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Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Farouq Muhammad Dayyab, Garba Iliyasu, Aliyu Aminu, Zaiyad Garba Habib, Abdulwasiu Bolaji Tiamiyu, Sirajo Haliru Tambuwal, Muhammad Musa Borodo, Abdulrazaq Garba Habib
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the epidemiology, clinical outcomes and microbiological profile of HAIs. Methods: This prospective study was carried out on patients identified to have developed HAIs while admitted to the medical wards, surgical wards, dialysis unit and intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital. Patients were recruited consecutively until the target study population was reached...
March 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yuanhan Bai, Xi Yang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Haichen Yang
BACKGROUND: Ritualistic behaviors are common in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), while catatonic stupor occasionally occurs in psychotic or mood disorders. Schizoaffective disorder is a specific mental disorder involving both psychotic and affective symptoms. The syndrome usually represents a specific diagnosis, as in the case of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Nafisatu Bello, Abubakar Tukur Dawakin Kudu, Azeezat Bolanle Adetokun, Dalha Wada Taura, Yusuf Dan'asabe Jobbi, Mustapha Umar, Ibrahim Yusuf
Background and Objectives: Bacterial infection in sickle cell anaemic patients is a major cause of mortality and requires proper treatment with appropriate antibiotics. However, continue defiant of these infections causing pathogens to many antibiotics and inadequate screening methods in overburden health care facilities such as our in Kano, Nigeria necessitates the conduct of this study. A research was therefore conducted to isolate, characterize and test for antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteraemia-causing pathogens from febrile children with and without sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Aliakbar Rezaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mehdi Moghadampour, Mehrdad Halaji, Jamshid Faghri
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important bacterial species with the ability to produce OXA-type carbapenemases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of OXA-type carbapenemases among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in three major hospitals of Isfahan. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 153 non-repeated strains of A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Al-Zahra, Imam Mousa Kazem, and Shariati hospitals from October 2015 to October 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was performed using the disk diffusion method...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Omid Nekouei, Sylvia Checkley, Cheryl Waldner, Ben A Smith, Jesse Invik, Carolee Carson, Brent Avery, Javier Sanchez, Sheryl Gow
Emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in food-borne bacteria is a public health issue. Retail meat is considered an important carrier for antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Currently, resistance of E. coli strains to third generation cephalosporins are of particular concern, with significant potential animal and public health consequences. Resistance to tetracyclines is also a concern, due to high prevalence of this resistance and important co-resistance patterns. However, the actual likelihood of exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via the consumption of retail meats, beyond the simple frequencies of resistance found in samples of meat at the grocery store, in Canada remains to be investigated...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Paolo Ruzza, Rosa Maria Vitale, Rohanah Hussain, Alessia Montini, Claudia Honisch, Alice Pozzebon, Charlotte S Hughes, Barbara Biondi, Pietro Amodeo, GianPietro Sechi, Giuliano Siligardi
BACKGROUND: Lysozyme is a widely distributed enzyme present in a variety of tissue and body fluids. Human and hen egg white lysozyme are used as validated model to study protein folding and stability and to understand protein misfolding and aggregation. We recently found that ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic able to overcome the blood-brain barrier, successfully eliminated the cellular toxic effects of misfolded proteins as Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and α-synuclein. To further understand the anti-amyloidogenic properties of ceftriaxone, we studied its activity towards lysozyme aggregation with the aim to investigate a possible chaperone-like activity of this molecule...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jeannet C Bos, Jan M Prins, Mabor C Mistício, Ginto Nunguiane, Cláudia N Lang, José C Beirão, Ron A A Mathôt, Reinier M van Hest
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highly albumin-bound β-lactam ceftriaxone is frequently used for the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections. Systemic drug exposure of β-lactams can be altered in critically ill ICU patients, but pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data for non-ICU SSA populations are lacking. Methods: We performed a population pharmacokinetic study in an adult hospital population in Mozambique, treated with ceftriaxone for presumptive severe bacterial infection from October 2014 to November 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Cyrus Jahansouz, Christopher Staley, Scott Kizy, Hongliang Xu, Ann V Hertzel, Jessi Coryell, Stephanie Singroy, Matthew Hamilton, Meri DuRand, David A Bernlohr, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Sayeed Ikramuddin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether the perioperative composition of intestinal microbiota can contribute to variable outcomes following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, metabolic outcomes are variable. METHODS: Diet-induced obese mice were randomized to VSG or sham surgery, with or without exposure to antibiotics that selectively suppress mainly gram-positive (fidaxomicin, streptomycin) or gram-negative (ceftriaxone) bacteria on postoperative days (POD) 1-4...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Min-Suk Yang, Dong-Yoon Kang, Bomi Seo, Hye Jung Park, So-Young Park, Mi-Yeong Kim, Kyung Hee Park, So-My Koo, Young-Hee Nam, Sujeong Kim, Jae-Woo Jung, Tae-Bum Kim, Gwang Cheon Jang, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Young-Min Ahn, Jung-Won Park, Hye-Ryun Kang
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the incidence of anaphylaxis induced by individual or structurally similar cephalosporins. The aims of the study were to assess the incidence of cephalosporin-induced anaphylaxis and evaluate the clinical efficacy of screening skin tests. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we obtained information on total cephalosporin use and cephalosporin-induced anaphylaxis in intravenous cephalosporin recipients in 12 general hospitals between 2013 and 2015...
March 8, 2018: Allergy
Eugenia Bruzzese, Antonietta Giannattasio, Alfredo Guarino
Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for acute diarrhea in children, as rehydration is the key treatment and symptoms resolve generally without specific therapy. Searching for the etiology of gastroenteritis is not usually needed; however, it may be necessary if antimicrobial treatment is considered. The latter is left to the physician evaluation in the absence of clear indications. Antimicrobial treatment should be considered in severely sick children, in those who have chronic conditions or specific risk factors or in specific settings...
2018: F1000Research
Vikram Singh, Manju Bala, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Ravi Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Recent WHO guidelines recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone or cefixime plus azithromycin for gonorrhea. Azithromycin in combination with gentamicin or spectinomycin has been recommended in treatment failure cases. Due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, it is important to look for efficacy of these combinations and also of others that might be used in future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate in vitro synergy of 21 dual combinations including current and alternative WHO recommended treatment regimens and other dual combinations...
2018: PloS One
Ammad I Raina, Jawad Bilal, Qurat Ul Ain Riaz Sipra, Gajapathiraju Chamarthi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Narmada Fernando, Rajiva de Silva, Shiroma M Handunnetti, Lilani Karunanayake, Nipun Lakshitha De Silva, H Janaka de Silva, Senaka Rajapakse, Sunil Premawansa
The aim of this study was to assess the inflammatory cytokine response and possible association with antimicrobial treatment with penicillin, ceftriaxone and doxycycline in acute leptospirosis. In the early acute stage, IL-10 was higher in mild cases compared to severe cases (p=0.01). IL-6 and IL-8 levels were low in patients who received >5 antimicrobial doses (p<0.01). IL-8 was negatively correlated with number of ceftriaxone doses administered (r=-0.315; p=0.031). Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by ceftriaxone in leptospirosis...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Lara Thieme, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Anita Hartung, Claudia Stein, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz
Background: Enterococci frequently cause severe biofilm-associated infections such as endocarditis. The combination of ampicillin/ceftriaxone has recently been clinically evaluated as non-inferior compared with the standard therapy of ampicillin/gentamicin for treatment of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Objectives: To compare the in vitro effectiveness of the ceftaroline/ampicillin combination with those of gentamicin/ampicillin and ceftriaxone/ampicillin in planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical E...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mohamed Awad Mansour, Mohamed Omar Khalifa
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Transarterial chemoembolization remains a common treatment option in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. However, protocols for pre- and post-procedure care and the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been evaluated. The aim of this work was to compare 3 different groups of prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing chemoembolization and to compare the efficacy of intravenous versus oral route. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 180 hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization were selected...
March 1, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Ying-Qi Zhang, Shui-Lan Zou, Hua Zhao, Ming-Ming Zhang, Cai-Li Han
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate whether ceftriaxone combination therapy is associated with better clinical outcomes than respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy for adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies. METHODS: Using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, we performed a literature search of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published as original articles before September 2017...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Matthew N Simmons, Andrew D Neeb, Marta Johnson-Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To compare 3 prophylactic regimens to assess their impact on post-biopsy sepsis incidence. METHODS: Data was reviewed for 829 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy in a community practice setting between January 2013 and October 2017. Group 1 patients received ciprofloxacin 500mg PO BID for 4 days starting the day prior to biopsy and gentamicin 80mg IM 20 minutes prior to biopsy. From April 2015 to October 2017 two groups of patients were followed in parallel in a randomized manner...
February 27, 2018: Urology
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