and sample size ≥5. Studies were assessed for 1) methodology (control selection, type I error, and recall bias), 2) imaging outcomes, and 3) number of significant statistical comparisons...
August 23, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Farzad Jalilvand, Norbert K Banoocy, Michael C Rumpf, Robert G Lockie
Jalilvand, F, Banoocy, NK, Rumpf, MC, and Lockie, RG. Relationship between body mass, peak power, and power-to-body mass ratio on sprint velocity and momentum in high-school football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The ability to rapidly shift one's body mass horizontally or vertically is common within American football irrespective of field position, and the capacity to generate power is a favorable physical quality. This requires analysis in high-school football players, especially considering the body mass disparities that exist in this population...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jon G Divine, Joseph F Clark, Angelo J Colosimo, John P Detherage, Michael A Donaworth, Kimberly A Hasselfeld, Aaron Himmler, Joseph T Rauch, Robert E Mangine
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify changes in blood biomarkers that would indicate excessive muscle breakdown during the initial 10 days of preseason training in collegiate American football players and subsequently increase their risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Preseason, heat acclimatization period. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five Division I American football players...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Timothy W Churchill, Supriya Krishnan, Marc Weisskopf, Brandon A Yates, Frank E Speizer, Jonathan H Kim, Lee E Nadler, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross Zafonte, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Professional American-style football players are among the largest athletes across contemporary sporting disciplines. Weight gain during football participation is common, but the health implications of this early-life weight gain remain incompletely understood. We sought to define weight trajectories of former professional American-style football athletes and to establish their relationship with 5 common health afflictions (cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive impairment, sleep apnea, and chronic pain)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Tianwu Chen, Austin Wetzler, Scott Singer, Michael Feldman, David Rubenstein, Gunnar Gillespie, Shiyi Chen, Merrick Wetzler
Background: Arena football is an indoor version of American football played in indoor arenas on a smaller field with 8 players per team. Only 1 study has evaluated injury rates in arena football, and no study had compared 2 distinct cohorts of players. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare injury rates in American versus Chinese athletes in the Chinese Arena Football League. Our hypothesis was that the rate of significant injuries (≥7 days of time lost from play) would be statistically significantly higher in Chinese athletes...
June 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Eric Schussler, Richard J Jagacinski, Susan E White, Ajit M Chaudhari, John A Buford, James A Onate
Background: Long term neurologic injury and concussion have been identified as risks from participation in American football. Altering tackling form has been recommended to reduce the risk of neurologic injury caused by head accelerations when tackling. The purpose of this research is to determine the inter-rater agreement and validity of the Qualitative Youth Tackling System (QYTS), a six-item feedback scale to correct tackling form, when utilized by novice and expert raters. Hypothesis: Experienced raters will have higher levels of agreement with each other and with motion capture when compared to novice raters...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Eric Schussler, Richard J Jagacinski, Susan E White, Ajit M Chaudhari, John A Buford, James A Onate
Background: Many organizations have introduced frameworks to reduce the incidence of football related concussions through proper equipment fitting, coach education, and alteration of tackling technique. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training in a vertical, head up tackling style on the number of head accelerations experienced while tackling in a controlled laboratory situation. The authors hypothesized that training in a head up tackling technique would reduce the severity of head acceleration experienced by participants...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
David R Hooper, Adam S Tenforde, Anthony C Hackney
The Exercise-Hypogonadal Male Condition (EHMC) has been described to occur in athletes who experience low serum testosterone and associated symptoms. While high volumes of endurance exercise can lead to reduced testosterone concentrations in men, similar changes may occur in other sports including anerobic and power sports such as American football, and weight class sports such as wrestling. A reduced testosterone concentration alone does not necessarily warrant treatment, but when it is accompanied by symptoms of hypogonadism, such as fatigue, sexual dysfunction, and/or low bone mineral density (BMD), an athlete's performance and/or health may suffer...
August 27, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Shigeto Nakagawa, Hiroto Hanai, Tatsuo Mae, Kenji Hayashida, Minoru Yoneda
Background: The combination of a glenoid defect and a Hill-Sachs lesion in a shoulder with anterior instability has recently been termed "bipolar bone loss," but the prevalence and influence of this condition on postoperative recurrence after arthroscopic Bankart repair are still unclear. Purpose: To investigate bipolar bone loss in male athletes using a new scoring system and to evaluate its efficacy by comparing it with the glenoid track concept. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Mary K Mulcahey, Andrew S Bernhardson, Colin P Murphy, Angela Chang, Tyler Zajac, George Sanchez, Anthony Sanchez, James M Whalen, Mark D Price, Thomas O Clanton, Matthew T Provencher
Background: American football is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with the knee, ankle, and shoulder most commonly involved. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology, characteristics, and imaging findings of ankle injuries in football players at the National Football League (NFL) Combine and determine the relationship to player position. We hypothesized that there would be a high relative incidence of ankle injuries in these players compared with other sports and that there would be a direct correlation between the incidence of ankle injuries and player position...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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