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senescence ,senesce

A K Ettinger, S Gee, E M Wolkovich
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plant phenology is a critical trait, as the timings of phenophases such as budburst, leafout, flowering, and fruiting, are important to plant fitness. Despite much study about when individual phenophases occur and how they may shift with climate change, little is known about how multiple phenophases relate to one another across an entire growing season. We test the extent to which early phenological stages constrain later ones, throughout a growing season, across 25 angiosperm tree species...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Monica Barman, Adinpunya Mitra
Jasminum spp. is cultivated for their fragrant flowers used in essential oil production and cosmetic uses. An attempt was made to study the temporal variations in floral scent volatiles composition including emitted, free endogenous and glycosyl-linked volatile compounds from two summer-blooming species namely, Jasminum auriculatum and Jasminum grandiflorum, the two winter-blooming species namely, Jasminum multiflorum and Jasminum malabaricum. The overall emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were found to be highest when the matrix Porapak Q 80/100 was used with dichloromethane (DCM) as elution solvent...
October 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Akshay Binayke, Sarthak Mishra, Prabhat Suman, Suman Das, Harish Chander
The role of tumor suppressor protein p53 is undeniable in the suppression of cancer upon oncogenic stress. It induces diverse conditions such as cell-cycle arrest, cell death, and senescence to protect the cell from carcinogenesis. The rate of mutations in p53 gene nearly accounts for 50% of the human cancers. Upon mutations, the conformation gets altered and becomes non-native. Mutant p53 displays long half-life and accumulates in the nucleus and interacts with oncoproteins to promote carcinogenesis and these interactions present a formidable challenge for clinicians in therapy of the disease...
October 15, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Masashi Muramatsu, Shin Akakura, Lingqiu Gao, Jennifer Peresie, Benjamin Balderman, Irwin H Gelman
SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 (SSeCKS) controls metastasis-associated PKC and Src signaling through direct scaffolding activity. SSeCKS is downregulated in the metastases of many human cancer types, and its forced re-expression suppresses the metastatic behavior of prostate cancer cells. SSeCKS is also downregulated in breast and prostate cancer stroma, and SSeCKS-null mice (KO) are metastasis-prone, suggesting a role in suppressing formation of the pre-metastatic niche. Here, we show that lung colonization and metastasis formation by B16F10 and SM1WT1[ Braf V600E ] mouse melanoma cells is 9-fold higher in syngeneic KO compared to WT hosts, although there is no difference in orthotopic tumor volumes...
September 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Muttiah Barathan, Rosmawati Mohamed, Yean K Yong, Meganathan Kannan, Jamuna Vadivelu, Alireza Saeidi, Marie Larsson, Esaki Muthu Shankar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a challenging global health threat to ~200 million infected individuals. Clinical data suggest that only ~10⁻15% of acutely HCV-infected individuals will achieve spontaneous viral clearance despite exuberant virus-specific immune responses, which is largely attributed to difficulties in recognizing the pathognomonic symptoms during the initial stages of exposure to the virus. Given the paucity of a suitable small animal model, it is also equally challenging to study the early phases of viral establishment...
October 12, 2018: Cells
Antonella Tramutola, Giulia Abate, Chiara Lanzillotta, Francesca Triani, Eugenio Barone, Federica Iavarone, Federica Vincenzoni, Massimo Castagnola, Mariagrazia Marziano, Maurizio Memo, Emirena Garrafa, D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi, Fabio Di Domenico, Daniela Uberti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia characterized by increased production of amyloid-β plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, mitochondrial dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, reduced protein clearance, among other. Several studies showed systemic modifications of immune and inflammatory systems due, in part, to decreased levels of CD3+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood in AD. Considering that oxidative stress, both in the brain and in the periphery, can influence the activation and differentiation of T-cells, we investigated the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) proteome of blood T-cells derived from AD patients compared to non-demented (ND) subjects by using a proteomic approach...
October 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hak Joo Lee, Olga Gonzalez, Edward J Dick, Andrew Donati, Denis Feliers, Choudhury Goutam Ghosh, Corinna Ross, Manjeri Venkatachalam, Suzette D Tardif, Balakuntalam S Kasinath
We evaluated whether the marmoset, a nonhuman primate, can serve as a good model to study aging related changes in the kidney by employing healthy young and aged marmosets of both sexes. Aging was associated with glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and arteriolosclerosis in both sexes; correspondingly, the content of matrix proteins was increased. Functionally, aging resulted in an increase in urinary albumin and protein excretion. There was a robust correlation between markers of fibrosis and functional changes...
October 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Diptiman Chanda, Eva Otoupalova, Kenneth P Hough, Morgan L Locy, Karen Bernard, Jessy S Deshane, Ralph D Sanderson, James A Mobley, Victor J Thannickal
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are endosome and plasma membrane-derived nanosized vesicles that participate in intercellular signaling. Although EV cargo may signal via multiple mechanisms, how signaling components on the surface of EVs mediate cellular signaling is less well understood. In this study, we show that fibroblast-derived EVs carry fibronectin on the vesicular surface, as evidenced by mass spectrometry-based proteomics (sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical peptides; SWATH) and flow cytometric analyses...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Fabrizio De Biasio, Giovanni Miotti, Nicola Zingaretti, Luigi Castriotta, Pier Camillo Parodi
PURPOSE: Several anatomical and physio-pathologic studies of eyelid region have allowed the creation of theories on facial tissues aging dynamics, which have not been clarified yet. We assessed the signs of aging in the region over the time by observing the characteristics in the same person at different times of his/her life. METHODS: We compared the position of the main anatomical landmarks of the eyelid region of 80 patients by overlaying their photographs when they were 20, 40, and 60 years old...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Seon Yeong Chae, Sun Young Park, Geuntae Park
Oxidative stress‑induced cellular senescence is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of age‑related macular degeneration (AMD). Characteristics of premature cellular senescence include a loss of proliferation, change in cell shape, irreversible cell cycle arrest, and elevated senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase (SA‑β‑gal) activity. It was hypothesized that lutein may have anti‑senescence potential and may be useful as a treatment for AMD. In the present study, premature cellular senescence was induced in ARPE‑19 cells via treatment with H2O2 and the effects of lutein application were confirmed by observing cell morphology, lysosome contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and SA‑β‑gal activity, and cell cycle progression...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Keyi Geng, Ningzhen Fu, Xiao Yang, Weiliang Xia
Aging, marked by the physical and functional decline in numerous biological processes, is associated with multiple pathologies including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiocerebral vascular diseases. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is considered one of the major causes of aging‑associated diseases and a major therapeutic target. Hydroxyurea has been widely used for cellular senescence model. The expression level of cell cycle-related protein, ROS production and senescence-associated β-galactosidase are considered to be markers of cellular senescence...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ashley L Fink, Sabra L Klein
Males and females differ in their effector and memory immune responses to foreign and self-antigens. The difference in antibody responses (i.e., humoral immunity), in particular, is one of the most well conserved sex differences in immunology. Certain sex differences in humoral immunity are present throughout life, whereas others are only apparent after puberty and prior to reproductive senescence, suggesting that both genes and hormones are involved. Importantly, these sex-based differences in humoral immunity contribute to variation in the responses to vaccines and may explain some disparities in vaccine efficacy between the sexes...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Jiang-Jiang Qin, Xin Li, Courtney Hunt, Wei Wang, Hui Wang, Ruiwen Zhang
The p53 tumor suppressor plays a major role in controlling the initiation and development of cancer by regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, and DNA repair. The MDM2 oncogene is a major negative regulator of p53 that inhibits the activity of p53 and reduces its protein stability. MDM2, p53, and the p53-MDM2 pathway represent well-documented targets for preventing and/or treating cancer. Natural products, especially those from medicinal and food plants, are a rich source for the discovery and development of novel therapeutic and preventive agents against human cancers...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Gordon P Flake, Alicia B Moore, Deloris Sutton, Norris Flagler, Natasha Clayton, Grace E Kissling, Benita Wicker Hall, John Horton, David Walmer, Stanley J Robboy, Darlene Dixon
Purpose of Review: Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors of women in the USA and worldwide, yet the biological nature and pathogenesis of these tumors remain largely unknown. This review presents our view of the stages in the life cycle of a subset of uterine fibroid myocytes, introduces hypothetical concepts and morphological data to explain these changes, and relates these changes in individual myocytes to the phases of fibroid tumor development. Recent Findings: The observations gained from light and electron microscopic, immunohistochemical, and morphometric studies in our laboratory have led to the hypothesis that fibroid changes over time may relate to the excessive production of collagen by phenotypically transformed myocytes...
June 2018: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
Jie Kai Tee, Fei Peng, Yeong Lan Tan, Bo Yu, Han Kiat Ho
Liver fibrosis is a histological change often attributed to the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the excessive formation of scar tissues in the liver. Advanced stages of the disease frequently lead to cirrhosis. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) has been accepted as a hepatoprotective drug with the potential of alleviating inflammatory conditions and thus promote liver recovery from viral- or drug-induced injury. While MgIG has been empirically integrated into the clinics to treat some liver diseases, its anti-fibrotic effect and the associated mechanisms remain poorly characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Umesh Goyal, Malancha Ta
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are successful for their therapeutic application in immune and inflammatory contexts due to their anti-inflammatory, trophic and immunomodulatory roles. However, though MSCs have the potential to provide regenerative treatment towards a wide range of devastating diseases, massive cell death of transplanted MSCs remains an obstacle to overcome. The relation between MSCs and inflammation is multifactorial and challenging to comprehend. Fever is a critical component of the inflamed microenvironment...
October 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Jae Yeon Choi, Hyun Jin Shin, In Hwa Bae
Cellular senescence, a distinctive type of irreversible growth arrest, develops in response to various stimuli. Bcl-w, an oncogene and member of the Bcl-2 family, has been reported to promote tumorigenicity in various cancer cells. Here, we sought to explore the potential role of Bcl-w in premature senescence, which has received relatively little research attention. Our findings demonstrate that Bcl-w enhances the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and promotes histone H3 tri-methylation at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and expressions of p53, Notch2, p21, and p16-hallmarks of the senescent phenotype-in human U251 glioblastoma and H460 lung carcinoma cells...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wen Sun, Wanxin Qiao, Bin Zhou, Zixuan Hu, Quanquan Yan, Jun Wu, Rong Wang, Qian Zhang, Dengshun Miao
OBJECTIVE: B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) deficiency (Bmi-1-/- ) leads to an osteoporotic phenotype with a significant downregulation of Sirt1 protein expression. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) haploinsufficiency results in a bone loss by decreased bone formation; however, it is unclear whether Sirt1 overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plays an anti-osteoporotic role. The aim of the study is to identify whether the overexpression of Sirt1 in MSCs could restore skeletal growth retardation and osteoporosis in Bmi-1 deficient mice...
November 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Keywan Mortezaee, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Peyman Amini, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a treatment modality for cancer. For better therapeutic efficiency, it could be used in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In addition to its beneficial therapeutic effects, exposure to radiation leads to several toxic effects on normal tissues. Also, it may induce some changes in genomic expression of tumor cells, thereby increasing the resistance of tumor cells. These changes lead to the appearance of some acute reactions in irradiated organs, increased risk of carcinogenesis, and reduction in the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Anna Lewinska, Aleksandra Bocian, Vladimir Petrilla, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Karolina Szymura, Wiktoria Hendzel, Edyta Kaleniuk, Konrad K Hus, Monika Petrillova, Maciej Wnuk
Snake venoms are widely studied in terms of their systemic toxicity and proteolytic, hemotoxic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic activities. However, little is known about snake-venom-mediated effects when used at low, noncytotoxic concentrations. In the current study, two human fibroblast cell lines of different origin, namely WI-38 fetal lung fibroblasts and BJ foreskin fibroblasts were used to investigate snake-venom-induced adaptive response at a relatively noncytotoxic concentration (0.01 µg/ml). The venoms of Indochinese spitting cobra ( Naja siamensis), western green mamba ( Dendroaspis viridis), forest cobra ( Naja melanoleuca), and southern copperhead ( Agkistrodon contortrix) were considered...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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