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“synthetic control”

Kevin D'hoe, Stefan Vet, Karoline Faust, Frédéric Moens, Gwen Falony, Didier Gonze, Verónica Lloréns-Rico, Lendert Gelens, Jan Danckaert, Luc De Vuyst, Jeroen Raes
Whereas the composition of the human gut microbiome is well resolved, predictive understanding is still lacking. Here, we followed a bottom-up strategy to explore human gut community dynamics: we established a synthetic community composed of three representative human gut isolates ( Roseburia intestinalis L1-82, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and Blautia hydrogenotrophica S5a33) and explored their interactions under well-controlled conditions in vitro. Systematic mono- and pair-wise fermentation experiments confirmed competition for fructose and cross-feeding of formate...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Swati Agarwal, Faisal A Alzahrani, Asif Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Throughout history, menopause has been regarded as a transition in a woman's life. With the increase in life expectancy, women now spend more than a third of their lives in menopause. During these years, women may experience intolerable symptoms both physically and mentally, leading them to seek clinical advice. It is imperative for healthcare providers to improve the quality of life by reducing bothersome menopausal symptoms and preventing disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis...
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mirko Magnone, Giovanna Leoncini, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Laura Emionite, Laura Sturla, Elena Zocchi, Giovanni Murialdo
We tested the effect of chronic low-dose abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone-regulating human glucose tolerance, on the metabolic parameters that are dysregulated in prediabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS).Ten healthy subjects received 1 µg ABA/Kg body weight (BW)/day as an ABA-rich food supplement: (i) the glycemia profile after a carbohydrate-rich meal, with or without supplement, was compared; (ii) fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), and body mass index (BMI) after 75 days of daily supplementation of a habitual Mediterranean diet were compared with starting values...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Jiang-Jiang Qin, Xin Li, Courtney Hunt, Wei Wang, Hui Wang, Ruiwen Zhang
The p53 tumor suppressor plays a major role in controlling the initiation and development of cancer by regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, and DNA repair. The MDM2 oncogene is a major negative regulator of p53 that inhibits the activity of p53 and reduces its protein stability. MDM2, p53, and the p53-MDM2 pathway represent well-documented targets for preventing and/or treating cancer. Natural products, especially those from medicinal and food plants, are a rich source for the discovery and development of novel therapeutic and preventive agents against human cancers...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Ning Wang, Guang Yang, Haixu Wang, Rong Sun, Ching-Ping Wong
Photocatalysts are essential to promote the highly efficient applications of solar energy in water splitting and/or the degradation of organic contaminations. Especially, the visible light-responsive photocatalysts could benefit with the cost-effective splitting or degradation due to the unlimited sunlight and the absence of expensive light emitter. In the photocatalysts, the charge transfer rates as well as the hole-electron recombination rate are two critical factors that determine the photocatalytic activity, which could also be affected by the dimension, defects, doping and morphologies controlled by the synthesis methods...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ramya Lakshmi Rajendran, Liya Zhu, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Arunnehru Gopal, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been evaluated for their potential to be used as drug delivery vehicles. Synthetically personalized exosome mimetics (EMs) could be the alternative vesicles for drug delivery. In this study, we aimed to isolate EMs from human MSCs. Cells were mixed with paclitaxel (PTX) and PTX-loaded EMs (PTX-MSC-EMs) were isolated and evaluated for their anticancer effects against breast cancer. EMs were isolated from human bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs (4 × 106 cells/mL) were mixed with or without PTX at different concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serially extruded through 10-, 5-, and 1-μm polycarbonate membrane filters using a mini-extruder...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hanfeng Ding, Binjie Ma, Yifan Zhao, Chi He
A diastereoselective approach for the total synthesis of an unusual atropisomer of the Schisandra triterpenoid (±)-schiglautone A is described. The efficient synthetic strategy features three key transformations: 1) two sequential titanium(III)-catalyzed radical cyclization and homologation reactions to construct the trans-fused [6,7] bicycle as well as install the quaternary carbons at C10 and C14 with desired stereochemistry; 2) a Claisen rearrangement followed by a ring-closing metathesis to forge the strained nine-membered ring; and 3) a substrate-controlled Michael addition to enable the introduction of the C17 side chain with good diastereoselectivity...
October 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Catalina Rey-Valeirón, Keila Pérez, Lucía Guzmán, Javier López-Vargas, Eduardo Valarezo
The current concern about resistance to acaricides and the impact of toxic waste on the environment has led to the search of vegetal alternatives in the control of the brown tick of the dog Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) derivatives have been associated with insecticidal, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities and essential oil showed to be lethal to R. microplus larvae. This study aimed at evaluating the acaricidal effect of essential oil of S. molle (EOSm ) on engorged adult females and larval stages of R...
October 13, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Yuan Tian, Mo-Xian Chen, Jing-Fang Yang, H H K Achala, Bei Gao, Ge-Fei Hao, Guang-Fu Yang, Zhi-Yong Dian, Qi-Juan Hu, Di Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Ying-Gao Liu
This study systematically identifies plant SYF2/NTC31/p29 genes from 62 plant species by a combinatory bioinformatics approach, revealing the importance of this gene family in phylogenetics, duplication, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional regulation. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, which is critical for plant development and stress responses. The entire process is strictly attenuated by a complex of splicing-related proteins, designated splicing factors. Human p29, also referred to as synthetic lethal with cdc forty 2 (SYF2) or the NineTeen complex 31 (NTC31), is a core protein found in the NTC complex of humans and yeast...
October 13, 2018: Planta
Emiliano Noce, Alberto Dellacasa Bellingegni, Anna Lisa Ciancio, Rinaldo Sacchetti, Angelo Davalli, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Loredana Zollo
BACKGROUND: This paper proposes a new approach for neural control of hand prostheses, grounded on pattern recognition applied to the envelope of neural signals (eENG). NEW METHOD: The ENG envelope was computed by taking into account the amplitude and the occurrence of the spike in the neural recording. A pattern recognition algorithm applied on muscular signals was defined as a reference and a comparative analysis with traditionally adopted Spike Sorting Algorithms (SSA) for neural signals has been carried out...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Yizeng Zhang, Junning Gao, Zhiwu Chen
Graphitic carbon nitride with nitrogen defects (g-C3 N4-x ) is prepared by a facile and effective solid-state chemical reduction technique at mild temperature conditions. The cyano groups and nitrogen vacancies, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and Solid-state 13 C MAS NMR spectra, are controllable via adjusting chemical reduction temperature. Comparing to the pristine g-C3 N4 , the as-prepared g-C3 N4-x shows much enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity under visible-light irradiation...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Claire Daien, Charlotte Hua, Cécile Gaujoux-Viala, Alain Cantagrel, Madeleine Dubremetz, Maxime Dougados, Bruno Fautrel, Xavier Mariette, Nathalie Nayral, Christophe Richez, Alain Saraux, Gérard Thibaud, Daniel Wendling, Laure Gossec, Bernard Combe
The 2014 French Society for Rheumatology (Société Française de Rheumatologie, SFR) recommendations about the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been updated by a task force composed of 12 expert rheumatologists, 2 patient self-help group representatives, and an occupational therapist. The material used by the task force included recent EULAR recommendations, a systematic literature review, and expert opinion. Four general principles and 15 recommendations were developed. The general principles emphasize the need for shared decision-making between the rheumatologist and the patient and for a global management program including both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments...
October 10, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Hanwei Fang, Ana Rita Gomes, Natacha Klages, Paco Pino, Bohumil Maco, Eloise M Walker, Zenon A Zenonos, Fiona Angrisano, Jake Baum, Christian Doerig, David A Baker, Oliver Billker, Mathieu Brochet
In malaria parasites, evolution of parasitism has been linked to functional optimisation. Despite this optimisation, most members of a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) family show genetic redundancy during erythrocytic proliferation. To identify relationships between phospho-signalling pathways, we here screen 294 genetic interactions among protein kinases in Plasmodium berghei. This reveals a synthetic negative interaction between a hypomorphic allele of the protein kinase G (PKG) and CDPK4 to control erythrocyte invasion which is conserved in P...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Stephane Thobois, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Didier Le Bars, Véronique Sgambato-Faure
Opioid receptors are localized throughout peripheral and central nervous system and interact with endogenous opioid peptides and drugs including heroin, synthetic opioids, and pain relievers (codeine, morphine). If several opioid PET tracers exist for preclinical studies, only a few have been used in human. Some tracers are selective for one subtype of opioid receptors (e.g., [11 C]CAF (carfentanil) for μ receptor) while others are not ([11 C]DPN (diprenorphine)). As shown by imaging studies, the opioid system is involved in pain processing, but also in addiction, neuropsychiatric manifestations (harm avoidance, sadness, novelty seeking behavior), feeding and food disorders and, finally, movement disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Pedro Burguete, José Manuel Morales, Lorenzo Fernández, Jamal El Haskouri, Julio Latorre, Carmen Guillem, Francisco Pérez-Pla, Ana Cros, Daniel Beltrán, Aurelio Beltrán, Pedro Amorós
Mesostructured layered silicas have been prepared through a surfactant-assisted procedure using neutral alkylamines as templates and starting from atrane complexes as hydrolytic inorganic precursors. By adjusting the synthetic parameters, this kinetically controlled reproducible one-pot method allows for obtaining both pure and functionalized (inorganic or organically) lamellar silica frameworks. These are easily deconstructed and built up again, which provides a simple way for expanding the interlamellar space...
October 11, 2018: Nanomaterials
Hongxue Shi, Jian Jan, Josiah E Hardesty, K Cameron Falkner, Russell A Prough, Appakalai N Balamurugan, Sri Prakash Mokshagundam, Suresh T Chari, Matthew C Cave
The endocrine disrupting chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and diabetes. However, an integrative analysis of the effects of PCBs on the liver and pancreas has never been performed for the two major PCB subtypes, dioxin-like (DL) and nondioxin-like (NDL), and a mixture of NDL/DL PCBs. Therefore, male C57BL/6 J mice fed a control synthetic diet were treated with either a NDL PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg); a single DL PCB congener, PCB 126 (20 μg/kg); a NDL/DL mixture, Aroclor 1260 plus PCB 126; or vehicle control for 2 weeks...
October 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Fereshte Nejaddehbashi, Mahmoud Hashemitabar, Vahid Bayati, Mohammadreza Abbaspour, Eskandar Moghimipour
Fabrication of nanofibrous biomaterials composed of natural and synthetic materials that incorporated with antibiotic and growth factors with controlled release manner is an attractive topic in wound healing. The purpose of this study was to prepare optimal composite of materials as biomimetic nanofibrous mats for application in wound healing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 11, 2018: Artificial Organs
Masarra M Sakr, Khaled M Aboshanab, Walid F Elkhatib, Mahmoud A Yassien, Nadia A Hassouna
The increasing occurrence of resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates necessitates finding alternatives to antibiotics for controlling the infection of such pathogenic bacteria. In this study, lactonase gene ahl-1 from Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolate-P65 was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) under the control of T7 promoter for utilizing its quorum quenching activity against three multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. The biological activity of the overexpressed lactonase enzyme (Ahl-1), tested using a synthetic signal and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as a biosensor, displayed good catalytic activity using hexanoyl homoserine lactone (HHL) as a substrate and Chromobacterium violaceum (CV026) as a biosensor (77...
October 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Arthur Martens, Philippe Weis, Michael Christian Krummer, Marvin Kreuzer, Andreas Meierhöfer, Stefan C Meier, Jan Bohnenberger, Harald Scherer, Ian Riddlestone, Ingo Krossing
By reaction of the Lewis acid Me3 Si-F-Al(ORF )3 with a series of [PF6 ]- salts, gaseous PF5 and Me3 Si-F are liberated and salts of the anion [F-Al(ORF )3 ]- ([f-al]- ; RF = C(CF3 )3 ) can be obtained. By addition of another equivalent of Me3 Si-F-Al(ORF )3 to [f-al]- , gaseous Me3 Si-F is released and salts of the least coordinating anion [(RF O)3 Al-F-Al(ORF )3 ]- ([al-f-al]- ) are formed. Both procedures work for a series of synthetically useful cations including Ag+ , [NO]+ , [Ph3 C]+ and in very clean reactions with 5 g batch sizes giving excellent yields typically exceeding 90%...
September 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Yongzhen Tang, Yuman Qin, Dongmei Meng, Chaoqun Li, Junfa Wei, Mingyu Yang
We describe a coinage-metal-catalyzed site-selective oxidation of secondary C(sp3 )-H bonds for aliphatic amine substrates. Broad amine scope, good functional compatibility and late-stage diversification are demonstrated with this method. The steric demand of the β-substituents controlled diastereoselectivities under this catalytic system. The site selectivity favors secondary C(sp3 )-H bonds over tertiary ones underscoring the unique synthetic potential of this method.
August 14, 2018: Chemical Science
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