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Barbara Cisterna, Federico Boschi, Anna C Croce, Rachele Podda, Serena Zanzoni, Daniele Degl'Innocenti, Paolo Bernardi, Manuela Costanzo, Pasquina Marzola, Viviana Covi, Gabriele Tabaracci, Manuela Malatesta
The production of Amarone wine is governed by a disciplinary guideline to preserve its typical features; however, postharvest infections by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) not only represent a phytosanitary problem but also cause a significant loss of product. In this study, we tested a treatment with mild ozoniztion on grapes for Amarone wine production during withering in the fruttaio (the environment imposed by the disciplinary guideline) and evaluated the impact on berry features by a multimodal imaging approach...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Daniel Wefers, Ramona Flörchinger, Mirko Bunzel
Physiological and textural properties of apples are greatly influenced by both cultivar and structural composition of their pectic polysaccharides. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that neutral pectic side chains (arabinans and galactans) play a major role during fruit development and postharvest processes. However, these complex polymers have a high structural heterogeneity, and some structural elements such as side chain substituents and substitution of neighboring residues cannot be analyzed by using conventional analytical methods...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
S Saito, C L Xiao
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an emerging postharvest disease affecting stored mandarin fruit in California. To develop effective control programs, fungicide sensitivities to four citrus postharvest fungicides were determined. One hundred B. cinerea isolates each in 2015 and 2016 were obtained from decayed fruit collected within packinghouses and tested for resistance to the fungicides. Sensitivity to azoxystrobin was examined based on the point mutation in the cyt b gene using PCR, while resistance to fludioxonil, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole was examined on fungicide-amended media...
October 17, 2018: Plant Disease
Annayara Celestina Ferreira Fernandes, Angélica Cristina de Souza, Cintia Lacerda Ramos, Aline Aparecida Pereira, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Disney Ribeiro Dias
BACKGROUND: To reduce postharvest losses, the use of substandard fruit and agricultural surpluses can productively be used as raw material for vinegar production. This work aimed to prepare vinegars from surpluses of physalis (Physalis pubescens L.) and red pitahaya (Hylocereus monacanthus), and evaluate their sensorial characteristics, antimicrobial activities, total phenolic contents (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by DPPH and ABTS methods. RESULTS: Two vinegars were produced by submerged fermentation using physalis and red pitahaya fruits surpluses...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Andreas W Ebert, Logotonu M Waqainabete
This review article gives an account of the origin, domestication, and dispersal of taro, a staple food crop in many countries in the humid tropics and subtropics. Genetic diversity studies indicated that distinct gene pools exist in all the regions where taro may be naturally distributed-the Indian subcontinent, China, Southeast Asia, and in Oceania. The Asian gene pool presented the highest genetic diversity. Diploid taro is prevalent in the Pacific Islands, while both diploids and triploids are found in mainland Asia...
October 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Aljosa Trmcic, Huihui Chen, Monika Trząskowska, Sandeep Tamber, Siyun Wang
Salmonella enterica is one of the pathogens that is frequently identified as the cause of fresh produce-related outbreaks. Biofilm formation is a factor that can contribute to pathogen survival on produce surface. The goal of our current research was to investigate the survival of five S. enterica strains representing different serotypes (i.e., Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Daytona, Poona, and Newport) on whole mini cucumbers stored at refrigeration (4°C) and room temperature (22°C). We also determined the strains survival on glass slides and in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 and 22°C, as well as the ability to form biofilms on a solid-liquid interphase...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Matthias Sipiczki, Samy A Selim
Non-pathogenic yeasts antagonising microorganisms that cause pre- and postharvest diseases of plants have been found in diverse habitats. Their practical applicability as biocontrol agents (BCAs) depends on the strength of their antagonistic activity and/or spectrum of sensitive target microorganisms. In this study, yeasts were isolated from the phylloplane and fruits of plants growing in the alkaline water lake region Wadi El-Natrun, Egypt, and tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity. All phylloplane yeast isolates belonged to the Basidiomycota and most of them could antagonise at least certain test organisms...
October 13, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Gilberto V de Melo Pereira, Dão P de Carvalho Neto, Antonio I Magalhães Júnior, Zulma S Vásquez, Adriane B P Medeiros, Luciana P S Vandenberghe, Carlos R Soccol
The aim of this review is to describe the volatile aroma compounds of green coffee beans and evaluate sources of variation in the formation and development of coffee aroma through postharvest processing. The findings of this survey showed that the volatile constituents of green coffee beans (e.g., alcohols, aldehydes, and alkanes) have no significant influence on the final coffee aroma composition, as only a few such compounds remain in the beans after roasting. On the other hand, microbial-derived, odor-active compounds produced during removal of the fruit mucilage layer, including esters, higher alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, can be detected in the final coffee product...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Amelia Torcello-Gómez, Mohamed A Gedi, Roger Ibbett, Khatija Nawaz Husain, Rhianna Briars, David Gray
An innovative procedure for plant chloroplasts isolation has been proposed, which consists of juice extraction by physical fractionation from plant material and recovery of its chloroplast-rich fraction (CRF) by centrifugation. This simple method has been applied to pea vine haulm subjected to different post-harvest treatments: blanching, storage at different relative humidity values and fermentation. Additionally, freeze storage of the extracted juice was carried out. The macronutrient (total lipids, proteins, ash and carbohydrates) and micronutrient (fatty acids, chlorophylls, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) content and composition of the CRF have been determined...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Tina Petric, Claudia Kiferle, Pierdomenico Perata, Silvia Gonzali
Shelf life is the time a product can be stored without losing its qualitative characteristics. It represents one of the most critical quality traits for food products, particularly for fleshy fruits, including tomatoes. Tomatoes' shelf life is usually shortened due to fast over-ripening caused by several different factors, among which changes in temperature, respiration and pathogen exposure. Although tomatoes usually do not contain anthocyanins, varieties enriched in these antioxidant compounds have been recently developed...
2018: PloS One
Toktam Taghavi, Chyer Kim, Alireza Rahemi
Small fruits are a multi-billion dollar industry in the US, and are economically important in many other countries. However, they are perishable and susceptible to physiological disorders and biological damage. Food safety and fruit quality are the major concerns of the food chain from farm to consumer, especially with increasing regulations in recent years. At present, the industry depends on pesticides and fungicides to control food spoilage organisms. However, due to consumer concerns and increasing demand for safer produce, efforts are being made to identify eco-friendly compounds that can extend the shelf life of small fruits...
October 5, 2018: Microorganisms
W X Yin, M Adnan, Y Shang, Y Lin, C X Luo
Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, can result in considerable preharvest and postharvest losses in many economically valuable plant species. Fungicides were widely used to minimize such losses, but fungicide resistances were detected frequently. In the present study, we collected 164 isolates from nectarine and cherry in China and tested the sensitivity to six fungicides. Among the tested isolates, 71 (43.3%) were resistant to azoxystrobin, 14 (8.5%) to cyprodinil, 7 (4.3%) to boscalid, 4 (2.4%) to carbendazim, 1 (0...
October 9, 2018: Plant Disease
Eduardo Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Amy Gundersen, Adrian Sbodio, Steven Koike, Trevor V Suslow
This study determined the variability in population uniformity of an applied mixture of attenuated E. coli O157:H7 (attEcO157) on spinach leaves as impacted by sampling mass and detection technique over spatial and temporal conditions. Opportunistically, the survival and distribution of naturally contaminating pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157), in a single packaged lot following commercial postharvest handling and washing, was also evaluated. From the main study outcomes, differences in the applied inoculum dose of 100-fold, resulted in indistinguishable population densities of approximately Log 1...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Sang Hye Ji, Tae Kwang Kim, Young Soo Keum, Se-Chul Chun
Onion ( Allium cepa L.) is one of the major vegetable crops in Korea that are damaged and lost by pathogenic fungal infection during storage due to a lack of proper storage conditions. The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate control measure using thymol to increase the shelf life of onions. To control fungal infections that occur during low-temperature storage, it is necessary to identify the predominant fungal pathogens that appear in low-temperature storage houses. Botrytis aclada was found to be the most predominant fungal pathogen during low-temperature storage...
2018: Mycobiology
Vasileios Ziogas, Athanassios Molassiotis, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Georgia Tanou
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an endogenous gaseous molecule, is considered as a signaling agent, in parallel with other low molecular weight reactive substances, mainly hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and nitric oxide (NO), in various plant systems. New studies are now revealing that the postharvest application of H2 S, through H2 S donors such as sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) or sodium sulfide (Na2 S), can inhibit fruit ripening and senescence programs in numerous fruits. We discuss here current knowledge on the impact of H2 S in postharvest physiology of several climacteric and non-climacteric fruits such as banana, apple, pear, kiwifruit, strawberry, mulberry fruit, and grape...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lanting Zeng, Naoharu Watanabe, Ziyin Yang
Metabolite formation is a biochemical and physiological feature of plants developed as an environmental response during the evolutionary process. These metabolites help defend plants against environmental stresses, but are also important quality components in crops. Utilizing the stress response to improve natural quality components in plants has attracted increasing research interest. Tea, which is processed by the tender shoots or leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), is the second most popular beverage worldwide after water...
October 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Miguel Aguilar-Camacho, Jorge Welti-Chanes, Daniel A Jacobo-Velázquez
Postharvest treatments such as wounding, ultrasound (US) and the exogenous application of ethylene (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) have been studied as an effective tool to improve the content of secondary metabolites in fresh produce. The present study evaluated the immediate and late response (storage for 72 h at 15 °C) to US treatment (20 min, frequency 24 kHz, amplitude 100 μm) alone and combined with exogenous MJ (250 ppm) and/or ET (1000 ppm) on glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid content in broccoli florets...
September 22, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Xiaomin Zhang, Maorun Fu, Qingmin Chen
BACKGROUND: Patulin, produced by Penicillium expansum in apple fruit, had side effects on humans and animals health. The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) on patulin production and its involved mechanisms was investigated. RESULTS: Patulin production by P. expansum was reduced by ClO2 treatment, both in apples and in PDB medium, which was attributed to the antifungal effect of ClO2 , but not the direct reaction between ClO2 and patulin. In addition, ClO2 fumigation significantly reduced disease development in apples infected with P...
September 30, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M Bernat, C Casals, N Teixidò, R Torres, B C Carballo, J Usall
Disinfection of surface facilities during postharvest handling operation is an important practice to avoid secondary fruit infections at stone fruit packinghouses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of six environmental friendly disinfectants against Monilinia fructicola, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus spp., and Alternaria spp. on plastic and wood surfaces. Hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, Mico-E-pro®, Proallium FRD-N®, and DMC Clean-CNS® were used as the disinfectants...
September 30, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Junfeng Yang, Binbin Li, Wenjun Shi, Zhongzhi Gong, Lu Chen, Zhixia Hou
The effect and mechanism of preharvest and postharvest ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on anthocyanin biosynthesis during blueberry development were investigated. The results showed that preharvest UV-B,C and postharvest UV-A,B,C irradiation significantly promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis and the transcripts of late biosynthetic genes (LBG) VcDFR, VcANS, VcUFGT and VcMYB transcription factor, as well as DFR and UFGT activities in anthocyanin pathway in a UV wavelength- and developmental stage-dependent manner...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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