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"Circadian Rhythm"

Ali Kandeger, Umran Egilmez, Ayca A Sayin, Yavuz Selvi
Humans' sleep timing and the psychological construct "diurnal preference" determines their "chronotype" (i.e., morning or evening type). Diurnal preferences can affect sleep-awake rhythms and eating behaviors. Our aim in this study was to examine the relationship between night eating symptoms and disordered eating attitudes by evaluating insomnia and chronotype differences in university students. The participants, 383 university students, filled out a package of psychological tools, including the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Night Eating Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test...
August 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Saika Minegishi, Ikuko Sagami, Shigeru Negi, Koji Kano, Hiroaki Kitagishi
Circadian rhythms are regulated by transcription-translation feedback loops (TTFL) of clock genes. Previous studies have demonstrated that core transcriptional factors, NPAS2 and CLOCK, in the TTFL can reversibly bind carbon monoxide (CO) in vitro. However, little is known about whether endogenous CO, which is continuously produced during a heme metabolic process, is involved in the circadian system. Here we show that selective removal of endogenous CO in mice considerably disrupts rhythmic expression of the clock genes...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeanetta C Rains
The relationship of sleep and migraine is unequivocal and familiarity with the nature and magnitude of these associations may inform clinical practice. Recent prospective, longitudinal, and time-series analysis has begun to unravel the magnitude and temporal patterns of sleep and migraine. Prospective evidence has shown that sleep variables can trigger acute migraine, precede and predict new onset headache by several years, and indeed, sleep disturbance and snoring are risk factors for chronification. The presence of a sleep disorder is associated with more frequent and severe migraine and portends a poorer headache prognosis...
August 10, 2018: Headache
Bernat-Carles Serdà I Ferrer, Eline van Roekel, Brigid M Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an up-to-date overview of the evidence relating to how physical inactivity ameliorates cancer-related fatigue. A summary of the postulated biological mechanisms underpinning the relationship is presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses synthesising the results of randomised controlled trials of physical activity interventions to reduce fatigue broadly conclude that aerobic and combination exercise may be the most helpful, while resistance training alone is less efficacious...
August 9, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Ningning Wan, Asadur Rahman, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study revealed that a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, empagliflozin, can remarkably reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality and heart failure in patients with high-risk type 2 diabetes. Recently, the CANVAS program also showed that canagliflozin, another SGLT2 inhibitor, induces a lower risk of CV events. However, the precise mechanism by which an SGLT2 inhibitor elicits CV protective effects is still unclear. Possible sympathoinhibitory effects of SGLT2 inhibitor have been suggested, as significant blood pressure (BP) reduction, following treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor, did not induce compensatory changes in heart rate (HR)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Maryam Majidinia, Russel J Reiter, Seyed Kazem Shakouri, Bahman Yousefi
Biological ageing is generally accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular functions and physiological integrity of organ systems, the consequential enhancement of vulnerability, senescence and finally death. Mechanisms which underlie ageing are primarily attributed to an array of diverse but related factors including free radical-induced damage, dysfunction of mitochondria, disruption of circadian rhythms, inflammaging, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, deregulated sensing of nutrients, epigenetic alterations, altered intercellular communication, and decreased capacity for tissue repair...
August 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Pasquale F Innominato, Sandra Komarzynski, Oxana G Palesh, Robert Dallmann, Georg A Bjarnason, Sylvie Giacchetti, Ayhan Ulusakarya, Mohamed Bouchahda, Mazen Haydar, Annabelle Ballesta, Abdoulaye Karaboué, Nicholas I Wreglesworth, David Spiegel, Francis A Lévi
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial symptoms often cluster together, are refractory to treatment, and impair health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in cancer patients. The contribution of circadian rhythm alterations to systemic symptoms has been overlooked in cancer, despite a causal link shown under jet lag and shift work conditions. We investigated whether the circadian rest-activity rhythm provides a reliable and objective estimate of the most frequent patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)...
August 7, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Magdalena Chottova Dvorakova
Neuropeptide W (NPW) and neuropeptide B (NPB) are two structurally and functionally related regulatory peptides, which are highly expressed in several brain regions and, additionally, in some peripheral tissues. Nevertheless, their distributions in the tissues are not similar. They act on target tissues via two subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors which are designated as NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), respectively, and possess different binding affinities. NPB activates NPBWR1, whereas NPW stimulates both the receptors with similar potency...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Victor Marinho, Thomaz Oliveira, Juliete Bandeira, Giovanny R Pinto, Anderson Gomes, Valéria Lima, Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Carla Ayres, Valécia Carvalho, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Victor Hugo Bastos, Daya Gupta, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Studies at the molecular level aim to integrate genetic and neurobiological data to provide an increasingly detailed understanding of phenotypes related to the ability in time perception. MAIN TEXT: This study suggests that the polymorphisms genetic SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, 5HTR2A T102C, DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1A, SLC6A3 3'-UTR VNTR, COMT Val158Met, CLOCK genes and GABRB2 A/C as modification factor at neurochemical levels associated with several neurofunctional aspects, modifying the circadian rhythm and built-in cognitive functions in the timing...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Kati Nowack, Elke Van Der Meer
The synchrony effect (i.e. superior performance at optimal, inferior performance at suboptimal times of day) has been broadly studied within the context of circadian rhythms. Whether one chronotype copes better with the synchrony effect than the other received only insufficient empirical attention. We report on an applied experimental study investigating the impact of chronotype on the synchrony effect in a semantic analogy task. To detect an analogy, 36 participants (12 males) aged between 18 and 40 had to decide whether the relation between events of a source pair was mirrored by the relation between events of a target pair (e...
August 7, 2018: Chronobiology International
Sarah Hartley, Yves Dauvilliers, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep timing, quantity, and quality are controlled by homeostatic and circadian systems. Circadian clock systems are present in all cells and organs and their timing is determined by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop of circadian genes. Individual cellular clocks are synchronized by the central body clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which communicates with them through humoral and neural signals including melatonin. The circadian system controls both the circadian period: (i...
August 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Kevin M Hannay, Daniel B Forger, Victoria Booth
The study of synchronization of coupled biological oscillators is fundamental to many areas of biology including neuroscience, cardiac dynamics, and circadian rhythms. Mathematical models of these systems may involve hundreds of variables in thousands of individual cells resulting in an extremely high-dimensional description of the system. This often contrasts with the low-dimensional dynamics exhibited on the collective or macroscopic scale for these systems. We introduce a macroscopic reduction for networks of coupled oscillators motivated by an elegant structure we find in experimental measurements of circadian protein expression and several mathematical models for coupled biological oscillators...
August 2018: Science Advances
Akiko Hida, Shingo Kitamura, Hiroshi Kadotani, Makoto Uchiyama, Takashi Ebisawa, Yuichi Inoue, Yuichi Kamei, Kazuo Mishima
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) are characterized by disturbed sleep-wake patterns. We genotyped a PER3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in 248 CRSWD individuals and 925 controls and found no significant association between the VNTR and CRSWDs or morningness-eveningness (diurnal) preferences in the Japanese population. Although the VNTR has been associated with circadian and sleep phenotypes in some other populations, the polymorphism may not be a universal genetic marker.
2018: Human Genome Variation
Jeff R Jones, Tatiana Simon, Lorenzo Lones, Erik D Herzog
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizes circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology to the external light cycle, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. As the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is important for circadian light responses, we tested the hypothesis that rhythmic VIP-producing SCN neurons mediate circadian light responses in male and female mice. Using in vivo fiber photometry over multiple days, we found daily rhythms in spontaneous calcium events of SCN VIP neurons that peaked during the subjective day and were disrupted by constant light...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marcus J Drake, Luke Canham, Nikki Cotterill, Debbie Delgado, Jenny Homewood, Kirsty Inglis, Lyndsey Johnson, Mary C Kisanga, Denise Owen, Paul White, David Cottrell
BACKGROUND: Nocturia is a common urinary symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) which can affect quality of life (QoL) adversely. Melatonin is a hormone known to regulate circadian rhythm and reduce smooth muscle activity such as in the bladder. There is limited evidence supporting use of melatonin to alleviate urinary frequency at night in the treatment of nocturia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin on the mean number of nocturia episodes per night in patients with MS...
August 6, 2018: BMC Neurology
Ercan Bastu, Irem Demiral, Tuba Gunel, Ege Ulgen, Ece Gumusoglu, Mohammad Kazem Hosseini, Ugur Sezerman, Faruk Buyru, John Yeh
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify altered biologic processes in the endometrium that may be potential markers of receptive endometrium in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) as compared with fertile controls. The study was conducted in a university-affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) gynecology clinic and molecular biology and genetics laboratory. Healthy fertile controls (n = 24) and patients with RIF (n = 24) were recruited. Window of implantation gene profiling associated with RIF was performed...
August 6, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Rosa Estrada-Reyes, Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Daniel Arrieta-Baez, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Daniel Quero-Chávez, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán, Jesús Argueta, Margarita L Dubocovich, Gloria Benítez-King
Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland with a circadian rhythm in synchrony with the environmental light/dark cycle. A gradual increase in circulating levels of melatonin occur after lights off, reaching its maximum around the middle of the dark phase. Agonists of melatonin receptors have proved effectiveness as antidepressants in clinical trials. However, there is contradictory evidence about the potential antidepressant effect of melatonin itself. Herein we studied melatonin administration in mice at two zeitgeber times (ZT; ZT = 0 lights on; 12:12 L/D), one hour before the beginning (ZT11) and at the middle (ZT18) of the dark phase after either a single or a three-dose protocol...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jean-François Costemale-Lacoste, Romain Colle, Séverine Martin, Khalil El Asmar, Emanuel Loeb, Bruno Feve, Céline Verstuyft, Séverine Trabado, Florian Ferreri, Emmanuel Haffen, Mircea Polosan, Laurent Becquemont, Emmanuelle Corruble
BACKGROUND: 80-90% of patients with Major Depressive Episode (MDE) experience insomnia and up-to 50% severe insomnia. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3B) is involved both in mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Since GSK3B polymorphisms could affect protein levels or functionality, we investigated the association of GSK3B polymorphisms with insomnia in a sample of depressed patients treated with antidepressants. METHODS: In this 6-month prospective real-world treatment study in psychiatric settings (METADAP), 492 Caucasian patients requiring a new antidepressant treatment were included and genotyped for five GSK3B Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs6808874, rs6782799, rs2319398, rs13321783, rs334558)...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kathleen M Fisch, Ramya Gamini, Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Ryuichiro Akagi, Masahiko Saito, Yuta Muramatsu, Takahisa Sasho, James A Koziol, Andrew I Su, Martin K Lotz
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease. As disease-modifying therapies are not available, novel therapeutic targets need to be discovered and prioritized for their importance in mediating the abnormal phenotype of cells in OA-affected joints. Here, we generated a genome-wide molecular profile of OA to elucidate regulatory mechanisms of OA pathogenesis and to identify possible therapeutic targets using integrative analysis of mRNA-sequencing data obtained from human knee cartilage...
August 3, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
E A Hizhkin, V A Ilyukha, I A Vinogradova, E P Antonova, A V Morozov
We studied the age-related features of circadian rhythms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in the liver of rats under light deprivation. In standard light conditions (LD), significant daily fluctuations in SOD activity with a maximum at 07:00 am was detected only in young animals (1,5 months) but catalase activity was observed in young (1,5 months) and in adults (7,5 months) with peak at 04:00 am. The daily dynamics of total and specific activity of SOD and catalase in the liver in young and adult rats differed depending on the period of ontogeny in which the impact of light deprivation began...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
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