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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515075/pigr-and-pecam-1-bind-to-pneumococcal-adhesins-rrga-and-pspc-mediating-bacterial-brain-invasion
#1
Federico Iovino, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Merche Valls Seron, Peter Mellroth, Sandra Muschiol, Jan Bergstrand, Jerker Widengren, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514823/-fulminant-course-of-a-clostridium-perfringens-infection-with-pathognomonic-ct-finding
#2
Christoph Alexander Stückle, Christopher Sonntag, Magdalena Kulik, Thorsten Nitschke
History and clinical findings A 74-year old woman was accepted by the emergency room with severe chest and abdominal pain. She complained about regurgitation after ingestion of food followed by sharp pain in her breast. Investigations A first examination of the patient showed a tachypnoea und tachycardia up to 122 beats per minute, the body temperature measured on admission was 38.7 °C. Due to hemolysis only a few of the requested parameters could be evaluated. CRP was increased with 8.32 mg/dl. The hemoglobin dropped from 12...
May 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#3
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512589/a-case-of-early-disseminated-neurological-lyme-disease-followed-by-atypical-cutaneous-manifestations
#4
Vamsi Kantamaneni, Vikas Sunder, Mohammad Bilal, Scott Vargo
Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne illness caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. An 80-year-old female from Pennsylvania, USA, presented to an outside hospital with fever, confusion, lower extremity weakness, and stool incontinence. CT head and MRI spine were unremarkable. An infectious work-up including lumbar puncture was negative. She was transferred to our tertiary care hospital. Patient was noted to have mild unilateral right-sided facial droop and a diffuse macular rash throughout the body. She denied any outdoor activities, tick bites, or previous rash...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505331/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-alternative-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential
#5
P R S Lagacé-Wiens, H J Adam, N M Laing, M R Baxter, I Martin, M R Mulvey, J A Karlowsky, D J Hoban, G G Zhanel
Background: The prevalence of MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing globally and represents a public health emergency. Development and approval of new anti-gonococcal agents may take years. As a concurrent approach to developing new antimicrobials, the laboratory and clinical evaluation of currently licensed antimicrobials not widely used for the treatment of gonorrhoea may provide new options for the treatment of gonococcal infections. Objectives: To determine the in vitro activity of nine alternative, currently licensed and late-development antimicrobials with the potential to treat gonococcal infections against 112 clinical isolates of N...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505288/effect-of-different-antibiotics-on-biofilm-produced-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#6
María José González, Luciana Robino, Victoria Iribarnegaray, Pablo Zunino, Paola Scavone
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occur frequently in children and women. Intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli are risk factors for recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different antibiotics on biofilms by E. coli strains isolated from children with UTI and to correlate virulence factors and IBC with biofilm formation. 116 E. coli strains were tested for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate technique. 58...
May 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504816/virulence-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-environmental-strains-of-vibrio-alginolyticus
#7
Marcos F Hernández-Robles, Ana K Álvarez-Contreras, Patricia Juárez-García, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Everardo Curiel-Quesada, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas, Elsa I Quiñones-Ramírez
Vibrio alginolyticus has acquired increasing importance because this microorganism may be pathogenic to aquatic animals and humans. It has been reported that some V. alginolyticus strains carry virulence genes derived from pathogenic V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus strains. In this work V. alginolyticus was isolated from oyster samples acquired from a food-market in Mexico City. Thirty isolates were identified as V. alginolitycus. Strains showed β-haemolysis and proteolytic activity and produced a capsule...
December 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504053/improved-antifouling-potential-of-polyether-sulfone-polymeric-membrane-containing-silver-nanoparticles-self-cleaning-membranes
#8
Umair Nazar, Jafar Ali, Qurat Ul Ain Ali, Nasir M Ahmad, Fiza Sarwar, Hassan Waseem, Syed Umair Ullah Jamil
A new strategy to enhance the antifouling potential of polyether sulfone membrane is presented. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used to prepare mixed matrix polyether sulfone membrane by phase inversion technique. Primarily, AgNPs synthesis was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 410-430 nm using UV-vis spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed AgNPs were crystalline with a diameter of 21 ±2 nm. Furthermore, PES membranes were characterized by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the incorporation of AgNPs in membranes...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503879/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-appropriateness-of-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-an-australian-regional-hospital
#9
Stuart E Bond, Craig S Boutlis, Wilfred W Yeo, Spiros Miyakis
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP.
May 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499446/genome-sequence-of-shigella-flexneri-strain-sp1-a-diarrheal-isolate-that-encodes-an-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl
#10
Ping Shen, Jianzhong Fan, Lihua Guo, Jiahua Li, Ang Li, Jing Zhang, Chaoqun Ying, Jinru Ji, Hao Xu, Beiwen Zheng, Yonghong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is the most common cause of gastrointestinal infections in developing countries. In China, the species most frequently responsible for shigellosis is Shigella flexneri. S. flexneri remains largely unexplored from a genomic standpoint and is still described using a vocabulary based on biochemical and serological properties. Moreover, increasing numbers of ESBL-producing Shigella strains have been isolated from clinical samples. Despite this, only a few cases of ESBL-producing Shigella have been described in China...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499421/patterns-of-use-and-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-prescribed-to-patients-receiving-haemodialysis-an-observational-study
#11
Katrina Hui, Michelle Nalder, Kirsty Buising, Aspasia Pefanis, Khai Y Ooi, Eugenie Pedagogos, Craig Nelson, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, David C M Kong
BACKGROUND: There are limited published data on the types and appropriateness of oral and intravenous (IV) antibiotics prescribed to patients receiving haemodialysis. This information is critical to optimise antibiotic prescribing. Therefore this study aims to describe the patterns of use and the appropriateness of oral and IV antibiotics prescribed to patients receiving haemodialysis. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study across four community and two hospital inpatient haemodialysis units in Melbourne, Australia...
May 12, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499407/early-neurosyphilis-presenting-with-facial-palsy-and-an-oral-ulcer-in-a-patient-who-is-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-a-case-report
#12
Evangeline Njiru, Jamil Abdulkadir, Zipporah Kamuren, Gabriel Kigen
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the tertiary stage of Treponema pallidum infection that involves the central nervous system, which occurs within days or weeks after an initial syphilis infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is quite challenging as it is uncommon and often presents with obscure symptoms since any organ system may be involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 40-year-old African man who is human immunodeficiency virus positive with early neurosyphilis who presented with a stiff neck, headache, confusion, restlessness, and a left-sided chest pain; he did not respond to an empiric treatment of ceftriaxone and fluconazole for meningitis, and tramadol for headache...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499284/emergence-and-spread-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-in-argentina-2009-to-2013
#13
Ricardo Gianecini, Maria de Las Mercedes Romero, Claudia Oviedo, Martin Vacchino, Patricia Galarza
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins represents a major concern globally. The aim of this study was to examine the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime in Argentina. METHODS: A total of 1987 isolates were collected during 2009 and 2013. The susceptibility to penicillin G, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin was determined using the agar dilution method...
June 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495973/contrasting-the-role-of-xct-and-glt-1-upregulation-in-the-ability-of-ceftriaxone-to-attenuate-the-cue-induced-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-and-normalize-ampa-receptor-subunit-expression
#14
Amber L Lacrosse, Sinead M O'Donovan, Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Robert E McCullumsmith, Kathryn J Reissner, Marek Schwendt, Lori A Knackstedt
Chronic treatment with ceftriaxone attenuates reinstatement of cocaine-seeking while increasing the function of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 and system xC- (Sxc) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). Sxc contributes the majority of non-synaptic extracellular glutamate in the NAc, while GLT-1 is responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake. Here we used antisense to decrease the expression of GLT-1 and xCT (catalytic subunit of Sxc), in order to determine the relative importance of both proteins in mediating ceftriaxone's ability to prevent cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and normalize glutamatergic proteins in the NAc of rats...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489191/pathogenic-vibrio-species-isolated-from-estuarine-environments-cear%C3%A3-brazil-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-potential-profiles
#15
Francisca G R DE Menezes, Marina T T Rodriguez, Fátima C T DE Carvalho, Rosa H Rebouças, Renata A Costa, Oscarina V DE Sousa, Ernesto Hofer, Regine H S F Vieira
Detection of virulent strains associated with aquatic environment is a current concern for the management and control of human and animal health. Thus, Vibrio diversity was investigated in four estuaries from state of Ceará (Pacoti, Choró, Pirangi and Jaguaribe) followed by antimicrobial susceptibility to different antimicrobials used in aquaculture and detection of main virulence factors to human health. Isolation and identification were performed on TCBS agar (selective medium) and dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics, respectively...
April 27, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487222/neuroprotective-effects-of-ceftriaxone-treatment-on-cognitive-and-neuronal-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-accelerated-senescence
#16
Maria A Tikhonova, Shih-Chun Ho, Anna A Akopyan, Nataliya G Kolosova, Jun-Cheng Weng, Wan-Yun Meng, Chih-Li Lin, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Ying-Jui Ho
Rats of OXYS strain are characterized by genetically defined accelerated senescence. Ceftriaxone (CEF) exerts neuroprotective effects by decreasing the excitotoxicity and activation of antioxidant system. Here, we studied the effects of CEF (50 or 100mg/kg/day, i.p., 36 days) on cognitive and neuronal deficits in 5-month-old OXYS rats. Chronic CEF administration in a dose of 100mg/kg partially inhibited impairments of movement and restored the deficit in the novel object recognition in OXYS rats. Neuromorphologically, control OXYS rats exhibited a lowered neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area and there was a tendency to decrease in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to Wistar controls...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486078/characterization-of-clinically-isolated-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-typhimurium-exposed-to-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-ceftriaxone-and-ciprofloxacin
#17
Jeongjin Kim, Juhee Ahn
This study was designed mainly to assess the phenotypic properties of clinically isolated Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. The antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase activity, efflux activity, bacterial motility, biofilm-forming ability, and gene expression were determined in S. Typhimurium ATCC 19585 and S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 when exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. S. Typhimurium CCARM 8009 was highly resistant to ampicillin, kanamycin, penicillin G, and streptomycin, showing minimum inhibitory concentration values of more than 512 μg/ml, while S...
May 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485087/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-on-antibiotic-usage-and-resistance-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#18
Z-G Zhang, F Chen, Y Ou
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial misuse has been commonly observed in China. This phenomenon can cause antibiotic resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme implemented in a tertiary hospital in China from 2011 to 2014. METHODS: The antimicrobial stewardship programme began in 2011. Data on the consumption of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance between 2011 and 2014 were collected. RESULTS: Comparison of the 2011 data with those of 2014 showed that antibiotic defined daily doses/per 100 patient-days decreased from 92...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484494/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-paratyphi-isolates-from-a-general-hospital-in-karawaci-tangerang-indonesia-a-five-year-review
#19
Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Cucunawangsih
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483960/in-vitro-resistance-selection-in-shigella-flexneri-by-azithromycin-ceftriaxone-ciprofloxacin-levofloxacin-and-moxifloxacin
#20
George P Allen, Kayla A Harris
Shigella flexneri continues to be a major cause of diarrhea-associated illness, and increasing resistance to first-line antimicrobials complicates the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen. We investigated the pharmacodynamics of current antimicrobial treatments for shigellosis to determine the likelihood of resistance promotion with continued global antimicrobial use. The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and mutant selection window (MSW) were determined for azithromycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin against a wild-type strain of S...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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