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Sodium intake in hypertension

Te-Jung Lu, Chee-Hong Chan, Pin Ling, Yung-Mei Chao, Bo-Ying Bao, Chun-Yen Chiang, Te-Hsiu Lee, Yui-Ping Weng, Wei-Chih Kan, Te-Ling Lu
Defective renal salt and water excretion, together with increased salt intake, frequently contributes to hypertension. Recent studies indicate that Ste20 family kinases, such as proline-alanine-rich Ste20-related kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-response protein 1 (OSR1), are regulators of cell volume, ion transport, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mammalian sterile 20-like protein kinase 3 (MST3), which is also a stress-regulated kinase, is involved in the development of hypertension...
October 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Yulia N Grigorova, Wen Wei, Natalia Petrashevskaya, Valentina Zernetkina, Ondrej Juhasz, Rachel Fenner, Christian Gilbert, Edward G Lakatta, Joseph I Shapiro, Alexei Y Bagrov, Olga V Fedorova
High salt (HS) intake stimulates the production of marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous steroidal Na/K-ATPase ligand, which activates profibrotic signaling. HS is accompanied by a blood pressure (BP) increase in salt-sensitive hypertension, but not in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether HS stimulates MBG production and activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) profibrotic signaling in young normotensive rats, and whether these changes can be reversed by reducing salt to a normal salt (NS) level...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martin Christa, Andreas M Weng, Bettina Geier, Caroline Wörmann, Anne Scheffler, Leane Lehmann, Johannes Oberberger, Bettina J Kraus, Stefanie Hahner, Stefan Störk, Thorsten Klink, Wolfgang R Bauer, Fabian Hammer, Herbert Köstler
Aims: Sodium intake has been linked to left ventricular hypertrophy independently of blood pressure, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA), a condition characterized by tissue sodium overload due to aldosterone excess, causes accelerated left ventricular hypertrophy compared to blood pressure matched patients with essential hypertension. We therefore hypothesized that the myocardium constitutes a novel site capable of sodium storage explaining the missing link between sodium and left ventricular hypertrophy...
October 10, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Lara Hessels, Annemieke Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Miriam Zeillemaker-Hoekstra, Maarten W Nijsten
BACKGROUND: Nonosmotic sodium storage has been reported in animals, healthy individuals and patients with hypertension, hyperaldosteronism and end-stage kidney disease. Sodium storage has not been studied in ICU patients, who frequently receive large amounts of sodium chloride-containing fluids. The objective of our study was to estimate sodium that cannot be accounted for by balance studies in critically ill patients. Chloride was also studied. We used multiple scenarios and assumptions for estimating sodium and chloride balances...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Qi Qian
Our knowledge on sodium and water homeostasis and regulation continues to evolve. A considerable amount of new information in this area has emerged in recent years. This review summarizes existing and new literature and discusses complex multi-organ effects of high-salt and low-water intake and role of arginine vasopressin in this process, as well as the potential clinical significance of non-osmotic sodium storage pool and rhythmicity of urine sodium excretion. It has become clear that sodium and water dysregulation can exert profound effects on kidney and vascular health, far greater than previously recognized...
October 2018: Nephrology
Dimitrie Siriopol, Adrian Covic, Radu Iliescu, Mehmet Kanbay, Oana Tautu, Luminita Radulescu, Ovidiu Mitu, Delia Salaru, Maria Dorobantu
Accumulating evidence indicates that higher levels of salt intake are associated with higher blood pressure levels. The aim of our analysis was to test the hypothesis that the effect of urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) is mediated through estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and arterial stiffness and also to test the direction of the relationship between eGFR and arterial stiffness, in both hypertensive and normotensive patients. We assessed the potential for connection between UNaV and SBP and mediators (eGFR and pulse wave velocity [PWV]) of this relationship using structural equation models of data from 1599 adults ≥18 years of age and without chronic kidney disease who participated in the Third Epidemiologic Study concerning the Prevalence of Arterial Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Romania (SEPHAR III)...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Carmen Campino, Rene Baudrand, Carlos E Fardella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
George Howard, Mary Cushman, Claudia S Moy, Suzanne Oparil, Paul Muntner, Daniel T Lackland, Jennifer J Manly, Matthew L Flaherty, Suzanne E Judd, Virginia G Wadley, D Leann Long, Virginia J Howard
Importance: The high prevalence of hypertension among the US black population is a major contributor to disparities in life expectancy; however, the causes for higher incidence of hypertension among black adults are unknown. Objective: To evaluate potential factors associated with higher risk of incident hypertension among black adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of black and white adults selected from a longitudinal cohort study of 30 239 participants as not having hypertension at baseline (2003-2007) and participating in a follow-up visit 9...
October 2, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Lei Lei, Ji-Guang Wang
The aim of the present review is to summarize recent studies on the relationship between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid concentration. In short-term dietary sodium intervention studies, including a recent further analysis of a previously published trial, high dietary sodium intake (200 mmol/day), compared with a low sodium diet (20-60 mmol/day), resulted in a significant reduction in serum uric acid, being approximately 20-60 μmol/L. This finding, though consistent across short-term studies, is in contradiction to the long-term observational evidence on the relationship between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid...
July 2018: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Pierre Cochat, Olivia Febvey, Justine Bacchetta, Etienne Bérard, Natalia Cabrera, Laurence Dubourg
Around 1/1000 people have a solitary kidney. Congenital conditions mainly include multicystic dysplastic kidney and unilateral renal aplasia/agenesis; acquired conditions are secondary to nephrectomy performed because of urologic structural abnormalities, severe parenchymal infection, renal trauma, and renal or pararenal tumors. Children born with congenital solitary kidney have a better long-term glomerular filtration rate than those with solitary kidney secondary to nephrectomy later in life. Acute and chronic adaptation processes lead to hyperfiltration followed by fibrosis in the remnant kidney, with further risk of albuminuria, arterial hypertension, and impaired renal function...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Kazushi Tsuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Nicholas I Cole, Rebecca J Suckling, Pauline A Swift, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor, William Hinton, Jeremy van Vlymen, Nicholas Hayward, Simon Jones, Simon de Lusignan
The mechanisms underlying the adverse cardiovascular effects of increased salt intake are incompletely understood, but parallel increases in serum sodium concentration may be of importance. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between serum sodium, hypertension and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Routinely collected primary care data from the Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre were analysed. A total of 231,545 individuals with a measurement of serum sodium concentration at baseline were included...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Akira Narita, Hideki Ohmomo, Yoichi Sutoh, Shohei Komaki, Kozo Tanno, Mamoru Satoh, Kiyomi Sakata, Jiro Hitomi, Motoyuki Nakamura, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Masayuki Yamamoto, Makoto Sasaki, Atsushi Hozawa, Atsushi Shimizu
Excessive sodium intake is a global risk factor for hypertension. Sodium effects on blood pressure vary from person to person; hence, high-risk group targeting based on personal genetic information can play a complementary role to ongoing population preventive approaches to reduce sodium consumption. To identify genetic factors that modulate sodium effects on blood pressure, we conducted a population-based genome-wide interaction analysis in 8,768 Japanese subjects, which was >3 times larger than a similar previous study...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Makoto Yamashita, Yasuharu Tabara, Yukiko Higo, Kazuya Setoh, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Shinji Kosugi, Takeo Nakayama, Fumihiko Matsuda, Tomoko Wakamura
High sodium intake is a simple modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Although not confirmed, lower socioeconomic status may be a factor that increases sodium intake. We aimed to clarify the association between socioeconomic status and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio by cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. The study included 9410 community residents. Spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratios were measured twice with a 5-year interval. Socioeconomic status was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 14, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Siti Hawa Nordin, Yusof Kamisah, Suhaila Mohamed, Kamsiah Jaarin
The prolonged intake of diet containing repeatedly heated vegetable oil can cause hypertension in the long run. In this study, the effects of citrus leaf extract (CLE) supplementation on vascular reactivity, plasma nitrite, and aortic structure in repeatedly-heated vegetable oil-induced hypertension rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 56) were divided into seven groups corresponding to the respective diets. For 16 weeks, one group was given standard rat chow (control) while other groups were given diets containing 15% w/w of palm oil, fresh palm oil (FPO), five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO) and ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO), with or without 0...
September 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Viknesh Selvarajah, Kathleen Connolly, Carmel McEniery, Ian Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary sodium is an important trigger for hypertension and humans show a heterogeneous blood pressure response to salt intake. The precise mechanisms for this have not been fully explained although renal sodium handling has traditionally been considered to play a central role. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies have shown that dietary salt loading results in non-osmotic sodium accumulation via glycosaminoglycans and lymphangiogenesis in skin mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-C, both processes attenuating the rise in BP...
September 13, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Miyuki Yokoro, Miki Minami, Sumire Okada, Megumu Yano, Naoto Otaki, Hiroki Ikeda, Keisuke Fukuo
Obesity modifies the association between sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure. However, the impact of obesity on the relationship between the sodium-potassium balance and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between the 24-h urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) level, which is a cardiovascular risk factor, in Japanese T2D patients with or without obesity. This cross-sectional study included 243 patients with T2DM who were hospitalized for diabetes education...
September 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Natalie J Mills, Kaustubh Sharma, Masudul Haque, Meagan Moore, Ryoichi Teruyama
Current evidence suggests that the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the brain plays a significant role in the development of hypertension. ENaC is present in vasopressin (VP) neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting that ENaC in VP neurons is involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Our recent study demonstrated that high dietary salt intake caused an increase in the expression and activity of ENaC that were responsible for the more depolarized basal membrane potential in VP neurons. A known regulator of ENaC expression, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), is present in VP neurons, suggesting that ENaC expression in VP neurons is regulated by aldosterone...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Lovely Gupta, Deepak Khandelwal, Deep Dutta, Sanjay Kalra, Priti R Lal, Yashdeep Gupta
India has the dubious distinction of being a hotspot for both diabetes and hypertension. Increased salt and sugar consumption is believed to fuel these two epidemics. This review is an in-depth analysis of current medical literature on salt and sugar being the two white troublemakers of modern society. The PubMed, Medline, and Embase search for articles published in January 2018, using the terms "salt" [MeSH Terms] OR "sodium chloride" [All Fields] OR "sugar" [All Fields]. India is world's highest consumer of sugar with one of the highest salt consumption per day...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Li Chen, Feng J He, Yanbin Dong, Ying Huang, Gregory A Harshfield, Haidong Zhu
Sodium reduction decreases blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that reduction of sodium intake would change miRNA expression in hypertensive patients, and those changes would be associated with improved cardiovascular phenotypes. A whole genome RNA sequencing was performed in paired serum samples collected at the end of usual sodium intake and reduced sodium intake periods from 10 (age 56.8 ± 8...
August 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
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