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“synthetic control”

Zijun Shu, Yu Liu, Qingyun Cao, Pengcheng Yang, Shaoliang Zhang, Martin B Plenio, Fedor Jelezko, Jianming Cai
We experimentally observe Floquet Raman transitions in the weakly driven solid-state spin system of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. The periodically driven spin system simulates a two-band Wannier-Stark ladder model and allows us to observe coherent spin state transfer arising from a Raman transition mediated by Floquet synthetic levels. It also leads to the prediction of an analog photon-assisted Floquet Raman transition and dynamical localization in a driven two-level quantum system. The demonstrated rich Floquet dynamics offers new capabilities to achieve effective Floquet coherent control of a quantum system with potential applications in various types of quantum technologies based on driven quantum dynamics...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Young Je Lee, Soo-Jung Kim, Matthew B Amrofell, Tae Seok Moon
Recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have facilitated the use of regulatory RNAs such as synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) to modulate gene expression. However, despite the simple and universal complementarity rule, predictable asRNA-mediated repression is still challenging due to the intrinsic complexity of native asRNA-mediated gene regulation. To address this issue, we present a multivariate model, based on the change in free energy of complex formation (ΔGCF) and percent mismatch of the target binding region, which can predict synthetic asRNA-mediated repression efficiency in diverse contexts...
December 5, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Daniel O'Reilly, Zachary J Kartje, Eman A Ageely, Elise Malek-Adamian, Maryam Habibian, Annabelle Schofield, Christopher L Barkau, Kushal J Rohilla, Lauren B DeRossett, Austin T Weigle, Masad J Damha, Keith T Gagnon
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) endonucleases are at the forefront of biotechnology, synthetic biology and gene editing. Methods for controlling enzyme properties promise to improve existing applications and enable new technologies. CRISPR enzymes rely on RNA cofactors to guide catalysis. Therefore, chemical modification of the guide RNA can be used to characterize structure-activity relationships within CRISPR ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes and identify compatible chemistries for controlling activity...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Larissa Tais Soligo, Ediléia Lodi, Ana Paula Farina, Matheus Albino Souza, Cristina de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Doglas Cecchin
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE), calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2], and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigant solutions with rotary or reciprocating instrumentation for disinfection of root canals inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular molars were prepared and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 21 days. The roots were then randomly divided into the following eight experimental groups (n=11) according to the instrumentation technique and disinfection protocol: ProTaper Next or Reciproc R25 with sodium chloride (control group), 6% NaOCl, 6% Ca(ClO)2, or 50% GSE used for irrigation during instrumentation...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Cléber A Baronio, Daniel Bernardi, Beatriz A J Paranhos, Flávio R M Garcia, Marcos Botton
To provide alternatives to the use of spraying synthetic insecticides in C. capitata management, was evaluated the effect of "attract and kill" toxic baits on population suppression of C. capitata in three commercial areas producing table grapes. Toxic baits of Gelsura™ (4.5 L ha-1) and Success™ 0.02 CB (4.0 L ha-1) resulted in lower population levels of C. capitata adults in monitoring traps after five sequential applications at weekly intervals during the maturation period of the grapes when compared with control plots with or without insecticidal spray...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Min Zeng, Yulin Luo, Chunrong Xu, Rong Li, Ni Chen, Xin Deng, Dan Fang, Liqun Wang, Jianbo Wu, Mao Luo
Platelets (PLTs) - endothelial cells (ECs) interaction appears to contribute to phenotypic transition of VSMCs that play an important role in the physiological and pathological process of vascular complications in Type 2 diabetes (DM2). However, the precise mechanisms by which interactions between PLTs and ECs affect VSMCs phenotype, have largely remained unclear. We determined the effect of diabetic PLTs-ECs interaction to influence VSMCs migration, proliferation and phenotypic transformation in triple cell co-culture models using the qRT-PCR, western blot, fluorescence microscopy, wound scratch assays, CCK-8 assays, and gelatine zymography assays...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Danica Erin Goggin, Gareth L Nealon, Gregory Cawthray, Adrian Scaffidi, Mark Howard, Stephen Powles, Gavin R Flematti
Synthetic auxin herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are widely used for selective control of broadleaf weeds in cereals and transgenic crops. Although the troublesome weed wild radish ( Raphanus raphanistrum) has developed resistance to 2,4-D, no populations have yet displayed an enhanced capacity for metabolic detoxification of the herbicide, with both susceptible and resistant wild radish plants readily metabolizing 2,4-D. Using mass spectrometry and NMR, the major 2,4-D metabolite was identified as the glucose ester, and its structure confirmed by synthesis...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ulrike Fluch, Brian D McCarthy, Sascha Ott
Biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid derivatives containing either azide or acetylene functional groups were inserted into UiO-67 metal organic frameworks (MOFs) via post synthetic linker exchange. Sequential and orthogonal click reactions could be performed on these modified MOFs by incubating the crystals with small molecule substrates bearing azide or acetylene groups in the presence of a copper catalyst. 1H NMR of digested MOF samples showed that up to 50% of the incorporated linkers could be converted to their "clicked" triazole products...
December 5, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ahmet Burak Çiftci, Rıza Haldun Gündoğdu, Bahadır Osman Bozkırlı, Mustafa Ömer Yazıcıoğlu, Berrak Gümüşkaya Öcal, Birsen Özdem
BACKGROUND: There are varying opinions on the feasibility of the placement of synthetic materials in contaminated surgical fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of the use of a commercially available composite mesh in the presence of abdominal infection. METHODS: Twenty-four hours after the induction of experimental peritonitis, 20 rats were randomized into 2 groups of 10 subjects. After abdominal cleansing with a second laparotomy, the abdomen was closed with running sutures in the control group and the composite mesh was applied in the experimental group before closure...
November 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Benjamin Mesure, Patrick Menu, Jagadeesh Kumar Venkatesan, Magali Cucchiarini, Émilie Velot
Musculoskeletal pathologies, especially those affecting bones and joints, remain a challenge for regenerative medicine. The main difficulties affecting bone tissue engineering are the size of the defects, the need for blood vessels and the synthesis of appropriate matrix elements in the engineered tissue. Indeed, the cartilage is an avascular tissue and consequently has limited regenerative abilities. Thanks to their self-renewal, plasticity and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) became a central player in tissue engineering, and have already been shown to be able to differentiate towards chondrogenic or osteogenic phenotypes...
December 5, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yunchao Xie, Chi Zhang, Jheng-Wun Su, Heng Deng, Cheng Zhang, Jian Lin
To date, various approaches to synthesize zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs) have been developed, such as solvothermal, sonochemical, microfluidic, and mechanochemistry reactions. However, most of them are time-consuming and involve complex processing steps, thus they cannot rapidly screen potential candidates to obtain ZIFs on demand. Such a challenge calls for efficient synthetic approaches. Herein, we overcome this challenge by employing two nonconventional heating strategies, i.e., microwave- and Joule-heating, which are induced by laser-induced graphene (LIG) microreactors, for rapidly synthesizing ZIFs...
December 4, 2018: ChemSusChem
Jin-Seong Cho, Hyung-Woo Jeon, Min-Ha Kim, The K Vo, Jinsoo Kim, Eung-Jun Park, Young-Im Choi, Hyoshin Lee, Kyung-Hwan Han, Jae-Heung Ko
With the exponential growth of the human population and industrial developments, research on renewable energy resources is required to alleviate environmental and economic impacts caused by the consumption of fossil fuels. In this study, we present a synthetic biological application of a wood forming tissue-specific bicistronic gene expression system to improve both the quantity and quality of woody biomass to minimize undesirable growth penalties. Our transgenic poplars, designed to express both PdGA20ox1 (a GA20-oxidase from Pinus densiflora producing bioactive gibberellin, GA) and PtrMYB221 (a MYB transcription factor negatively regulating lignin biosynthesis) under the developing xylem (DX) tissue-specific promoter (i...
December 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Bin Wang, Cheng Tang, Hao-Fan Wang, Xiao Chen, Rui Cao, Qiang Zhang
A cost-effective and highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst will be significant for the future energy scenario. The emergence of the core-shell heterostructure has invoked new feasibilities to inspire the full potential of non-precious-metal candidates. The shells always have a large thickness, affording robust mechanical properties under harsh reaction conditions, which limits the full exposure of active sites with highly intrinsic reactivity and extrinsic physicochemical characters for optimal performance...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Habib Yaribeygi, Vahid Zare, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing rapidly worldwide. This metabolic disorder affects many physiological pathways and is a key underlying cause of a multitude of debilitating complications. There is, therefore, a critical need for effective diabetes management. Although many synthetic therapeutic glucose-lowering agents have been developed to control glucose homeostasis, they may have unfavorable side effects or limited efficacy. Herbal-based hypoglycemic agents present an adjunct treatment option to mitigate insulin resistance, improve glycemic control and reduce the required dose of standard antidiabetic medications...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mauro Merli, Marco Moscatelli, Giorgia Mariotti, Umberto Pagliaro, Eugenia Raffaelli, Michele Nieri
PURPOSE: The objective of this 3-year post-loading parallel randomised controlled trial is to compare two bone substitutes and resorbable membranes in a one-stage procedure for horizontal bone augmentation: anorganic bovine bone and porcine collagen membranes (BB group) versus synthetic resorbable bone graft substitute made of pure β-tricalcium phosphate and porcine pericardium collagen membranes (CJ group). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in need of implant treatment having at least one site with horizontal osseous defect at a private clinic in Rimini, Italy, were included in this study...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Sara Condino, Giuseppe Turini, Paolo D Parchi, Rosanna M Viglialoro, Nicola Piolanti, Marco Gesi, Mauro Ferrari, Vincenzo Ferrari
Orthopaedic simulators are popular in innovative surgical training programs, where trainees gain procedural experience in a safe and controlled environment. Recent studies suggest that an ideal simulator should combine haptic, visual, and audio technology to create an immersive training environment. This article explores the potentialities of mixed-reality using the HoloLens to develop a hybrid training system for orthopaedic open surgery. Hip arthroplasty, one of the most common orthopaedic procedures, was chosen as a benchmark to evaluate the proposed system...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Yuxing Yao, James T Waters, Anna V Shneidman, Jiaxi Cui, Xiaoguang Wang, Nikolaj K Mandsberg, Shucong Li, Anna C Balazs, Joanna Aizenberg
Dynamic functions of biological organisms often rely on arrays of actively deformable microstructures undergoing a nearly unlimited repertoire of predetermined and self-regulated reconfigurations and motions, most of which are difficult or not yet possible to achieve in synthetic systems. Here, we introduce stimuli-responsive microstructures based on liquid-crystalline elastomers (LCEs) that display a broad range of hierarchical, even mechanically unfavored deformation behaviors. By polymerizing molded prepolymer in patterned magnetic fields, we encode any desired uniform mesogen orientation into the resulting LCE microstructures, which is then read out upon heating above the nematic-isotropic transition temperature (TN-I ) as a specific prescribed deformation, such as twisting, in- and out-of-plane tilting, stretching, or contraction...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Eszter Vagdalt, Zsófia Ruttkay, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: In recent years, drug prevention networks and drug education programs have started using Web-based or mobile phone apps as novel prevention tools, testing their efficacy compared with face-to-face prevention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential of an interactive app called Once Upon a High (VoltEgySzer). METHODS: The app approaches drug prevention from 6 different aspects, and it addresses youngsters with 6 different modules: (1) interactive comics/cartoons, telling stories of recovery; (2) quiz game; (3) roleplay game; (4) introduction of psychoactive drugs; (5) information on the somatic and psychological effects of psychoactive substances; (6) list of available treatment units, rehabs, and self-support groups in Hungary...
December 4, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Yuanfang Ren, Ahmet Ay, Tamer Kahveci
BACKGROUND: Biological regulatory networks, representing the interactions between genes and their products, control almost every biological activity in the cell. Shortest path search is critical to apprehend the structure of these networks, and to detect their key components. Counting the number of shortest paths between pairs of genes in biological networks is a polynomial time problem. The fact that biological interactions are uncertain events however drastically complicates the problem, as it makes the topology of a given network uncertain...
December 4, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Michelle A Nipper, Jeremiah P Jensen, Melinda L Helms, Matthew M Ford, John C Crabbe, David J Rossi, Deborah A Finn
Sensitivity to anticonvulsant effects of the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor-active neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) during ethanol withdrawal varies across genotypes, with high sensitivity in genotypes with mild withdrawal and low sensitivity in genotypes with high withdrawal. The present studies determined whether the resistance to ALLO during withdrawal in mouse genotypes with high handling-induced convulsions (HICs) during withdrawal could be overcome with use of ganaxolone (GAN), the metabolically stable derivative of ALLO...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
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