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Sodium intake in hypertension

Feng J He, Norm R C Campbell, Yuan Ma, Graham A MacGregor, Mary E Cogswell, Nancy R Cook
Background: Several cohort studies with inaccurate estimates of sodium reported a J-shaped relationship with mortality. We compared various estimated sodium intakes with that measured by the gold-standard method of multiple non-consecutive 24-h urine collections and assessed their relationship with mortality. Methods: We analysed the Trials of Hypertension Prevention follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed in four ways: (i) average measured (gold standard): mean of three to seven 24-h urinary sodium measurements during the trial periods; (ii) average estimated: mean of three to seven estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretions from sodium concentration of 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula; (iii) first measured: 24-h urinary sodium measured at the beginning of each trial; (iv) first estimated: 24-h urinary sodium estimated from sodium concentration of the first 24-h urine using the Kawasaki formula...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ivana Blaženović, Young Taek Oh, Fan Li, Jian Ji, Ahn-Khoi Nguyen, Benjamin Wancewicz, Jeffrey M Bender, Oliver Fiehn, Jang H Youn
SCOPE: High-sodium and low-potassium (HNaLK) content in Western diets increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated if the dietary minerals interact with gut bacteria to modulate circulating levels of biogenic amines, which are implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension and CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a metabolomic approach to target biogenic amines, we examined the effects of gut-bacteria depletion and HNaLK intake on circulating levels of biogenic amines in rats...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Bianca van der Westhuizen, Aletta E Schutte, Lebo F Gafane-Matemane, Ruan Kruger
BACKGROUND: Due to the known contribution of excess sodium intake on elevations in blood pressure, salt reduction regulations are being introduced in countries all over the world. To study the contribution of sodium intake on cardiovascular disease development, we determined whether left ventricular mass associates with sodium excretion in young adults free from overt cardiovascular disease and those with masked hypertension. METHODS: We included 681 participants (41% men and 50% black) in a cross-sectional analysis from the African-PREDICT study with complete 24-hour urine collections and successful ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (>70% valid readings)...
November 24, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Magali Rios-Leyvraz, Clemens Bloetzer, Angeline Chatelan, Murielle Bochud, Michel Burnier, Valérie Santschi, Gilles Paradis, René Tabin, Pascal Bovet, Arnaud Chiolero
Little is known on the effect of sodium intake on BP of children with clinical conditions. Our objective was therefore to review systematically studies that have assessed the association between sodium intake and BP in children with various clinical conditions. A systematic search of several databases was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and unpublished studies. Experimental and observational studies assessing the association between sodium intake and BP and involving children or adolescents between 0 and 18 years of age with any clinical condition were included...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Milena Sia Perin, Marilia Estevam Cornélio, Henrique Ceretta Oliveira, Thais Moreira São-João, Caroline Rhéaume, Maria-Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani
OBJECTIVE: To assess salt intake and its dietary sources using biochemical and self-report methods and to characterize salt intake according to sociodemographic and disease-related variables in a sample of the Brazilian population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Salt intake was assessed by biochemical (24 h urinary Na excretion) and self-report methods (sodium FFQ, 24 h dietary recall, seasoned-salt questionnaire, discretionary-salt questionnaire and total reported salt intake)...
November 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
E D Pereira, R M Dantas, G M F Andrade-Franzé, L A De Luca, J V Menani, C A F Andrade
Excessive salt intake has been associated with the development or worsening of chronic diseases such as hypertension and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have a typical increased sodium preference. Estrogens reduce sodium appetite, but we do not know whether such effect relates to alterations in sodium palatability. Here we evaluated the influence of ovarian hormones on orofacial motor responses, an index of palatability, to intra-oral infusion of 0.3 M NaCl (IO-NaCl). Adult female SHR and normotensive Holtzman rats (HTZ) were used...
November 17, 2018: Appetite
Sanjay Basu, John S Yudkin, Seth A Berkowitz, Mohammed Jawad, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease and have become leading causes of morbidity and mortality among Palestinian refugees in the Middle East, many of whom live in long-term settlements and receive grain-based food aid. The objective of this study was to estimate changes in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality attributable to a transition from traditional food aid to either (i) a debit card restricted to food purchases, (ii) cash, or (iii) an alternative food parcel with less grain and more fruits and vegetables, each valued at $30/person/month...
November 2018: PLoS Medicine
Eleanor Yusupov, Bhuma Krishnamachari, Sarah Rand, Mirette Abdalla, Hallie Zwibel
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Hypertension control is an important public health goal; however, significant barriers remain in primary care practice. Our objective was to identify areas for improvement in hypertension care and implement changes in management to improve outcomes. We also aimed to evaluate whether quality improvement influences physician attitudes towards and adherence to current hypertension guidelines. METHOD: We conducted a non-experimental pre- vs post- design quality improvement study for ambulatory patients with a history of hypertension...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Jin Yi Choi, Eun Kyoung Yun, Eun Ja Yeun, Eun Sook Jeong
AIM: Hypertension is a common condition contributing to many diseases. Factors influencing blood pressure (BP) classification for adults have changed over time. This study aimed to identify factors influencing BP classification according to gender. METHODS: Data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014) were used in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Participants were 1555 adults (589 men, 966 women). Measures included demographic, health-related, and lifestyle factors...
November 18, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Tero Juho Wilhelm Pääkkö, Juha S Perkiömäki, Marja-Leena Silaste, Risto Bloigu, Heikki V Huikuri, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Olavi H Ukkola
BACKGROUND: The association between dietary salt intake and hypertension has been well documented. We evaluated the association between dietary sodium intake and the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) during a mean follow-up of 19 years among 716 subjects from the Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis (OPERA) cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dietary sodium intake was evaluated from a seven-day food record. The diagnosis of AF (atrial flutter included) was made if ICD-10 code I48 was listed in the hospital discharge records during follow-up...
November 15, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Marcelo Augusto Duarte Silveira, Antônio Carlos Seguro, Jukelson Barbosa da Silva, Marcia Fernanda Arantes de Oliveira, Victor Faria Seabra, Bernardo Vergara Reichert, Camila Eleutério Rodrigues, Lucia Andrade
BACKGROUND Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) is one of the most common congenital brain abnormalities, and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. In CCA, defects in osmoregulation have been reported. This report presents a rare case of chronic hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) in a woman with CCA. CASE REPORT A 41-year-old woman presented to the renal unit with symptomatic hyponatremia. In her past medical history, she had a four-year history of systemic arterial hypertension and Sjögren's syndrome, and a three-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which was treated with cyclophosphamide...
November 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Keke Wang, Chao Chu, Jiawen Hu, Yang Wang, Wenling Zheng, Yongbo Lv, Yu Yan, Qiong Ma, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Dietary sodium affects fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and vascular function. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a stress-induced cytokine that belongs to the interleukin 6 family, is released by cells in response to potentially harmful stresses and plays a pivotal role in congestive heart failure, hypertension and arterial stiffness. In this study, we performed a randomized trial to confirm the effects of altered salt intake on the serum CT-1 levels in humans. METHODS: Forty-four subjects (18-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community in northern China...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, Michal Pravenec, R Curtis Morris
High-salt intake is one of the major dietary determinants of increased blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Thus, there is scientific and medical interest in understanding the mechanistic abnormalities mediating the pressor effects of salt (salt sensitivity). According to historical theory, salt sensitivity stems from an impairment in renal function (referred to as "abnormal pressure natriuresis" or a "natriuretic handicap"), which causes salt-sensitive subjects to excrete a sodium load more slowly, and retain more of it than salt-resistant normotensive controls...
November 2, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Hoseok Koo, Subin Hwang, Tae Hee Kim, Sun Woo Kang, Kook-Hwan Oh, Curie Ahn, Yeong Hoon Kim
The Na/K ratio in urine stands for the dietary of sodium and potassium intake in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear for the renal progression. We aimed to determine the risk of progression of chronic kidney disease based on the Na/K ratio in a 24-hour urine collection.We determined the association between the progression of renal disease and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium (Na/K) ratios in 2238 patients over a 5-year timespan using data obtained from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD)...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Connie M Weaver, Regan L Bailey, Linda D McCabe, Alanna J Moshfegh, Donna G Rhodes, Joseph D Goldman, Andrea J Lobene, George P McCabe
Background: Hypertension contributes substantially to chronic disease and mortality. Mineral intakes can modify blood pressure. Objective: Individual minerals and their intake ratios in US adults and their association with blood pressure were examined. Methods: Regression models were used to examine the associations of sodium, potassium, and calcium intakes and their ratios from food and supplements with blood pressure in 8777 US adults without impaired renal function from the 2011-2014 NHANES...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yao Lu, Ruifang Chen, Jingjing Cai, Zhijun Huang, Hong Yuan
Introduction or background: Poorly-controlled hypertension in the first trimester significantly increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The majority of guidelines and clinical trials focus on the management and treatments for hypertension during pregnancy and breast-feeding, while limited evidence could be applied to the management for hypertension before pregnancy. In this review, we summarized the existing guidelines and treatments of pre-pregnancy treatment of hypertension...
October 29, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Tarun Saxena, Azeema Ozefa Ali, Manjari Saxena
Hypertension is caused by increased cardiac output and/or increased peripheral resistance. Areas covered: The various mechanisms affecting cardiac output/peripheral resistance involved in the development of essential hypertension are covered. These include genetics; sympathetic nervous system overactivity; renal mechanisms: excess sodium intake and pressure natriuresis; vascular mechanisms: endothelial cell dysfunction and the nitric oxide pathway; hormonal mechanisms: the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome; uric acid; vitamin D; gender differences; racial, ethnic, and environmental factors; increased left ventricular ejection force and hypertension and its association with increased basal sympathetic activity - cortical connections...
December 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Natale Musso, Lucia Conte, Beatrice Carloni, Claudia Campana, Maria C Chiusano, Massimo Giusti
A low-sodium diet is an essential part of the treatment of hypertension. However, some concerns have been raised with regard to the possible reduction of iodine intake during salt restriction. We obtained 24-h urine collections for the evaluation of iodine (UIE) and sodium excretion (UNaV) from 136 hypertensive patients, before and after 9 ± 1 weeks of a simple low-sodium diet. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), and drug consumption (DDD) were recorded. Data are average ± SEM. Age was 63.6 ± 1.09 year...
October 19, 2018: Nutrients
Te-Jung Lu, Chee-Hong Chan, Pin Ling, Yung-Mei Chao, Bo-Ying Bao, Chun-Yen Chiang, Te-Hsiu Lee, Yui-Ping Weng, Wei-Chih Kan, Te-Ling Lu
Defective renal salt and water excretion, together with increased salt intake, frequently contributes to hypertension. Recent studies indicate that Ste20 family kinases, such as proline-alanine-rich Ste20-related kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-response protein 1 (OSR1), are regulators of cell volume, ion transport, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mammalian sterile 20-like protein kinase 3 (MST3), which is also a stress-regulated kinase, is involved in the development of hypertension...
December 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Yulia N Grigorova, Wen Wei, Natalia Petrashevskaya, Valentina Zernetkina, Ondrej Juhasz, Rachel Fenner, Christian Gilbert, Edward G Lakatta, Joseph I Shapiro, Alexei Y Bagrov, Olga V Fedorova
High salt (HS) intake stimulates the production of marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous steroidal Na/K-ATPase ligand, which activates profibrotic signaling. HS is accompanied by a blood pressure (BP) increase in salt-sensitive hypertension, but not in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether HS stimulates MBG production and activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) profibrotic signaling in young normotensive rats, and whether these changes can be reversed by reducing salt to a normal salt (NS) level...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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