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senescence ,senesce

Maria A Streltsova, Sofya A Erokhina, Leonid M Kanevskiy, Dean A Lee, William G Telford, Alexander M Sapozhnikov, Elena I Kovalenko
In this work, we analyzed the phenotype and growth of human NK cell clones obtained by the stimulation of individual NK cells with IL-2 and gene-modified K562 feeder cells expressing membrane-bound IL-21 (K562-mbIL21). We generated clones from NK cells at distinct differentiation and activation stages, determined by CD56, CD57 and HLA-DR expression levels. Less differentiated CD56bright NK cell subsets showed higher cloning efficiency compared with more differentiated CD56dim subsets, especially with the CD57bright subset...
2018: PloS One
Ajay Ravindranathan, Beth Cimini, Morgan E Diolaiti, Bradley A Stohr
The telomerase enzyme enables unlimited proliferation of most human cancer cells by elongating telomeres and preventing replicative senescence. Despite the critical importance of telomerase in cancer biology, challenges detecting telomerase activity and expression in individual cells have hindered the ability to study patterns of telomerase expression and function across heterogeneous cell populations. While sensitive assays to ascertain telomerase expression and function exist, these approaches have proven difficult to implement at the single cell level...
2018: PloS One
Lecticia Barbosa Jorge, Fernanda Oliveira Coelho, Talita Rojas Sanches, Denise M A C Malheiros, Leandro Ezaquiel de Souza, Fernando Dos Santos, Larissa de Sá Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
Sepsis-induced organ failure is characterized by a massive inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in approximately half of patients in septic shock, and the mortality associated with sepsis-induced AKI is unacceptably high. Klotho is a protein expressed by renal cells and has anti-senescence properties. Klotho has also been shown to protect the kidneys in ischemia-reperfusion injury and to have antioxidant properties. To analyze the role of Klotho in sepsis-related organ dysfunction and AKI, we used a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in heterozygous Klotho-haploinsufficient mice and their wild-type littermates (CLP-Kl+/- and CLP-WT mice, respectively)...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Kyung-Ho Kim, Bongkyun Park, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Suhkneung Pyo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Priscylla Andrade Volkart, Gabriela Bitencourt-Ferreira, André Arigony Souto, Walter Filgueira de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) has been studied due to its role in the cell-cycle progression. The elucidation of the CDK2 structure paved the way to investigate the molecular basis for inhibition of this enzyme, with the coordinated efforts combining crystallography with functional studies. OBJECTIVE: Our goal here is to review recent functional and structural studies directed to understanding the role of CDK2 in cancer and senescence. METHOD: There are over four hundreds of crystallographic structures available for CDK2, many of them with binding affinity information...
December 4, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Yung-Ming Chang, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Chuan-Te Tsai, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Shu-Luan Lin, Chia-Cheng Chang, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Ray-Jade Chen, Julia Huei-Mei Chang, Chih-Yang Huang
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are easily accessible and are attractive mesenchymal stem cells for use in regenerative medicine; however their application is frequently restricted due to various challenges present in the environment they are administered. Therefore ADMSCs are preferably preconditioned with various stimulating factors to overcome the barriers developed in any pathological conditions. Here we used ADMSCs from rat adipose based on the abundance of positive markers and preconditioned the cells with extracts from Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), a traditional Chinese herb used for antiaging, associated various health benefits...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Chanatip Metheetrairut, Chanticha Chotigavanich, Kanchana Amornpichetkul, Phawin Keskool, Sunun Ongard, Choakchai Metheetrairut
PURPOSE: The majority of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cases in developing countries are associated with cigarette smoking and TP53 mutations. p53 is a transcription factor that activates downstream genes, including the hsa-miR-34a and hsa-miR-34b/c loci, to achieve cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and/or apoptosis. This study examined the differences in expression levels of miR-34 in HNSCC with or without TP53 mutations. METHODS: We examined surgically resected tumor samples and normal adjacent tissues from HNSCC in oral cavity, larynx, and hypopharynx for TP53 mutations (exons 5-8) and miR-34 expression levels...
December 4, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Katina Roumbedakis, Marie Drábková, Tomáš Tyml, Carlo di Cristo
Although interest in several areas of cephalopod research has emerged over the last decades (e.g., neurobiology, aquaculture, genetics, and welfare), especially following their 2010 inclusion in the EU Directive on the use of animals for experimental purposes, knowledge regarding the parasites of cephalopods is lacking. Cephalopods can be intermediate, paratenic, or definitive hosts to a range of parasites with a wide variety of life cycle strategies. Here, we briefly review the current knowledge in cephalopod parasitological research, summarizing the main parasite groups that affect these animals...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Charlotte Steenblock, Maria F Rubin de Celis, Luis F Delgadillo Silva, Verena Pawolski, Ana Brennand, Martin Werdermann, Ilona Berger, Alice Santambrogio, Mirko Peitzsch, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Andrew V Schally, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a master regulator of the human body during response to stress. This organ shows constant replacement of senescent cells by newly differentiated cells. A high degree of plasticity is critical to sustain homeostasis under different physiological demands. This is achieved in part through proliferation and differentiation of adult adrenal progenitors. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a Nestin+ population of adrenocortical progenitors located under the adrenal capsule and scattered throughout the cortex...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anusara Daenthanasanmak, Supinya Iamsawat, Paramita Chakraborty, Hung D Nguyen, David Bastian, Chen Liu, Shikhar Mehrotra, Xue-Zhong Yu
Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) remains one of the major complications after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) plays a crucial role in various biological processes including cellular senescence, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Sirt-1 deacetylation regulates different transcription factors that are important for modulating immune responses. In the current study, we addressed the role of Sirt-1 in GVHD induction by employing Sirt-1 conditional knock-out mice as well as a pharmacological Sirt-1 inhibitor...
December 4, 2018: Blood
Li Li, Yulun Huang, Yuge Gao, Tengfei Shi, Yunyun Xu, Huini Li, Marko Hyytiäinen, Jorma Keski-Oja, Qiuying Jiang, Yizhou Hu, Zhimin Du
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant central nervous system tumor. Alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. However, the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ is affected by many factors. And, several clinic trials, including co-administration of TMZ with other drugs, have failed in successful treatment of GBM. We have previously reported that Netrin-4 (NTN4), a laminin-like axon guidance protein, plays a protective role in GBM cell senescence upon TMZ-triggered DNA damage...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Justin R Dee, Henry D Adams, Michael W Palmer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Herb chronology, the study of belowground annual growth rings in perennial forbs, has much potential as a tool for monitoring plant growth as a function of environment. To harness this potential, understanding of the coordination between ring ontogeny, aboveground phenology, and the temporal allocation of carbon products belowground in herbaceous forbs must be improved. METHODS: We investigated these relationships in two southern United States tallgrass prairie perennial forb species, Asclepias viridis and Lespedeza stuevei, making monthly excavations for a year...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Guillaume P Ramstein, Joseph Evans, Aruna Nandety, Malay C Saha, E Charles Brummer, Shawn M Kaeppler, C Robin Buell, Michael D Casler
Switchgrass ( L.) is a promising herbaceous energy crop, but further gains in biomass yield and quality must be achieved to enable a viable bioenergy industry. Developing DNA markers can contribute to such progress, but depiction of genetic bases should be reliable, involving simple additive marker effects and also interactions with genetic backgrounds (e.g., ecotypes) or synergies with other markers. We analyzed plant height, C content, N content, and mineral concentration in a diverse panel consisting of 512 genotypes of upland and lowland ecotypes...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Alex Wong, Sixun Chen, Lay Kien Yang, Yoganathan Kanagasundaram, Karen Crasta
Aberrant lipid accumulation is a hallmark of cancer known to contribute to its aggressiveness and malignancy. Emerging studies have demonstrated context-dependent changes in lipid metabolism during chemotherapy. However, there is little known regarding the mechanisms linking lipid metabolism to chemotherapy-induced cell fates. Here, we describe lipid accumulation in cells following antimitotic drug treatment. Cells arrested in mitosis, as well as cells that escaped mitotic arrest and underwent mitotic slippage, showed elevated cytoplasmic lipid droplets...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Penelope D Ruiz, Matthew J Gamble
The histone variant macroH2A1 localizes to two functionally distinct chromatin subtypes marked by either H3K27me3 or H2B acetylations, where it is thought to directly regulate transcription. The recent finding, that macroH2A1 regulates mitochondrial respiration by globally dampening PARP activity, requires the field to re-evaluate which functions of macroH2A1 are due to global effects on cellular metabolism and which are direct effects determined by macroH2A1 chromatin localization. Here, we demonstrate macroH2A1 incorporation into H2B-acetylated chromatin requires a feature in its histone-fold domain, distinguishing this process from incorporation into H3K27me3-containing chromatin in which multiple features of macroH2A1 are sufficient for targeting...
December 3, 2018: Nature Communications
R A F MacLeod, B Schneider, I Sivakova, S Nagel, W G Dirks, P Mraz, E Kubikova, A Perzelova
Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and incurable primary brain tumor. The most frequent genetic alteration therein is amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, the target of current clinical trials. However, EGFR amplification is poorly adapted to glioblastoma cell lines. From the 30 cultures attempted herein, we were able to establish two glioblastoma tissue cultures with permanent cell lines. The remaining cultures showed limited life span and underwent senescence between passage numbers (PN) 8 to 15...
August 9, 2018: Neoplasma
Pavan Parikh, Rodney D Britt, Logan J Manlove, Sarah A Wicher, Anne Roesler, Jovanka Ravix, Jacob Teske, Michael A Thompson, Gary C Sieck, James L Kirkland, Nathan LeBrasseur, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Supplemental O2 (hyperoxia; 30-90% O2) is a necessary intervention for premature infants, but contributes to development of neonatal and pediatric asthma, necessitating better understanding of contributory mechanisms in hyperoxia-induced changes to airway structure and function. In adults, environmental stressors promote formation of senescent cells that secrete factors (senescence-associated secretory phenotype; SASP), which can be inflammatory and have paracrine effects that enhance chronic lung diseases...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Katharina Eberhardt, Christian Matthäus, Shiva Marthandan, Stephan Diekmann, Jürgen Popp
Dermal fibroblast cells can adopt different cell states such as proliferation, quiescence, apoptosis or senescence, in order to ensure tissue homeostasis. Proliferating (dividing) cells pass through the phases of the cell cycle, while quiescent and senescent cells exist in a non-proliferating cell cycle-arrested state. However, the reversible quiescence state is in contrast to the irreversible senescence state. Long-term quiescent cells transit into senescence indicating that cells age also when not passing through the cell cycle...
2018: PloS One
Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon, James Ej Murphy
Telomeres act as a mitotic clock and telomere related senescence has been linked to age related physiological decline. There is increasing evidence lifestyle factors can influence telomere length. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of competitive triathlon training on telomere length. Seven competitive male triathletes and seven recreationally active males participated in the study. Relative telomere length was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Physiological parameters key to athletic performance such as V̇O2 max, lactate threshold and running economy were also measured...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Chen-Min Jiang, Xin Liu, Chun-Xue Li, Hao-Cheng Qian, Di Chen, Chao-Qiang Lai, Li-Rong Shen
Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybee has been widely used as a health promotion supplement. The major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) have been identified as the functional component of RJ. However, the question of whether MRJPs have anti-senescence activity for human cells remains. Human embryonic lung fibroblast (HFL-I) cells were cultured in media containing no MRJPs (A), MRJPs at 0.1 mg/ml (B), 0.2 mg/ml (C), or 0.3 mg/ml (D), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0.2 mg/ml (E). The mean population doubling levels of cells in media B, C, D, and E were increased by 12...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
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