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"Circadian Rhythm"

Qin Wang, Yue Yin, Weizhen Zhang
Obese mice demonstrate disruption of the circadian clock and feeding cycle. Circulating ghrelin, a hormone secreted mainly by gastric X/Alike cells, is significantly reduced in obese humans and animals. Here, we examined whether ghrelin improves the disruption of the circadian rhythm in steatotic hepatocytes and liver. The effects of ghrelin on hepatic circadian clock genes were studied in steatotic hepatocytes and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The circadian clock of cultured hepatocytes was synchronized by treatment with 100 nM dexamethasone for 1 h...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ilya Pavlovski, Jennifer A Evans, Ralph E Mistlberger
Circadian rhythms in many brain regions and peripheral organs can be entrained by daily feeding schedules. The set of feeding related signals that entrain peripheral clocks are tissue specific and include nutrients, metabolic hormones and temperature. Signals that entrain neural circadian clocks to mealtime have yet to be established for any brain region. The olfactory bulb (OB) contains a robust circadian clock that can cycle independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) master pacemaker. We used PER2::LUC mice to evaluate the suitability of the OB for analysis of inputs that mediate entrainment of neural clocks by feeding schedules...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Amanda M Maple, Rachel K Rowe, Jonathan Lifshitz, Fabian Fernandez, Amelia L Gallitano
Up to 80% of people meeting DSM-IV definitions for schizophrenia will exhibit difficulties with sleep, along with a breakdown in circadian entrainment and rhythmicity. The changes to the sleep and circadian systems in this population are thought to be interdependent, as evidenced by the frequent use of the combined term "sleep and circadian rhythm disruption" or "SCRD" to describe their occurrence. To understand links between sleep and circadian problems in the schizophrenia population, we analyzed the duration and rhythmicity of sleep behavior in mice lacking function of the immediate early gene early growth response 3 ( Egr3)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Guoyuan Qi, Wanqiang Wu, Yashi Mi, Renjie Shi, Keyu Sun, Runnan Li, Xiao Liu, Xuebo Liu
Circadian rhythms are intimately linked to cellular redox status homeostasis via the regulation of mitochondrial function. Tea polyphenols (TP) are nutraceuticals that possess powerful antioxidant properties, especially ameliorating oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate whether circadian clock is involved in the protection effect of TP on oxidative stress cell models. TP ameliorate H2 O2 -triggered relatively shallow daily oscillations and phase shift of circadian clock genes transcription and protein expression...
October 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Meng-Tong Li, Li-Hui Cao, Na Xiao, Min Tang, Bowen Deng, Tian Yang, Taishi Yoshii, Dong-Gen Luo
Circadian rhythms are orchestrated by a master clock that emerges from a network of circadian pacemaker neurons. The master clock is synchronized to external light/dark cycles through photoentrainment, but the circuit mechanisms underlying visual photoentrainment remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Drosophila has eye-mediated photoentrainment via a parallel pacemaker neuron organization. Patch-clamp recordings of central circadian pacemaker neurons reveal that light excites most of them independently of one another...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Inderpal Singh Kochar, Smita Ramachandran, Aashish Sethi
Cushing's syndrome (CS) or hypercortisolism results from disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with the resultant increase in the circulating serum and urinary cortisol levels and lack of cortisol circadian rhythm. The resultant effects cause the physical manifestation of hypercortisolism. The appearance of Cushing's disease in children is insidious, the most common features being growth failure, obesity, early puberty and facial appearance. We report a case of a 7-year-old male with a very unusual course of the disease, which could have led to diagnostic delays...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Juan Du, Yifan Zhang, Yongbo Xue, Xiaoyun Zhao, Xianguo Zhao, Yu Wei, Zhen Li, Yong Zhang, Zhangwu Zhao
Circadian clocks control daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in most organisms. Proteome-wide analysis of protein oscillations is still lacking in Drosophila. In this study, the total protein and phosphorylated protein in Drosophila heads in a 24-hour daily time-course were assayed by using the iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) method, and 10 and 7 oscillating proteins as well as 19 and 22 oscillating phosphoproteins in the w1118 wild type and ClkJrk mutant strains were separately identified...
October 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
Leena Tähkämö, Timo Partonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
Light is necessary for life, and artificial light improves visual performance and safety, but there is an increasing concern of the potential health and environmental impacts of light. Findings from a number of studies suggest that mistimed light exposure disrupts the circadian rhythm in humans, potentially causing further health impacts. However, a variety of methods has been applied in individual experimental studies of light-induced circadian impacts, including definition of light exposure and outcomes. Thus, a systematic review is needed to synthesize the results...
October 12, 2018: Chronobiology International
Jake Yeung, Felix Naef
Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior evolved to resonate with daily cycles in the external environment. In mammals, organs orchestrate temporal physiology over the 24-h day, which requires extensive gene expression rhythms targeted to the right tissue. Although a core set of gene products oscillates across virtually all cell types, gene expression profiling across tissues over the 24-h day showed that rhythmic gene expression programs are tissue specific. We highlight recent progress in uncovering how the circadian clock interweaves with tissue-specific gene regulatory networks involving functions such as xenobiotic metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and sleep...
October 8, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Geneviève Lafaye, Christophe Desterke, Laurent Marulaz, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis is often used by consumers for sleep disorders. Studies show that circadian rhythm could be affected by a misuse of cannabis. Recent research has connected the role of microglial cells with psychiatric disorders such as substance abuse. The aim was to show the effect of two major components of cannabis on circadian genes regulation in microglial cells. In BV-2 microglial cells, cannabidiol (CBD) induces a deregulation of circadian genes with (P-value = 0.039) or without (P-value = 0.0015) lipopolisaccharides stimulation...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Pablo J López-Soto, Fabio Fabbian, Rosaria Cappadona, Beatrice Zucchi, Fabio Manfredini, Aurora García-Arcos, Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Roberto Manfredini, María Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego
AIM: To synthesise evidence about the effect of individual circadian preference (chronotype) and gender in the development of sleep and mood problems in nursing professionals. BACKGROUND: Shift workers are more prone to having unhealthy habits and unfavourable clinical conditions than non-shift workers. These associations are mediated by chronotype and gender differences have also been detected. DESIGN: A quantitative systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Web of Science from 1 July 2012 - 1 July 2017...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Tavleen Kaur, Bai-Chuang Shyu
Melatonin is an endogenous neurohormone that is produced in most living organisms, including unicellular and multicellular organisms, plants, vertebrates, and nonvertebrate animals. In diurnal animals, endogenous melatonin functions as a neurohormone and contributes to circadian rhythms. In nocturnal animals, endogenous melatonin no longer functions as a contributor to circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms control the timing, quantity, and quality of hormones and neurotransmitters that the body produces and eventually secretes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
José L Arias, Andrea C Mayordomo, Juan E Silva, Juan A V Ragusa, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Ana C Anzulovich, María S Di Genaro
OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythms are generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and involve rhythmic expression of clock genes and proteins. This rhythmicity is transferred to peripheral tissues by neural and hormonal signals. Late pregnancy is considered a state of inflammation which impacts on peripheral tissues such as joints. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediates inflammatory and circadian responses through its p55 receptor (TNFRp55). Neuroimmunoendocrine interactions in joints have not been studied completely...
October 10, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Samuel Natzeder, David J Mack, Gabriela Maissen, Christian Strässle, Emanuela Keller, Carl Muroi
BACKGROUND: Portable automated infrared pupillometry is becoming increasingly popular. To generate an objective reference base, the Neurological Pupil index (NPi) which combines different values of the pupillary light reflex is being introduced into clinical practice. In this explorative study, we examined different aspects of the NPi in relation to clinical severity and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with serial assessment of the NPi (NeurOptics pupillometer NPi-200, Irvine, CA) starting no later than day 2 after aSAH onset were included in the study...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Adriana Rusu, Dana Ciobanu, Cornelia Bala, Anca Cerghizan, Gabriela Roman
BACKGROUND: Social jetlag (SJL) is a small recurrent circadian rhythm disruption and the most frequent form of circadian rhythm misalignment. The main objective of this study was to investigate in real-life settings the effect of SJL on glycemic control, as assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). METHODS: 115 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes were analyzed cross-sectionally. Data on bedtime, sleep-onset latency, and wake-up time on weekdays and weekends during the previous month were collected from all participants and were used to calculate SJL, chronotype, and sleep duration...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
A Martinez-Nicolas, J A Madrid, F J García, M Campos, M T Moreno-Casbas, P F Almaida-Pagán, A Lucas-Sánchez, M A Rol
The ageing process is associated with sleep and circadian rhythm (SCR) frailty, as well as greater sensitivity to chronodisruption. This is essentially due to reduced day/night contrast, decreased sensitivity to light, napping and a more sedentary lifestyle. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop an algorithm to identify a SCR phenotype as belonging to young or aged subjects. To do this, 44 young and 44 aged subjects were recruited, and their distal skin temperature (DST), activity, body position, light, environmental temperature and the integrated variable TAP rhythms were recorded under free-living conditions for five consecutive workdays...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rébecca Robillard, Joanne S Carpenter, Naomi L Rogers, Sarah Fares, Ashlee B Grierson, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Sharon J Mullin, Kristy-Lee Feilds, Nick Glozier, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
Abnormalities in circadian rhythms have been reported in people with mood disorders, but these abnormalities are marked by considerable inter-individual variability. This study aimed to identify pathophysiological subgroups on the basis of circadian markers and evaluate how these subgroups relate to psychiatric profiles. Thirty-five young adults (18-31 years old) receiving clinical care for unipolar depressive disorders and 15 healthy controls took part to this study. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Young Mania rating scale were used to evaluate the severity of mood symptoms in participants with depressive disorders...
October 9, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lale Gönenir Erbay, İsmail Reyhani, Süheyla Ünal, Cemal Özcan, Tuba Özgöçer, Cihat Uçar, Sedat Yıldız
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the effects of psychodrama group therapy on the level of stress, anxiety and depression of the group members, and the biological markers of stress. The aim of this study test cortisol level as a biological reflection of some mental characteristics gained by the psychodrama method in coping with stress. METHODS: Depressive patients aged between 18 and 65 years, who diagnosed with depression according to DSM-5, without psychiatric comorbidity, who do not use drugs and were available for psychodrama were enrolled into the study...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Shuo-Yen Wang, Kun-Feng Wu
Intercity bus crashes often involve driver fatigue, which itself is usually the result of sleep deprivation, long driving hours, a maladjusted circadian rhythm, or some combination of the above. And driver scheduling has long been suspected as the root cause affecting sleepiness and fatigue. As such, a fundamental question for intercity bus carriers is how to reduce crashes associated with driver schedules, while maintaining a nonstop service? This research seeks to develop a paradigm to minimize overall fleet crash risk by rescheduling...
October 6, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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