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Contextual factor

Wenting Xu, Zhaoyan Gu, Lingzhi Zhang, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu, Dahai Yang
Edwardsiella piscicida is an important pathogenic bacterium that causes hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. This bacterium could activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via type III secretion system (T3SS), and inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector during infection in macrophages. However, the roles of other virulence factors in regulating inflammasome activation during E. piscicida infection remain poorly understood. In this study, we focused on clarification the role of ETAE_RS10155, a thioredoxin-like protein (Trxlp), during bacterial infection in macrophages...
August 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ryo Inagaki, Shigeki Moriguchi, Kohji Fukunaga
Anxiety disorder is a major psychiatric disorder characterized by fear, worry, and excessive rumination. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neural plasticity and anxiety remain unclear. Here, we utilized a mouse model of anxiety-like behaviors induced by the chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to determine the exact mechanism of each region of the fear circuits in the anxiety disorders. Chronic CORT treated mice showed significant increase in anxiety-related behaviors as assessed by the elevated plus maze, light-dark, open-field, and marble-burying tasks...
August 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Marina F Souza, Marco A M Freire, Katty A A L Medeiros, Lívia C R F Lins, José M M Bispo, Auderlan M Gois, Pollyana C Leal, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva, Murilo Marchioro, José R Santos
Pesticide exposure is a risk factor to Parkinson's disease (PD) development. One of these pesticides, Deltamethrin (DM), has been widely used for vector control in crops, farming, veterinary medicine and domestic pest control. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the motor, cognitive and neurochemical changes caused by repeated administration of DM in rats. Male Wistar rats received 3 intranasal (i.n.) injections of 100 μL (50 μL/nostril) of DM 0.5 μg/μl or Vehicle (saline solution 0...
August 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Susan T Ennett, Robert W Faris, Andrea M Hussong, Nisha Gottfredson, Veronica Cole
Although the contributions of friend selection and friend influence to adolescent homophily on substance use behaviors has been of enduring research interest, moderators of these processes have received relatively little research attention. Identification of factors that dampen or amplify selection and influence on substance use behaviors is important for informing prevention efforts. Whereas prior research has examined adolescent drinking, smoking, and marijuana use, the current study examined whether friend selection and friend influence operated on substance use involvement, an indicator of problematic use, and whether depressive symptomology moderated these processes...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
C Mary Schooling, Heidi E Jones
Background: In biomedical research much effort is thought to be wasted. Recommendations for improvement have largely focused on processes and procedures. Here, we additionally suggest less ambiguity concerning the questions addressed. Methods: We clarify the distinction between two conflated concepts, prediction and explanation, both encompassed by the term "risk factor", and give methods and presentation appropriate for each. Results: Risk prediction studies use statistical techniques to generate contextually specific data-driven models requiring a representative sample that identify people at risk of health conditions efficiently (target populations for interventions)...
2018: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
Hanna Koch, Alexandra Dürwald, Thomas Schweder, Beatriz Noriega-Ortega, Silvia Vidal-Melgosa, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Thorsten Dittmar, Heike M Freese, Dörte Becher, Meinhard Simon, Matthias Wietz
Algal polysaccharides are an important bacterial nutrient source and central component of marine food webs. However, cellular and ecological aspects concerning the bacterial degradation of polysaccharide mixtures, as presumably abundant in natural habitats, are poorly understood. Here, we contextualize marine polysaccharide mixtures and their bacterial utilization in several ways using the model bacterium Alteromonas macleodii 83-1, which can degrade multiple algal polysaccharides and contributes to polysaccharide degradation in the oceans...
August 16, 2018: ISME Journal
Mohsen Malekinejad, Hacsi Horvath, Harry Snyder, Claire D Brindis
BACKGROUND: There is often a discordance between health research evidence and public health policies implemented by the United States federal government. In the process of developing health policy, discordance can arise through subjective and objective factors that are unrelated to the value of the evidence itself, and can inhibit the use of research evidence. We explore two common types of discordance through four illustrative examples and then propose a potential means of addressing discordance...
August 16, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Aniek Woodward, Euphemia Gooding Lake, Natarajan Rajaraman, Andrew Leather
BACKGROUND: Sierra Leone is pursuing multiple initiatives to establish in-country postgraduate medical education (PGME), as part of national efforts to strengthen the health workforce. This paper explored the career preferences of junior doctors in Sierra Leone; and the potential benefits and challenges with regards to the development of PGME locally. METHODS: Junior doctors (n = 15) who had graduated from the only medical school in Sierra Leone were purposively sampled based on maximum variation (e...
August 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Fernanda Bartolomeo Freire-Maia, Sheyla Márcia Auad, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu, Fernanda Sardenberg, Milene Torres Martins, Saul Martins Paiva, Isabela Almeida Pordeus, Miriam Pimenta Vale
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and discriminate the associated factors between enamel fractures and other trauma/trauma sequelae in 8 to 10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. A representative sample of 1,201 children from public and private schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics were answered by parents. The outcome variable (traumatic dental injury, TDI) was multi-categorized. Independent individual variables were sex, age, number of residents in household, parents/caregivers' level of education, family income, dental caries, and overjet...
August 13, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Thekla Brunkert, Wilhelm Ruppen, Michael Simon, Franziska Zúñiga
AIM: To present a protocol for evaluating an implementation intervention to improve pain management in nursing homes by addressing behavior change of the care workers. BACKGROUND: Pain management in nursing homes often is inadequate despite the availability of evidence-based pain management guidelines. Barriers to pain management in nursing homes occur on several levels including lack of knowledge and negative beliefs towards pain of care workers. A comprehensive approach incorporating contextual and behavioral factors is needed to sustainably improve pain management practice...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Anis Fuad, Chien-Yeh Hsu
Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is an integrative concept that has been used widely to measure IT adoption. However, a recent study in a developing country concluded that UTAUT is not adequate in predicting IT adoption within the context of health system strengthening (HSS). It has been suggested that context-specific dimensions to modify UTAUT should be considered. The objective of this paper is to propose an extension of the theory, called UTAUT for HSS, as a reference for contextualizing health system variables for health IT adoption studies in the developing countries...
2018: F1000Research
Eric Macnaughton, Geoffrey Nelson, S Kathleen Worton, Sam Tsemberis, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Tim Aubry, Julian Hasford, Jino Distasio, Paula Goering
The scaling out of Housing First (HF) programs was examined in six Canadian communities, in which a multi-component HF training and technical assistance (TTA) was provided. Three research questions were addressed: (a) What were the outcomes of the TTA in terms of the development of new, sustained, or enhanced programs, and fidelity to the HF model? (b) How did the TTA contribute to implementation and fidelity? and (c) What contextual factors facilitated or challenged implementation and fidelity? A total of 14 new HF programs were created, and nine HF programs were sustained or enhanced...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
M Cauchoix, P K Y Chow, J O van Horik, C M Atance, E J Barbeau, G Barragan-Jason, P Bize, A Boussard, S D Buechel, A Cabirol, L Cauchard, N Claidière, S Dalesman, J M Devaud, M Didic, B Doligez, J Fagot, C Fichtel, J Henke-von der Malsburg, E Hermer, L Huber, F Huebner, P M Kappeler, S Klein, J Langbein, E J G Langley, S E G Lea, M Lihoreau, H Lovlie, L D Matzel, S Nakagawa, C Nawroth, S Oesterwind, B Sauce, E A Smith, E Sorato, S Tebbich, L J Wallis, M A Whiteside, A Wilkinson, A S Chaine, J Morand-Ferron
Behavioural and cognitive processes play important roles in mediating an individual's interactions with its environment. Yet, while there is a vast literature on repeatable individual differences in behaviour, relatively little is known about the repeatability of cognitive performance. To further our understanding of the evolution of cognition, we gathered 44 studies on individual performance of 25 species across six animal classes and used meta-analysis to assess whether cognitive performance is repeatable...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Thurayya Arayssi, Manale Harfouche, Andrea Darzi, Samar Al Emadi, Khaled A Alnaqbi, Humeira Badsha, Farida Al Balushi, Carole Dib, Bassel Elzorkany, Hussein Halabi, Mohammed Hammoudeh, Wissam Hazer, Basel Masri, Mira Merashli, Mohammed Omair, Nelly Salloum, Imad Uthman, Sumeja Zahirovic, Nelly Ziade, Raveendhara R Bannuru, Timothy McAlindon, Mohamed A Nomier, Jasvinder A Singh, Robin Christensen, Peter Tugwell, Holger Schünemann, Elie A Akl
Clinical practice guidelines can assist rheumatologists in the proper prescription of newer treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this paper is to report on the recommendations for the management of patients with RA in the Eastern Mediterranean region. We adapted the 2015 American College of Rheumatology guidelines in two separate waves. We used the adolopment methodology, and followed the 18 steps of the "Guidelines 2.0" comprehensive checklist for guideline development. For each question, we updated the original guidelines' evidence synthesis, and we developed an Evidence Profile (EP) and an Evidence to Decision (EtD) table...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Jennifer L Sullivan, Marlena H Shin, Ryann L Engle, Enzo Yaksic, Carol VanDeusen Lukas, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Leigh M Starr, Joseph D Restuccia, Sally K Holmes, Amy K Rosen
BACKGROUND: Improving the process of hospital discharge is a critical priority. Interventions to improve care transitions have been shown to reduce the rate of early unplanned readmissions, and consequently, there is growing interest in improving transitions of care between hospital and home through appropriate interventions. Project Re-Engineered Discharge (RED) has shown promise in strengthening the discharge process. Although studies have analyzed the implementation of RED among private-sector hospitals, little is known about how hospitals in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) have implemented RED...
August 7, 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Asmamaw Malede, Kassahun Alemu, Mulugeta Aemero, Sirak Robele, Helmut Kloos
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria has declined in the last decade; only a small number of cases have been reported, primarily from hotspots. The contribution of house proximity to water bodies and the role of migration in malaria transmission has not yet been examined in detail in northwest Ethiopia. Individual and household-level environmental and socio-demographic drivers of malaria heterogeneity were explored contextually in meso-endemic villages around Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia...
August 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Noora Berg, Olli Kiviruusu, Christopher G Bean, Taina Huurre, Tomi Lintonen, Anne Hammarström
BACKGROUND: Applying the Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) model of the bioecological theory, this study considers whether proximal processes between the individual and the microsystem (social relationships within family, peer group and school) during adolescence are associated with heavy episodic drinking (HED), from youth to midlife, and whether the macro level context (country) plays a role in these associations. METHODS: Participants of two prospective cohort studies from Finland and Sweden, recruited in 1983/1981 at age 16 (n = 2194/1080), were followed-up until their forties using postal questionnaires...
August 10, 2018: BMC Public Health
Samantha G Farris, Angelo M DiBello, Michael J Zvolensky
INTRODUCTION: Distress intolerance, an individual's perceived or actual inability to withstand negative emotional or physical distress, contributes to the maintenance of smoking. However, there is limited understanding of the contextual factors that impact distress intolerance in general or among smokers specifically. This study aimed to adapt and test a computerized behavioral persistence task that requires re-typing a passage while adhering to specific instructions (Contextual-Frustration Intolerance Typing Task [C-FiTT])...
July 29, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Peter Vavra, Luke J Chang, Alan G Sanfey
Being treated fairly by others is an important need in everyday life. Experimentally, fairness can be studied using the Ultimatum Game, where the decision to reject a low, but non-zero offer is seen as a way to punish the other player for an unacceptable offer. The canonical explanation of such behavior is inequity aversion: people prefer equal outcomes over personal gains. However, there is abundant evidence that people's decision to reject a low offer can be changed by contextual factors and their emotional state, which cannot be explained by the inequity aversion model...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi
BACKGROUND: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identifies the maldistribution of power, money, and resources as main drivers of health inequities. The CSDH further observes that tackling these drivers effectively requires interventions to focus at local, national, and global levels. Consistent with the CSDH's observation, this paper describes the eco-psychopolitical validity (EPV) paradigm, a multilevel and transdisciplinary model for research and action, thus far insufficiently tapped, but with the potential to systematize the exploration of the social determinants of health...
August 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
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