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“synthetic control”

Xueyan Zhang, Fengbo Wu, Ke Men, Rong Huang, Bailin Zhou, Rui Zhang, Rui Zou, Li Yang
As a novel toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, synthetic unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides can stimulate a Th1 immune response and potentially be used as therapeutic agents or vaccine adjuvants for the treatment of cancer. However, some drawbacks of CpG limit their applications, such as rapid elimination by nuclease-mediated degradation and poor cellular uptake. Therefore, repeat high-dose drug administration is required for treatment. In this work, a CpG delivery system based on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) was designed and studied for the first time to achieve better bioactivity of CpG...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Max Darnell, Alison O'Neil, Angelo Mao, Luo Gu, Lee L Rubin, David J Mooney
Variations in a multitude of material microenvironmental properties have been observed across tissues in vivo, and these have profound effects on cell phenotype. Phenomenological experiments have suggested that certain of these features of the physical microenvironment, such as stiffness, could sensitize cells to other features; meanwhile, mechanistic studies have detailed a number of biophysical mechanisms for this sensing. However, the broad molecular consequences of these potentially complex and nonlinear interactions bridging from biophysical sensing to phenotype have not been systematically characterized, limiting the overall understanding and rational deployment of these biophysical cues...
August 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katharine Page, Jeremy Shaffer, Samuel Lin, Mark Zhang, Jane May Liu
Riboswitches, non-coding RNAs that bind a small molecule effector to control gene expression at the level of transcription or translation, are uniquely suited to meet challenges in synthetic biology. To expand the limited set of existing riboswitches, we developed a riboswitch discovery platform that couples dual genetic selection and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify novel riboswitches from a 108 random-sequence library in which the aptamer domain of the ThiM#2 riboswitch was replaced with an N40 sequence...
August 17, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Adam P Kowalczyk, Michał Makowski, Izabela Ducin, Maciej Sypek, Andrzej Kolodziejczyk
We present a method to increase the resolution of holographically projected images by the use of a collective matrix of two phase-only spatial light modulators. As a result of fine alignment and common coherent illumination of the modulators, a synthetic aperture is formed with a doubled number of active pixels. In this paper we present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations which stand in good agreement for different distances between the apertures of modulators. We have achieved experimentally controlled field interference from both modulators on the projection screen, exhibiting increased resolution in one spatial direction and residual effects of the dead space between modulators...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Chengzhi Qin, Qingjie Liu, Bing Wang, Peixiang Lu
We investigate the topological phase transition between Type-I and Type-II Weyl points (WPs) in a composite three-dimensional lattice composed of a two-dimensional brick-wall waveguide array and a synthetic frequency dimension created by dynamic modulation. By imposing different modulation amplitudes and phases in the two sublattices, we can break either parity or time-reversal symmetry and realize the phase transition between Type-I and Type-II WPs. As the array is truncated to have two edges, two Fermi-arc surface states will emerge, which propagate in opposite directions for Type-I WPs while in same directions for Type-II WPs, accompanied by bidirectional and unidirectional frequency shifts for the optical modes...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Khalil Ali Ahmad, Hong Ze, Jichao Chen, Farhan Ullah Khan, Chen Xuezhuo, Jinyi Xu, Ding Qilong
Antioxidant therapy is considered as promising strategy for treating oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular disease. Bis (β-elemene-13-yl) glutarate (BEG) is a novel β-elemene derivative. Herein, we examined the antioxidant activity of BEG on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after injury with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and investigated the mechanism involved. HUVECs were divided into the following groups: control group (untreated cells); treated groups (cells treated with 0.1, 1, 10 μmol/L of BEG); positive control group (cells treated with 0...
July 30, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sofi Imtiyaz Ali, B Gopalakrishnan, V Venkatesalu
Vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes cause globally important diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis. The incidence of these diseases can be reduced through mosquito control programs but these control programs currently rely on synthetic insecticides that can impact the environment, and has selected widespread mosquito resistance. Environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides discovered in plants offer an alternative approach to mosquito control. Here, we investigated extracts from root or aerial parts of Chicory (Cichorium intybus) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Aedes aegypti (dengue fever vector), and Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis vector)...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology International
Qiaofeng Yao, Xun Yuan, Tiankai Chen, David Tai Leong, Jianping Xie
With continuous research efforts devoted into synthesis and characterization chemistry of functional nanomaterials in the past decades, the development of metal materials is stepping into a new era, where atom-by-atom customization of property-dictating structural attributes is expected. Herein, the state-of-the-art modulation of functional metal nanomaterials at the atomic level, by size- and structure-controlled synthesis of thiolate-protected metal (e.g., Au and Ag) nanoclusters (NCs), is exemplified. Metal NCs are ultrasmall (<3 nm) particles with hierarchical primary, secondary, and tertiary structures, reminiscent of natural proteins or enzymes...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Michele Iannone, Francesco Botrè, Nicoletta Cardillo, Xavier de la Torre
Anectodical information suggests that flavonoids may be widely used among athletes for their multiple biochemical and pharmacological effects. We have evaluated in vitro the effects of two synthetic isoflavones, methoxyisoflavone and ipriflavone, on the catalytic activity of human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens (i.e. testosterone or androstenedione) to estrogens (i.e. estradiol and estrone). The potential inhibitory effect was evaluated by measuring the rate of aromatization of testosterone, monitored by GC-MS, both in the presence and in the absence of methoxyisoflavone or ipriflavone, comparing their effects with those of synthetic aromatase inhibitors (formestane, anastrozole and aminoglutethimide) presently included in the list of prohibited substances and methods, and of natural flavonoids (chrysin, quercetin and daidzein), that are known inhibitors of CYP19...
August 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michael R Buchmeiser
The concepts of functional precision polymers and the latest accomplishments in their synthesis are summarized. Synthetic concepts based on chain growth polymerization are compared to iterative synthetic approaches. Here, the term "functional precision polymers" refers to polymers that are not solely hydrocarbon-based but contain functional groups and are characterized by a highly ordered primary structure. If insertion polymerization is used for their synthesis, olefin metathesis-based polymerization techniques, that is, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization, and the regio- and stereoselective cyclopolymerization of α,ω-diynes are almost exclusively applied...
August 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Corrie L Gallant-Behm, Joseph Piper, Brent A Dickinson, Christina M Dalby, Linda A Pestano, Aimee L Jackson
There is a strong unmet need for new therapeutics to accelerate wound healing across both chronic and acute indications. It is well established that local tissue hypoxia, vascular insufficiency and/or insufficient angiogenesis contribute to inadequate wound repair in the context of diabetic foot ulcers as well as to other chronic wounds such as venous stasis and pressure ulcers. microRNA-92a-3p (miR-92a) is a potent anti-angiogenic miRNA whose inhibition has led to increases in angiogenesis in multiple organ systems, resulting in an improvement in function following myocardial infarction, limb ischemia, vascular injury and bone fracture...
August 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Anja Schirbel, Dror S Shouval, Betty Hebecker, Bernhard Hube, Andreas Sturm, Lael Werner
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder. Our understanding of the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of IBD has increased substantially; however, only scarce data exist regarding the role of commensal fungi in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and triggering IBD. Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a member of the intestinal mycobiome and proposed to contribute to IBD pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the influence of the two morphologies of C. albicans, yeast and hypha, on epithelial cells and T cells from IBD patients vs...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Wenzhuo Wu, Gang Qiu, Yixiu Wang, Ruoxing Wang, Peide Ye
Tellurium (Te) has a trigonal crystal lattice with inherent structural anisotropy. Te is multifunctional, e.g., semiconducting, photoconductive, thermoelectric, piezoelectric, etc., for applications in electronics, sensors, optoelectronics, and energy devices. Due to the inherent structural anisotropy, previously reported synthetic methods predominantly yield one-dimensional (1D) Te nanostructures. Much less is known about 2D Te nanostructures, their processing schemes, and their material properties. This review focuses on the synthesis and morphology control of emerging 2D tellurene and summarizes the latest developments in understanding the fundamental properties of monolayer and few-layer tellurene, as well as the recent advances in demonstrating prototypical tellurene devices...
August 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yumin Wu, Haobo Cheng, Yongfu Wen, Xin Chen, Yingwei Wang
The suppression of coherent noise can produce higher-quality reconstructed images in digital holographic microscopy. A robust and effective phase coherent noise denoising algorithm is proposed in this paper that combines the anisotropic diffusion equation and the phase quality map. In order to accurately identify the noise and signal pixels, we introduce the phase quality map and edge detection to quantify the quality of the pixel information. In addition, a synthetic diffusion function is established to control the speed of the anisotropic diffusion process based on the quality coefficient...
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Piotr Adamowicz, Piotr Hydzik
INTRODUCTION: The second largest group of new drugs monitored by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is synthetic cathinones. Substances that are controlled by the law are immediately replaced by new uncontrolled derivatives that cause constant and dynamic changes on the drug market. Some of the most recent synthetic cathinones that have appeared on the "legal highs" market are 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (3,4-MDPHP) and α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP)...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Woojin M Han, Shannon E Anderson, Mahir Mohiuddin, Daniela Barros, Shadi A Nakhai, Eunjung Shin, Isabel Freitas Amaral, Ana Paula Pêgo, Andrés J García, Young C Jang
Muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) play a central role in muscle regeneration, but their quantity and function decline with comorbidity of trauma, aging, and muscle diseases. Although transplantation of MuSCs in traumatically injured muscle in the comorbid context of aging or pathology is a strategy to boost muscle regeneration, an effective cell delivery strategy in these contexts has not been developed. We engineered a synthetic hydrogel-based matrix with optimal mechanical, cell-adhesive, and protease-degradable properties that promotes MuSC survival, proliferation, and differentiation...
August 2018: Science Advances
Ken Okamoto, Ayumi Koga, Hirokazu Tazume, Ryo Noguchi, Sayahito Kumamoto, Hiroo Satoh, Takanao Sueyoshi, Toshihiro Fukui
Objective : To evaluate limb-salvage surgery including vascular resection for lower-extremity soft-tissue sarcomas and carcinomas for adult patients. Materials and Methods : Eight consecutive patients (median age, 59 years) who underwent vascular replacement during surgery for malignant tumors in the lower limbs between November 2006 and March 2018 were evaluated. Patient data were retrospectively obtained in a computerized database. Arterial and venous reconstructions were performed for seven patients, with one additional patient receiving venous reconstruction only...
June 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Iván Montenegro, Alejandro Madrid, Mauricio Cuellar, Michael Seeger, Juan Felipe Alfaro, Ximena Besoain, Juan Pablo Martínez, Ingrid Ramirez, Yusser Olguín, Miryam Valenzuela
Tomato crops can be affected by several infectious diseases produced by bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Four phytopathogens are of special concern because of the major economic losses they generate worldwide in tomato production; Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato , causative agents behind two highly destructive diseases, bacterial canker and bacterial speck, respectively; fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici that causes Fusarium Wilt, which strongly affects tomato crops; and finally, Phytophthora spp...
August 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Patrick Vudriko, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, James Okwee-Acai, Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Joseph Byaruhanga, John Son Bbira, Kozo Fujisaki, Xuenan Xuan, Hiroshi Suzuki
This study investigated the target site mutations in the partial sequence of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) domain II of synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Genomic DNA was extracted from seven tick populations (two susceptible and five resistant) collected from central, eastern and southwestern Uganda. The PCR amplicons of the VSSC domain II were cloned and sequenced to determine novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A non-synonymous mutation C78 A corresponding to C190 A was found in all the five SP-resistant ticks...
August 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Yunfeng Ding, Luis Eduardo Contreras-Llano, Eliza Morris, Michelle Mao, Cheemeng Tan
The functioning of synthetic gene circuits depends on their local chemical context defined by the types and concentrations of biomolecules in the surrounding milieu that influence gene transcription and translation. This chemical-context dependence of synthetic gene circuits arises from significant yet unknown crosstalk between engineered components, host cells, and environmental factors, and has been a persistent challenge for synthetic biology. Here, we show that the sensitivity of synthetic gene networks to their chemical contexts can be minimized and their designed functions rendered robust using artificial cells, which are synthetic biomolecular compartments engineered from the bottom-up using liposomes that encapsulate the gene networks...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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