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Fanggang Ren, Na Zhang, Zhifang Xu, Jing Xu, Yaofang Zhang, Xiuhua Chen, Yanhong Tan, Jianmei Chang, Hongwei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunophenotypic characteristics of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and explore the sensitivity and specificity of various antibody combinations for the timely and accurate diagnosis APL. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using morphological, immunological, genetic, and molecular biological data from 92 patients diagnosed with APL and 190 controls diagnosed with non-APL acute myeloid leukemia. RESULTS: For APL diagnosis, the CD9/CD11b/human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR antibody combination had 85% sensitivity and 95% specificity, AUC = 0...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
C G Todd, M McGee, K Tiernan, P Crosson, E O'Riordan, J McClure, I Lorenz, B Earley
The study objectives were to: 1) evaluate the diagnostic performance of passive immunity tests for classification of failure of passive transfer (FPT) risk, based on their relationships with calf health and performance, and 2) describe the epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in suckler beef and dairy calves under Irish conditions. A total of 1392 suckler beef calves (n = 111 farms) and 2090 dairy calves (84 farms) were included in this observational study. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jakob Grauslund, Nis Andersen, Jens Andresen, Per Flesner, Per Haamann, Steffen Heegaard, Michael Larsen, Caroline Schmidt Laugesen, Katja Schielke, Jesper Skov, Toke Bek
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of visual loss in the working-age population. It is generally accepted that screening of DR is cost-effective and can detect DR before it becomes sight-threatening to allow timely treatment. METHODS: A group of retinal specialists was formed by the Danish Ophthalmological Society with the aim to formulate contemporary evidence-based guidelines for screening of DR in order to implement these in the Danish screening system...
October 11, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Sujit D Rathod, Tessa Roberts, Girmay Medhin, Vaibhav Murhar, Sandesh Samudre, Nagendra P Luitel, One Selohilwe, Joshua Ssebunnya, Mark J D Jordans, Arvin Bhana, Inge Petersen, Fred Kigozi, Juliet Nakku, Crick Lund, Abebaw Fekadu, Rahul Shidhaye
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of adult primary care outpatients who are clinically detected and initiate treatment for depression and alcohol use disorder (AUD) in low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. DESIGN: Five cross-sectional studies. SETTING: Adult outpatient services in 36 primary healthcare facilities in Sodo District, Ethiopia (9 facilities); Sehore District, India (3); Chitwan District, Nepal (8); Dr Kenneth Kaunda District, South Africa (3); and Kamuli District, Uganda (13)...
October 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Prasanna Porwal, Samiksha Pachade, Manesh Kokare, Luca Giancardo, Fabrice Mériaudeau
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) are the most prevalent diseases responsible for visual impairment in the world. This work investigates discrimination potential in the texture of color fundus images to distinguish between diseased and healthy cases by avoiding the prior lesion segmentation step. It presents a retinal background characterization approach and explores the potential of Local Tetra Patterns (LTrP) for texture classification of AMD, DR and Normal images. Five different experiments distinguishing between DR - normal, AMD - normal, DR - AMD, pathological - normal and AMD - DR - normal cases were conducted and validated using the proposed approach, and promising results were obtained...
October 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Anya Romanoff, Emily C Zabor, Oriana Petruolo, Michelle Stempel, Mahmoud El-Tamer, Monica Morrow, Andrea V Barrio
BACKGROUND: Both patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IFLBC) and patients with noninflammatory T4 breast cancer (non-IFLBC) have a heavy disease burden in the breast; whether the unique biology of IFLBC conveys a higher locoregional recurrence (LRR) risk and worse outcomes in comparison with other T4 lesions is uncertain. Here the outcomes of patients with IFLBC and patients with non-IFLBC treated with modern multimodality therapy are compared. METHODS: Patients with nonmetastatic T4 breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mastectomy, and radiation therapy between 2006 and 2016 were identified...
October 11, 2018: Cancer
Gustavo Citera, Fernando Dal Pra, Christian A Waimann, Hernan Maldonado Ficco, Teresita Alvarellos, Luciana A Mas, Osvaldo L Cerda, Sergio Paira, Antonio Catalán Pellet, Anastasia Secco, Lucila Marino, María Martire, Josefina Marcos, Mercedes A García, Adrián Salas, Alberto Berman, Horacio Berman, Oscar L Rillo, Liliana Vargas, Edson Velozo, Ricardo Vicente Juarez, María Elena Crespo Espindola
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or undifferentiated arthritis (UA) in the CONAART database (Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis) were assessed for genetic risk factors for RA, specifically for HLA-DRB1 alleles and the PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism associated with progression to RA. This is a case-control study. Blood samples were obtained to determine HLA-DRB1 genotypes by PCR-SSO Luminex and PTPN22 (rs2476601) polymorphism by allelic discrimination. A control group of individuals from the general Argentinian population were obtained from the national register of cadaveric organ donors...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Qinqin Zhang, Kasra A Rezaei, Steven S Saraf, Zhongdi Chu, Fupeng Wang, Ruikang K Wang
Background: To implement an ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography imaging (UW-OCTA) modality in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the aim of quantifying the burden of microvascular disease at baseline and subsequent clinic visits. Methods: UW-OCTA was implemented on a 1,060 nm swept source (SS) OCTA engine running at 100 kHz A-line rate with a motion tracking mechanism. A montage scanning protocol was used to capture a 100-degree field of view (FOV) using a 4×4 grid of sixteen total individual 6×6 mm2 scans...
September 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Viviane Malmström, Johanna Steen, Lars Klareskog
Rikard Holmdahl has commented on our recently published paper on specificity and function of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from synovial plasma cells that react with citrullinated proteins and peptides (1). He also comments on our previous study from 2013 (2) that was based on mAbs generated from synovial B cells. Dr Holmdahl's letter provides us with an opportunity to discuss and clarify some methodological issues concerning RA monoclonal autoantibody expression, specificity, and functionality. In our eyes, cloning and characterization of human monoclonal autoantibodies from patients represents an important approach to the understanding of origins and functions of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases...
October 10, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Parvez Singh Slathia, Preeti Sharma
Chagas disease caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic disease in South and Central American countries but due to migrating human populations it has shown emergence in Europe, North America and Australia. With only two drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox for its treatment there is need for newer therapies. In the current study, we have tried to analyse the potential of amastin, a major surface protein as a vaccine target using bioinformatics tools. Using 282 variants of this protein available in NCBI protein database we have found out five conserved potential Tc cell and two TH cell epitopes...
October 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hyon Choi, Tuhina Neogi, Lisa Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Robert Terkeltaub
We appreciate Dr. Kuwabara's sharing FEATHER study data in relation to our article2 about the cardiovascular safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in patients with gout and cardiovascular morbidities (CARES) trial. As pointed out, we agree that the FEATHER study's overall cardiovascular (CV) disease outcome results4 tended to be consistent with the CARES trial findings, although its sample size was >10 time smaller than the CARES trial and underpowered for that purpose. The author states no difference of CV mortality, but no data are provided, although the number of CV deaths would be less than the overall CV event rates (4/219 in febuxostat and 7/222 in placebo)...
October 8, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Barbara Lattanzi, Silvia Baroncelli, Adriano De Santis, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Gianluca Mennini, Zuleika Michelini, Marinella Lupo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Massimo Rossi, Lucia Palmisano, Manuela Merli
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from the gut lumen has been involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage in hepatitis C virus infection. AIM: To investigate the impact of direct-acting antiviral treatment on microbial translocation and T-cell activation, in patients with hepatitis C-related liver disease. METHODS: We enrolled two groups of HCV patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral treatment: patients with fibrosis ≥F3 according to Metavir (Group ≥F3); patients with hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation and Metavir ≥F2 (Group Liver Transplantation + ≥F2)...
October 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
F J Crespo Villalba
In an era when it was not possible to achieve quality x-rays with short exposure times, the need to obtain chest images without movement led the French doctor Emré Hyacinthe Guilleminot to construct a machine that repeatedly emitted x-rays only when desired during the respiratory cycle. His aim was to create a satisfactory radiograph from multiple short bursts performed at the moment of inhalation or exhalation, based on Charles Bouchard's research on heart disease. He extended his idea to radiography of the heart, creating a system that enabled images to be obtained disassociating the phases of heartbeat...
October 4, 2018: Radiología
Zahra Sarrafan-Chaharsoughi, Masoud Reza Manaviat, Nasim Namiranian, Pouria Yazdian-Anari, Masoud Rahmanian
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important leading causes of disability, premature mortality and Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) that is one of the diabetes-related complications in diabetic patients and the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between DR and body mass index (BMI) in those patients with T2DM. Methods: This was a central-based, cross-sectional study on 518 diabetic patients...
June 2018: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Paul Daru, Refiloe Matji, Hala Jassim AlMossawi, Krishnapada Chakraborty, Neeraj Kak
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh is a highly populous country where the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is growing. With the rapid increase in DR-TB notifications through GeneXpert technology, it was imperative to come up with a new treatment strategy that could keep up with the increase of patients diagnosed. INTERVENTION: Intervention was designed to support national transition of DR-TB management of World Health Organization-approved long course (20-to-24-month regimen) treatment from a hospital-based approach to the decentralized model of community-based programmatic management of DR-TB (cPMDT)...
October 3, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Thomas A E Platts-Mills, Oscar Swineford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Elsa du Bruyn, Nashied Peton, Hanif Esmail, Patrick J Howlett, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and HIV-1 the best recognized risk factor for active TB. This review focuses on immune complex formation; the interplay of type I and II interferon signaling; and T-cell activation in HIV-TB pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Circulating immune complexes and complement, and Fcγ signaling in whole blood act as early markers of TB disease in HIV-1-infected persons. HIV-1 is associated with a type I interferon response in whole blood, reducing the specificity of TB biomarkers dependent on type I and II interferon genes...
November 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Zhao-Hui Xu, Ying-Ying Gao, Hua-Ting Zhang, Ke-Feng Ruan, Yi Feng
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetic mellitus, is currently the main cause of adult-acquired blindness. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and the current clinical application of various treatment methods cannot completely prevent the development of this disease. Many reports have been published regarding the treatment of DR with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which has received increasing attention from medical practitioners worldwide. Studies published between 1994 and April 2017 were collected from the CNKI, VIP, Medline and Web of Science databases, as well as from Chinese traditional books and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, subsequently obtaining more than 550 studies...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Chidchamai Kewcharoenwong, Satria A Prabowo, Gregory J Bancroft, Helen A Fletcher, Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading predisposing factors for development of TB after HIV/AIDS. Glibenclamide is a widely used anti-diabetic drug in low and middle-income countries where the incidence of TB is very high. In a human macrophage cell line, glibenclamide, a K+ ATP-channel blocker, promoted alternative activation of macrophages by enhancing expression of the M2 marker CD206 during M2 polarization...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paulina Shetty, Wes Youngberg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and currently affects over 5 million Americans and 30 million individuals worldwide. Unfortunately, the current approach to treating AD provides nothing more than a marginal, unsustained, symptomatic effect, with little or no effect on disease progression itself. To attain effective improvements in AD, one must determine risk factors, address the underlying causes, and focus on a combination of functional and lifestyle medicine strategies that provide a comprehensive, programmatic, and network-based approach that is sufficient to achieve epigenetic transformation and neurologic healing through its multiple and necessary synergistic components...
September 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
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