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"Circadian Rhythm"

Łukasz Cieszyński, Jarosław Jendrzejewski, Piotr Wiśniewski, Anna Owczarzak, Krzysztof Sworczak
BACKGROUND: Measuring hair cortisol seems to be a good alternative to laboratory tests used thus far in routine endocrine diagnostics, primarily because it is independent of the circadian rhythm of cortisol. Due to the average hair growth of 1 cm per month, the results are related to the average blood cortisol levels over the previous weeks, months or years (depending on the length of the hair sample). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is an attempt to apply hair cortisol concentration (HCC) measurements to clinical endocrine diagnostics, based on reference cortisol concentrations in the blood in a population without disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)...
December 5, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Michael J McCarthy
Circadian rhythm abnormalities have been recognized as a central feature of bipolar disorder (BD) but a coherent biological explanation for them remains lacking. Using genetic mutation of 'clock genes', robust animal models of mania and depression have been developed that elucidate key aspects of circadian rhythms and the circadian clock-mood connection. However, translation of this knowledge into humans remains incomplete. In recent years, very large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted and the genetic underpinnings of BD are beginning to emerge...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
Eleni N Sertaridou, Ioanna G Chouvarda, Konstantinos I Arvanitidis, Eirini K Filidou, George C Kolios, Ioannis N Pnevmatikos, Vasilios E Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: Septic shock has been found to disrupt circadian rhythms. Moreover, timing of onset has been associated with different circadian profiles in experimental studies. RESULTS: In this prospective study, we enrolled 26 patients divided into two groups: Group A (N = 15) included subjects who had septic shock at the time of ICU admission and Group B (N = 11) included patients who developed septic shock during ICU admission. 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and cortisol levels were measured in urine samples every 4 h over a 24-h period...
December 4, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Zhibin Zhang, Jim M Dunwell, Yuan-Ming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds are rich in both protein and oil, which are major sources of biofuels and nutrition. Although the difference in seed oil content between soybean (~ 20%) and rapeseed (~ 40%) exists, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS: An integrated omics analysis was performed in soybean, rapeseed, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L...
December 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Sreeja Sarasamma, Gilbert Audira, Stevhen Juniardi, Bonifasius Putera Sampurna, Yu-Heng Lai, Erwei Hao, Jung-Ren Chen, Chung-Der Hsiao
There is a growing concern for the potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials that have made their way into virtually all novel applications in the electronics, healthcare, cosmetics, technology, and engineering industries, and in particular, biomedical products. However, the potential toxicity of carbon 60 (C60 ) at the behavioral level has not been properly evaluated. In this study, we used idTracker, a multitracking algorithm to quantitatively assess behavioral toxicity induced by C60 nanoparticles (C60 NPs) in adult zebrafish...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lydia Hannou, Pierre-Gabriel Roy, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Valérie Mongrain
Circadian rhythms are generated in mammals by a central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which regulates the homeostasis of many biological processes. At the molecular level, the regulation of circadian rhythms is under the control of transcriptional-translational feedback loops composed of clock factors, including transcription factors. In the brain, synaptic plasticity has been shown to vary with a 24h rhythm. Also, when measured at a given time-of-day, synaptic plasticity has been observed to be disrupted by dysregulation of clock factors...
December 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Haruki Torii, Rumiko Shimizu, Yuriko Tanizaki, Yurina Omiya, Miwa Yamamoto, Sayaka Kamiike, Daisuke Yasuda, Yoshinori Hiraoka, Tohru Hashida, Noriaki Kume
Melatonin has been suggested to play important roles in lipid metabolism as well as circadian rhythm; however, very few studies explored the effects of ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist, on serum lipid profiles. In this study effects of ramelteon on serum lipid profiles were explored, comparing to those of other sleep-promoting drugs including benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines, in patients with insomnia. We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of outpatients who were treated with ramelteon (8 mg/d) or other sleep-promoting drugs for no less than 8 weeks during the period between October 1st, 2011 and September 30th, 2014, and compared the changes in serum lipid profiles between the two groups...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Stephanie Houston
Eran is the head of the microbiome-focused research group at the Weizmann Institute in Israel. He has published seminal work demonstrating the importance of the microbiota in many different systems, from post-dieting weight gain to circadian rhythms. Recent work from Eran and colleagues shows how probiotics perturb rather than aid the recovery of the microbiota following antibiotic treatment in humans. We contacted Eran to find out about his journey in science so far.
November 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Tongyu Li, Wei Shao, Shuyan Li, Lin Ma, Lixin Zheng, Wenjing Shang, Xiaxia Jia, Pengpeng Sun, Xiuming Liang, Jihui Jia
BACKGROUND: Rhythm abnormalities are crucial for diverse diseases. However, their role in disease progression induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) remains elusive. METHODS: H. pylori infection was used in in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine its effect on rhythmic genes. The GEO database was used to screen H. pylori affecting rhythm genes, and the effect of rhythm genes on inflammatory factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and dual luciferase assays were used to further find out the regulation between molecules...
November 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
Rika Miyagi, Yuh Sasawaki, Hideuki Shiotani
The notion that sedentary behavior is harmful to human health is widespread. Little is known about the short term influence of sedentary behavior on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) circadian rhythms. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of short term sedentary behavior on the circadian rhythms of HR and HRV using cosine periodic regression analysis. Sixteen healthy young students were included in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent 24-h ECG Holter monitoring in two different states of physical activity, an active condition (more than 15,000 steps per day) and a sedentary condition (less than 1,000 steps per day)...
December 3, 2018: Chronobiology International
Takashi Nagatani, Genki Ichinose, Kei-Ichi Tainaka
Migration paths of animals are rarely the same. The paths may change according to seasonal and circadian rhythms. We study the effect of temporal migration on population dynamics of rock-paper-scissors (RPS) games with mutation by using the metapopulation dynamic model with two patches. Via mutation, an individual R changes to S with rate μ. All agents move by random walk between two patches and the RPS game is performed in each patch. The migration path between two patches is switched on or off periodically...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
V A Badtieva, V I Pavlov, M N Khokhlova, A V Pachina
BACKGROUND: Physical overload results in the development of pathological changes in the organs and systems and thereby causes their dysfunction. This leads to disadaptation, vegetative imbalance, and disturbances in the cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other systems. Taken together, these changes give rise to a syndrome of overtraining. In this context, the pathogenetically sound method of therapy appears to be the most suitable for the management of this condition based on the physiotherapeutic non-invasive interventions for the correction of physiological characteristics and the psycho-emotional status of the patients...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Sarah D Linnstaedt, Yue Pan, Matthew C Mauck, Jenyth Sullivan, Christine Y Zhou, Lindsey Jung, Cathleen A Rueckeis, Jameson D Blount, Matthew S Carson, Andrew S Tungate, Michael C Kurz, Phyllis L Hendry, Christopher Lewandowski, Teresa D'Anza, Elizabeth Datner, Kathy Bell, Megan Lechner, Jeffrey W Shupp, Bruce A Cairns, Samuel A McLean
Previous studies suggest that genetic variants within genes affecting the circadian rhythm influence the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). In the present study, we used data from three emergency care-based cohorts to search genetic variants in circadian pathway genes previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders for variants that influence PTSS severity. The three cohorts used included a discovery cohort of African American men and women enrolled following motor vehicle collision ( n = 907) and two replication cohorts: one of multi-ethnic women enrolled following sexual assault ( n = 274) and one of multi-ethnic men and women enrolled following major thermal burn injury ( n = 68)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sara Mithani, Anne M Fink
Acute and chronic neurological disorders impair sleep. Despite the availability of theoretical/mathematical frameworks about sleep, the nursing profession rarely incorporates these models. The purpose of this article was to analyze the 2-process model of sleep regulation using Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya's method, a systematic approach for determining whether a theory is relevant to nursing. The 2-process model has 3 concepts: process S (sleep-dependent process), process C (circadian-timing-dependent process), and total sleep propensity (summation of processes S and C)...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Carlos Gallegos, Aída García, Candelaria Ramírez, Jorge Borrani, Carolina V M Azevedo, Pablo Valdez
An important property of attention is the limitation to process new information after responding to a stimulus. This property of attention can be evaluated by the Attentional Blink (AB), a phenomenon that consists of a failure to detect the second of two targets when the interval between them is 200-500 ms. The aim of the present work is to determine the possible existence of time awake (homeostatic changes) and time of day (circadian rhythm) variations in the AB. Eighteen undergraduate students, 11 men and 7 women, age = 18...
November 29, 2018: Chronobiology International
Roberto Tarquini, Annalucia Carbone, Micaela Martinez, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Michael J McCarthy, Heather Wei, Caroline M Nievergelt, Andrea Stautland, Adam X Maihofer, David K Welsh, Paul Shilling, Martin Alda, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Amit Anand, Ole A Andreasson, Yokesh Balaraman, Wade H Berrettini, Holli Bertram, Kristen J Brennand, Joseph R Calabrese, Cynthia V Calkin, Ana Claasen, Clara Conroy, William H Coryell, David W Craig, Nicole D'Arcangelo, Anna Demodena, Srdjan Djurovic, Scott Feeder, Carrie Fisher, Nicole Frazier, Mark A Frye, Fred H Gage, Keming Gao, Julie Garnham, Elliot S Gershon, Kara Glazer, Fernando Goes, Toyomi Goto, Gloria Harrington, Petter Jakobsen, Masoud Kamali, Elizabeth Karberg, Marisa Kelly, Susan G Leckband, Falk Lohoff, Melvin G McInnis, Francis Mondimore, Gunnar Morken, John I Nurnberger, Sarah Obral, Ketil J Oedegaard, Abigail Ortiz, Megan Ritchey, Kelly Ryan, Martha Schinagle, Helle Schoeyen, Candice Schwebel, Martha Shaw, Tatyana Shekhtman, Claire Slaney, Emma Stapp, Szabolcs Szelinger, Bruce Tarwater, Peter P Zandi, John R Kelsoe
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mood disorder associated with circadian rhythm abnormalities. Risk for BD is genetically encoded and overlaps with systems that maintain circadian rhythms. Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer treatment for BD, but only a minority of patients fully respond to monotherapy. Presently, we hypothesized that lithium-responsive BD patients (Li-R) would show characteristic differences in chronotype and cellular circadian rhythms compared to lithium non-responders (Li-NR). Selecting patients from a prospective, multi-center, clinical trial of lithium monotherapy, we examined morning vs...
November 16, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elizabeth S Maywood, Thomas S Elliott, Andrew P Patton, Toke P Krogager, Johanna E Chesham, Russell J Ernst, Václav Beránek, Marco Brancaccio, Jason W Chin, Michael H Hastings
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian clock of mammals, coordinating daily rhythms of physiology and behavior. Circadian timing pivots around self-sustaining transcriptional-translational negative feedback loops (TTFLs), whereby CLOCK and BMAL1 drive the expression of the negative regulators Period and Cryptochrome (Cry). Global deletion of Cry1 and Cry2 disables the TTFL, resulting in arrhythmicity in downstream behaviors. We used this highly tractable biology to further develop genetic code expansion (GCE) as a translational switch to achieve reversible control of a biologically relevant protein, Cry1, in the SCN...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Weihua Liu, Chunzhen Cheng, Fanglan Chen, Shanshan Ni, Yuling Lin, Zhongxiong Lai
BACKGROUND: Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses affecting the banana production. Although some miRNAs have been identified, little is known about the role of miRNAs in response to cold stress in banana, and up to date, there is no report about the role of miRNAs in the response to cold stress in the plants of the cultivated or wild bananas. RESULT: Here, a cold-resistant line wild banana (Musa itinerans) from China was used to profile the cold-responsive miRNAs by RNA-seq during cold stress...
November 29, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Suifen He, Xiuping Zhang, Shaogang Qu
Glutamate, a primary excitatory neurotransmitter as well as an important intermediate of the cellular metabolism in the brain, has a widespread influence in the sleep-wake regulatory system. Glutamate transporters, including vesicular glutamate transporters and excitatory amino acid transporters, serve as the main force to control the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the brain. They are likely to be critical tools needed for the brain to modulate the sleep-wake cycle, and likely innervated by the circadian rhythm system in a day-night variant pattern either...
November 28, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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