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Yong-Biao Liu
Laboratory fumigations with sulfur dioxide (SO2) were conducted under ultralow oxygen (ULO) and normal atmosphere to determine their effects on mortality of grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret, and postharvest quality of table grapes. Three- and 4-d fumigation treatments with 100 ppm SO2 under 30 ppm ULO condition and normal atmosphere resulted in 100% mortality of eggs and nymphs/adults of vine mealybug. The 3- and 4-d SO2 fumigations under the ULO condition and the normal atmosphere were also effective against grape mealybug with egg mortalities of 85...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shoukun Han, Yuyu Nan, Wei Qu, Yiheng He, Qiuyan Ban, Yanrong Lv, Jingping Rao
Organic acid is an important indicator of fruit quality, and malate is the predominant organic acid in apple fruit. However, the regulation of malate metabolism in postharvest fruit is rarely reported. Here, we found that compared with a control treatment, a 10 mM γ-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) treatment remarkably delayed the loss of titratable acidity and malate and increased the succinate and oxalate contents in 'Cripps Pink' fruit stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The higher malate levels in GABA-treated fruit were accompanied by higher activities of cyNAD-MDH and PEPC but lower cyNADP-ME and PEPCK activities than those seen in control fruit...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Thelma I Velez, Nall I Moonilall, Stewart Reed, Krishnaswamy Jayachandran, Leonard J Scinto
Biochar has been heralded for improving soil quality, sequestering C, and converting organic residues into value-added amendments. Biochar research in agricultural settings has been primarily conducted on acidic soils, with few studies evaluating biochar effects on alkaline soils. Given the rise of small-scale, sustainable farmers experimenting with biochar in South Florida's alkaline, carbonaceous soil, this study sought to assess biochar use in South Florida using an invasive plant species as a feedstock...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Charity Mutegi, Tesfamicheal Wossen, Joseph Atehnkeng, Nsharwasi Léon Nabahungu, Emmanuel Njukwe, Bernard Vanlauwe, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Aflatoxins are noxious secondary metabolites, of certain fungal species, found in food and feed. Contamination of a commodity with aflatoxins is associated with production and storage losses, and subsequently less food availability. Aflatoxins can also pose human health risks and represent a barrier to the development of trade, in both domestic and international markets. In this study, samples of cassava, maize, groundnut, beans, soybean, sorghum and milk, and their processed products were collected from local markets in Burundi and Eastern DRC...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Gregorio Barba-Espin, Stephan Glied-Olsen, Tsaneta Dzhanfezova, Bjarne Joernsgaard, Henrik Lütken, Renate Müller
BACKGROUND: Betanins have become excellent replacers for artificial red-purple food colourants. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L. spp. vulgaris) known as beetroot, is a rich source of betalains, which major forms are betanin (red to purple) and vulgaxanthin (yellow). Betalains and phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites, accumulation of which is often triggered by elicitors during plant stress responses. In the present study, pre-harvest applications of ethephon (an ethylene-releasing compound) and postharvest UV-B radiation were tested as elicitors of betalains and phenolic compounds in two beetroot cultivars...
December 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Sunny George Gwanpua, Abdul Jabbar, Jeritah Tongonya, Sue Nicholson, Andrew R East
Background: Ability to measure ethylene is an important aspect of postharvest management, as knowledge of endogenous ethylene production is used in assessing physiological status, while response of crops to exogenous ethylene informs efforts needed to control unwanted ripening. An ethylene monitoring device with a laser-based photoacoustic detector, ETD-300, was recently developed by Sensor Sense B.V., Nijmegen, The Netherlands. In terms of performance, the ETD-300 is superior to all other current ethylene measurement devices, with a sensitivity of 0...
2018: Plant Methods
Virginie LeLièvre, Alexandra Besnard, Margot Schlusselhuber, Nathalie Desmasures, Marion Dalmasso
Controlling the presence of pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella sp., in dairy products production is a burning issue since contamination with Salmonella can occur at any stage of the production chain. The use of Salmonella-phages applied as control agents has gained considerable interest. Nonetheless, Salmonella-phage applications specifically intended for ensuring the safety of dairy products are scarce. This review identifies recent advances in the use of Salmonella-phages that are or could be applied along the dairy food chain, in a farm-to-fork approach...
April 2019: Food Microbiology
Yajing Xie, Jakaria Chowdhury Onik, Xiaojia Hu, Yuquan Duan, Qiong Lin
Potato tubers ( Solanum tuberosum L.) are usually stored at low temperature, which can suppress sprouting and control the occurrence of diseases. However, low temperatures lead potatoes to easily suffer from cold-induced sweetening (CIS), which has a negative effect on food processing. The aim of this research was to investigate potential treatments on controlling CIS in potatoes during postharvest storage. "Atlantic" potatoes were treated with gibberellin and ( S )-carvone, respectively, and stored at 4 °C for 90 days...
November 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ji Yeon Lee, Serim Jang, Ludwig Erik Aguilar, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
We have studied the technique for efficient prolong the shelf-life of fruit. To prolong the shelf-life of fruit, one of the most important factor is the concentration of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) produced by the fruits inside the packaging. Therefore, to create the right environment, it recommended creating pores which O₂ and CO₂ can be exchanged. We utilize electrospinning technique for easy electrohydrodynamic fabrication of nanofibers by electric force to fabricate nano-sized fibers with high porosity...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Mireya Esbeiddy Chávez-Magdaleno, Ramsés Ramón González-Estrada, Anelsy Ramos-Guerrero, Maribel Plascencia-Jatomea, Porfirio Gutiérrez-Martínez
Preventive and curative activity of postharvest treatments with chitosan nanoparticles (CS) and chitosan biocomposites loaded with pepper tree essential oil (CS-PEO) against anthracnose were evaluated on Avocado ( Persea americana ) cv. Hass artificially inoculated in rind wounds. After 10 days of storage significant preventive and curative activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was observed with the absence of internal damage by applying CS and CS-PEO. Quality parameters like water losses and firmness changes were assessed on fruit treated...
December 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Shinji Mizuno, Yusuke Kamiyoshihara, Hajime Shiba, Fumie Shinmachi, Keiichi Watanabe, Akira Tateishi
We investigated changes in starch content and starch metabolic enzyme activities in developing and postharvest squash of distinct species, Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata, which accumulate high and low levels of starch, respectively. The total activity of starch phosphorylase in developing fruits significantly correlated (r = 0.99) to the amount of starch among Cucurbita species (C. maxima, C. moschata and C. pepo). Separable activity of a plastidial L-form phosphorylase in C. maxima fruit markedly increased corresponding with starch accumulation...
November 25, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Marianna Fasoli, Rossana Dell'Anna, Alessandra Amato, Raffaella Balestrini, Silvia Dal Santo, Francesca Monti, Sara Zenoni
During grape postharvest withering, a worldwide practice used to produce important high-quality wines, the solute concentration increases due to dehydration, and many organoleptic and quality traits, especially related to the berry skin, are affected in a cultivar-specific manner. Nevertheless, a complete comprehension of the underlying processes is still lacking. In this work, we applied ATR-FTIR micro-spectroscopy combined with PCA to monitor cell wall biochemical changes at three stages during postharvest withering on the internal and external sides of the berry skin of the Vitis vinifera cv...
November 19, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Edward J Flaherty, Geoffrey B Lum, Jennifer R DeEll, Sanjeena Subedi, Barry J Shelp, Gale G Bozzo
This study assessed the impact of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) on the metabolism of targeted amino acids, organic acids and antioxidants in stored 'AC Harrow Crisp' pears, and their relationships to storage disorders. Pears were treated with 0 or 300 nL L-1 1-MCP and stored at 0 °C under ambient air or CA. Spectrophotometric assays demonstrated that glutathione levels fluctuated with storage, and were most preserved by 1-MCP under ambient air. HPLC analysis revealed that ascorbate concentrations declined with storage, and were little affected by 1-MCP and CA...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Daniel Rico, Beatriz Barcenilla, Agate Meabe, Cristina González, Ana B Martín-Diana
BACKGROUND: Strawberry is a fruit appreciated for its taste, flavour, and juiciness; however, it is highly perishable during postharvest, handling and storage, producing important physical damage and vitamin and other phytonutrients' loss. For this reason, this study aimed at determining the applicability of edible coatings as an environmentally friendly strategy to improve strawberry fresh appearance and extend its shelflife. RESULTS: The effectiveness of edible coatings formulated with chitosan (CHC) or chitosan and algae (Palmaria palmata Kuntze) (CH-PC) were investigated on quality and nutritional parameters for ready to eat strawberry processed and storage at 4 °C during 10 days...
November 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Soumya Mukherjee
The current review focuses on the significant role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating ethylene-induced fruit ripening responses in plants. In this context, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and melatonin mediated crosstalk mechanisms have been discussed with recent updates. Physiological and biochemical events associated with climacteric fruit ripening involves a plethora of effects mediated by these biomolecules. In the last few years of progress in fruit ripening physiology, the involvement of hydrogen sulfide in relation to NO remains as a nascent field of research...
November 19, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Marco Santin, Luigi Lucini, Antonella Castagna, Gabriele Rocchetti, Marie-Theres Hauser, Annamaria Ranieri
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts the plant behaviour in many ways, including modifying their secondary metabolism. Although several studies have quantified the UV-B effects on phenolic composition, most of them focused on leaves or investigated a limited amount of phenolics. The present work aimed to investigate the phenolic changes after two postharvest UV-B treatments, 10 and 60 min (1.39 kJ m-2 and 8.33 kJ m-2 , respectively), on peach (Prunus persica cv Fairtime) fruit with a non-targeted, whole profiling approach, and targeted gene expression analysis on skin...
November 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Prakit Somta, Achara Jomsangawong, Chutintorn Yundaeng, Xingxing Yuan, Jingbin Chen, Norihiko Tomooka, Xin Chen
The azuki bean weevil ( Callosobruchus chinensis L.) is an insect pest responsible for serious postharvest seed loss in leguminous crops. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of seed resistance to C. chinensis in moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia [Jaqc.] Maréchal). An F₂ population of 188 plants developed by crossing resistant accession 'TN67' (wild type from India; male parent) and susceptible accession 'IPCMO056' (cultivated type from India; female parent) was used for mapping...
November 15, 2018: Genes
Megan N Biango-Daniels, Katrin M Ayer, Kerik D Cox, Kathie T Hodge
Paecilomyces rot of apples is a postharvest disease caused by the thermotolerant fungus Paecilomyces niveus (Byssochlamys nivea). The etiology of disease and the activity of fungicides against P. niveus are not yet well understood. This study evaluated the ability of P. niveus to infect 'Gala' apples growing in a conventionally managed orchard. In addition, the sensitivity of P. niveus isolates to postharvest fungicides difenoconazole, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil was characterized for isolates from both agricultural and nonagricultural environments...
November 16, 2018: Plant Disease
Jordi Giné-Bordonaba, Gemma Echeverria, Elisabet Duaigües, Gloria Bobo, Christian Larrigaudière
Apple quality and the storage potential likely depend on a range of physiological and biochemical events occurring throughout fruit development and ripening. In this study, we investigated the major physiological (ethylene production and respiration) and biochemical changes (related to sugar and malic acid content as well as antioxidant metabolism) occurring during growth and on-tree ripening of two apple varieties ('Granny Smith' (GS) and 'Early Red One' (ERO)) with known differences in their postharvest behaviour, mainly firmness loss and susceptibility to superficial scald...
November 1, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Kalina Sikorska-Zimny, Ewa Badełek, Maria Grzegorzewska, Anna Ciecierska, Artur Kowalski, Ryszard Kosson, Lorenza Tuccio, Andrea A Mencaglia, Leonardo Ciaccheri, Anna G Mignani, Stanisław Kaniszewski, Giovanni Agati
BACKGROUND: Accumulation and stability of tomato lycopene markedly depends on the cultivar, plant growing and storage conditions. To estimate lycopene in open-field cultivated processing and fresh market tomatoes, we used a calibrated spectral reflectance portable sensor. RESULTS: Lycopene accumulation in fruits attached to the plant, starting from the Green ripening stage, followed a sigmoidal function. It was faster and reached higher levels in processing (cv...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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