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Sodium intake in hypertension

Randall S Stafford
The recently released 2017 High Blood Pressure Guidelines depart from past guidelines in both their approach and recommendations. Developed by multiple health organizations, including the American College of Preventive Medicine, the guidelines continue to define normal blood pressure as <120/80 mmHg, but now define hypertension as ≥130/80 mmHg (previously ≥140/90 mmHg). This change categorizes 101 million Americans (46% of adults) as hypertensive (compared to 32% previously). The guidelines rely heavily on findings from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rachel M Harris, Angela M C Rose, Ian R Hambleton, Christina Howitt, Nita G Forouhi, Anselm J M Hennis, T Alafia Samuels, Nigel Unwin
BACKGROUND: High sodium diets with inadequate potassium and high sodium-to-potassium ratios are a known determinant of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Caribbean island of Barbados has a high prevalence of hypertension and mortality from CVD. Our objectives were to estimate sodium and potassium excretion, to compare estimated levels with recommended intakes and to identify the main food sources of sodium in Barbadian adults. METHODS: A sub-sample (n = 364; 25-64 years) was randomly selected from the representative population-based Health of the Nation cross-sectional study (n = 1234), in 2012-13...
August 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Daniela Alves, Zélia Santos, Miguel Amado, Isabel Craveiro, António Pedro Delgado, Artur Correia, Luzia Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Cape Verde presents a high rate of cardiovascular diseases. Low potassium and high sodium intakes are related to cardiovascular diseases. However, studies regarding these two micronutrients continue to be rare in African urban settings. This work aims to estimate potassium and sodium intakes and to analyse the self-reported salt intake by gender and by type of urban area in the city of Praia - the capital of Cape Verde. METHODS: In the first stage (n = 1912), an intra-urban study was designed in two types of urban areas (formal and informal), using a sampling strategy based on random selection of geographical coordinates, in order to apply a questionnaire...
August 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
L D'Elia, M Manfredi, P Strazzullo, F Galletti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate a short questionnaire on habitual dietary salt intake, to quickly and easily identify individuals whose salt consumption exceeds recommended levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1131 hypertensive subjects participating in the MINISAL-SIIA study were included in the analysis. Anthropometric indexes, blood pressure, and 24-h urinary sodium excretion (NaU) were measured. A fixed-sequence questionnaire on dietary salt intake was administered...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
Hypertension among patients on hemodialysis is common, difficult to diagnose and often inadequately controlled. Although specific blood pressure (BP) targets in this particular population are not yet established, meta-analyses of randomized trials showed that deliberate BP-lowering with antihypertensive drugs improves clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. BP-lowering in these individuals should initially utilize nonpharmacological strategies aiming to control sodium and volume overload. Accordingly, restricting dietary sodium intake, eliminating intradialytic sodium gain via individualized dialysate sodium prescription, optimally assessing and managing dry-weight and providing a sufficient duration of dialysis are first-line treatment considerations to control BP...
August 6, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
H L A Silva, C F Balthazar, R Silva, A H Vieira, R G B Costa, E A Esmerino, M Q Freitas, A G Cruz
Prato cheese, a typical ripened Brazilian cheese, contains high levels of sodium, and the excess intake of this micronutrient is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. A technological alternative to reduce the sodium content in foods is to replace NaCl with KCl and the addition of flavor enhancers. The present study aimed to combine quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) to assess the sensory profile of reduced-sodium probiotic prato cheese with the addition of flavor enhancers...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicolette G C Van Der Sande, Peter J Blankestijn, Frank L J Visseren, Martine M Beeftink, Michiel Voskuil, Jan Westerink, Michiel L Bots, Wilko Spiering
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of potential modifiable factors of difficult-to-control hypertension would enable clinicians to target-specific amendable causes. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of underlying medical conditions, lifestyle factors, and concomitant medication use in an integrated diagnostic evaluation in patients with difficult-to-control hypertension, referred to a tertiary center. METHODS: The study population consisted of 653 patients referred between 2006 and 2016 for difficult-to-control hypertension to the University Medical Center Utrecht...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Germain Perrin, Sarah Berdot, Frédérique Thomas, Bruno Pannier, Nicolas Danchin, Pierre Durieux, Brigitte Sabatier
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between high dietary sodium intake and hypertension is well established. Some drugs are associated with high-sodium content, particularly effervescent tablets (ETs). Despite a possible cardiovascular risk associated with the use of such drugs, observational data describing exposure to ETs in ambulatory subjects are lacking.This study aims to estimate the prevalence of exposure to ETs and to highlight factors associated with this exposure in a large French health check-up population...
July 30, 2018: BMJ Open
Yoshimi Kubota, Aya Higashiyama, Daisuke Sugiyama, Yoko Nishida, Sachimi Kubo, Takumi Hirata, Aya Kadota, Naomi Miyamatsu, Ichiro Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Tomonori Okamura
Excessive salt intake is an established risk factor for hypertension. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the association between salty taste recognition and estimated salt intake and masked hypertension in a healthy Japanese normotensive population. The participants were 892 apparently healthy community residents (246 men and 646 women) aged between 40 and 74 years with blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. Salty taste recognition was assessed using a salt-impregnated taste strip. Daily salt intake was calculated as estimated 24 h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine tests...
July 27, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
M Stepien, M Kujawska-Luczak, M Szulinska, M Kregielska-Narozna, D Skrypnik, J Suliburska, K Skrypnik, J Regula, P Bogdanski
Green tea extract exerts favorable influence on the lipid profile and insulin resistance in the high-sodium intake arterial hypertension. A high-sodium diet (HSD) was introduced to thirty Wistar rats to create a model of hypertension. Rats were randomized into three groups, 10 animals each. The SK group consumed HSD. The SH2 group consumed HSD with 2 g of green tea extract in kg of diet. The SH4 group was fed HSD with 4 g of green tea extract in kg of diet. After six-week trial blood samples were collected...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Jessica R Ivy, Louise C Evans, Rebecca Moorhouse, Rachel V Richardson, Emad A S Al-Dujaili, Peter W Flatman, Christopher J Kenyon, Karen E Chapman, Matthew A Bailey
Salt-sensitive hypertension is common in glucocorticoid excess. Glucocorticoid resistance also presents with hypercortisolemia and hypertension but the relationship between salt intake and blood pressure (BP) is not well defined. GRβgeo/+ mice have global glucocorticoid receptor (GR) haploinsufficiency and increased BP. Here we examined the effect of high salt diet on BP, salt excretion and renal blood flow in GRβgeo/+ mice. Basal BP was ∼10 mmHg higher in male GRβgeo/+ mice than in GR+/+ littermates. This modest increase was amplified by ∼10 mmHg following a high-salt diet in GRβgeo/+ mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Natale Musso, Beatrice Carloni, Maria C Chiusano, Massimo Giusti
Sodium intake should be restricted to 100 mEq, that is, about 2.3 grams per day. Strict diets, however, are often cumbersome and seldom matched by rigorous compliance. We studied 291 patients on antihypertensive treatment, 240 of whom were instructed to avoid salty foods, such as cheese and cured meats, and to switch from regular bread to salt-free bread. The remaining 51 matched patients constituted a control group and received only generic dietary advice. Na[U]/24h, K[U]/24h, and office BP (automated repeated measurements) were recorded before dieting started and after 9 ± 1 weeks of dieting...
June 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Raquel Carvalho Castiglione, Carlos M M R Barros, Beatriz C S Boa, Maria das Graças C De Souza, Eliete Bouskela
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fructose intake is directly related to vascular dysfunction and it is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Selenium, a component of antioxidant enzymes, improves hyperglycemia and vascular function in diabetic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on microcirculatory and metabolic parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) had their drinking water substituted or not by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, during which their microcirculatory function was evaluated in the cheek pouch preparation...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Josephine E Prynn, Louis Banda, Alemayehu Amberbir, Alison J Price, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Shabbar Jaffar, Amelia C Crampin, Liam Smeeth, Moffat Nyirenda
Background: High dietary sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Data on population sodium intake are scanty in sub-Saharan Africa, despite a high hypertension prevalence in most countries. Objective: We aimed to determine daily sodium intake in urban and rural communities in Malawi. Design: In an observational cross-sectional survey, data were collected on estimated household-level per capita sodium intake, based on how long participants reported that a defined quantity of plain salt lasts in a household...
June 30, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Katherine A John, Mary E Cogswell, Lixia Zhao, Xin Tong, Erika C Odom, Carma Ayala, Robert Merritt
PURPOSE: To describe changes in consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to sodium reduction from 2012 to 2015. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis using 2 online, national research panel surveys. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 7796 adults (18+ years). MEASURES: Sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. ANALYSIS: Data were weighted to match the US population survey proportions using 9 factors...
July 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Magali Leyvraz, Angeline Chatelan, Bruno R da Costa, Patrick Taffé, Gilles Paradis, Pascal Bovet, Murielle Bochud, Arnaud Chiolero
Background: High sodium intake is a cause of elevated blood pressure in adults. In children and adolescents, less evidence is available and findings are equivocal. We systematically reviewed the evidence from experimental and observational studies on the association between sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic search of the Medline, Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases up to March 2017 was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and unpublished studies...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satoshi Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: Associations between the overall quality of Japanese diets and metabolic risk factors are largely unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated this issue using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day weighed dietary record in 15,618 Japanese adults aged ≥ 20 years. Overall diet quality was assessed by adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG score), its modified version (modified JFG score), the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score...
June 27, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Carmen Campino, Rene Baudrand, Carolina Valdivia, Cristian Carvajal, Andrea Vecchiola, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Hernán Garcia, Lorena García, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Cristóbal Fuentes, Calos F Lagos, Maria Paulina Rojas, Doris Muñoz, Carlos Fardella
Background: Mounting evidence has associated high sodium intake with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We investigated whether high sodium intake modulates the parameters of endothelial damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design including 223 Chilean subjects (6.9-65.0 years old). We measured aldosterone, renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, adiponectin, leptin, hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, PAI-1, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Eun Ho Choo, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Seung-Won Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sungha Park, Hae Young Lee, Sang-Hyun Ihm
BACKGROUND: Plasma renin activity is involved in the regulation of body salt content and blood pressure. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the association between low or high plasma renin activity and the development of hypertension. METHOD: We investigated the relation of baseline plasma renin activity to increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension after four years in 2,146 non-hypertensive individuals from a community-based Korean population (mean age, 50 years), 58% of whom were women...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Saeideh Tabibian, Elnaz Daneshzad, Nick Bellissimo, Neil R Brett, Ahmad R Dorosty-Motlagh, Leila Azadbakht
AIM: To investigate the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with food security and weight status in adult women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 227 women-20-50 years of age-who were referred from 10 health centres. Dietary intakes were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. The DASH score was calculated using the Fung method based on eight food and nutrient components (high intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, low-fat dairy, low intakes of red and processed meats, sweetened beverages and sodium)...
June 10, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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