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Contextual factor

Jacky Boivin, Laura Buntin, Natasha Kalebic, China Harrison
This study investigated fertility decision-making in people currently trying to conceive, and examined whether factors that make people ready to conceive differ by gender and country. The study used data from the International Fertility Decision-Making Study, a cross-sectional study of 10,045 participants (1690 men and 8355 women) from 79 countries. Respondents were aged 18-50 years (mean 31.8 years), partnered and had been trying to conceive for > 6 months (mean 2.8 years). Respondents indicated their need for parenthood; their own/partner's desire for a child; and the influence of certain preconditions, motivational forces and subjective norms in relation to readiness to conceive...
August 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
G Moore, S Redman, P Butow, A Haynes
BACKGROUND: Knowledge brokers are increasingly used by policy agencies, yet little is known about how they engage with policy-makers and facilitate discussions with them about their research needs. This study examines knowledge brokers' behaviour in one-off interactions with policy-makers commissioning rapid reviews. It describes how knowledge brokers engage with policy-makers, build trust and gain agreement about the review's parameters. METHODS: We observed and transcribed 15 structured knowledge brokering sessions and used line-by-line analysis to derive, test and refine a coding schedule...
December 12, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Carina R Fernee, Terje Mesel, Anders J W Andersen, Leiv E Gabrielsen
Wilderness therapy has the potential to meet the specific needs of the current adolescent population by providing a rather unique outdoor group treatment. Wilderness therapy is not a new approach to mental health treatment, but its theoretical basis is not yet clearly delineated, in part because of the diversity found across programs and contexts. This article presents a critical realist exploration of a wilderness therapy program that was recently implemented as part of adolescent mental health services in Southern Norway...
December 12, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Usha Menon, Kimlin Ashing, Mei Wei Chang, Shannon M Christy, Katarina Friberg-Felsted, Virginia Gil Rivas, Clement K Gwede, Qian Lu, Cathy D Meade, Jamila Sly, Monica Wang, Betina Yanez, Karen Yeary, Jean C Yi, Kassandra I Alcaraz
BACKGROUND: An emphasis on precision health (PH) has stimulated precision medicine studies to focus on the interplay of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors with disease risks, treatments, prognoses, and outcomes affecting health disparities. It is imperative, as well, that improving health equity among underserved populations remains central to the efforts and aims of PH. OBJECTIVES: Apply the transdisciplinary ConNECT Framework: A model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity to PH by integrating a population health agenda for reducing health disparities...
December 12, 2018: Nursing Research
Yulong Zhao, Elisabeth Y Bijlsma, Freija Ter Heegde, Monika P Verdouw, J Garssen, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Lucianne Groenink
RATIONALE: Fear conditioning is an important factor in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors in fear conditioning. However, the relative contribution of somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors and post-synaptic 5-HT1A heteroreceptors in fear conditioning is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the acquisition and expression of cued and contextual conditioned fear...
December 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Amirhossein Ahmadi, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood, Keywan Mortezaee
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a multitasking cytokine such that its aberrant expression is related to cancer progression and metastasis. TGF-β is produced by a variety of cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME), and it is responsible for regulation of the activity of cells within this milieu. TGF-β is a main inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), immune evasion, and metastasis during cancer progression. TGF-β exerts most of its functions by acting on TβRI and TβRII receptors in canonical (Smad-dependent) or noncanonical (Smad-independent) pathways...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Muzi Chen, Martha A Rueter, Kayla N Anderson, Jennifer J Connor
Parents who experienced infertility have increasingly used medically assisted reproduction (MAR) to add children to their families over the past few decades. These parents will need to decide if they will tell their children about being conceived using MAR. Although MAR information sharing operates within family contexts, little is known about the role of conversation orientation-one family contextual factor-in child outcomes associated with MAR information sharing in middle childhood. Derived from the Family Communication Patterns Theory, this study proposes that conversation orientation moderates the associations between MAR information sharing and children's psychosocial adjustment...
December 10, 2018: Family Process
David Abdulai Salifu, Janet Gross, Mohammed Awal Salifu, Jerry Pk Ninnoni
Aim: To describe experiences and perceptions of theory-practice gap in nursing in a resource-constrained setting. Theory-practice gap is extensively discussed and studied in some parts of the world. Interventions to bridge the theory-practice gap have been varied and depend on an understanding of the contextual healthcare environment. Experiences and perceptions of the theory-practice gap in a resource-constrained setting have not been comprehensively described. Design: A qualitative description methodology was used...
January 2019: Nursing Open
Ashley Novais, Alberto Silva, Ana Catarina Ferreira, Ana Mendanha Falcão, Nuno Sousa, Joana Almeida Palha, Fernanda Marques, João Carlos Sousa
Neudesin (Neuron-derived neurotrophic factor, NENF), a membrane-associated progesterone receptor family (MAPR) member, is a neuron secreted protein with neurotrophic properties during embryonic stages. However, its role in the adult brain is still poorly addressed. In this study we have used neudesin-null (Nenf-/- ) mice and performed a characterization of the proliferation state of the adult neurogenic niches, the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampus subgranular zone (SGZ). Nenf-/- males did not presented any deficits in proliferation in the SVZ neither in vivo nor in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Janna Protzak, Klaus Gramann
In real life, behavior is influenced by dynamically changing contextual factors and is rarely limited to simple tasks and binary choices. For a meaningful interpretation of brain dynamics underlying more natural cognitive processing in active humans, ecologically valid test scenarios are essential. To understand whether brain dynamics in restricted artificial lab settings reflect the neural activity in complex natural environments, we systematically tested the auditory event-related P300 in both settings. We developed an integrative approach comprising an initial P300-study in a highly controlled laboratory set-up and a subsequent validation within a realistic driving scenario...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jingjing Guo, Dingding Li, Yanling Bi, Chunhui Chen
Recently, numerous studies have investigated the neurocognitive mechanism of learning words in isolation or in semantic contexts. However, emotion as an important influencing factor on novel word learning has not been fully considered in the previous studies. In addition, the effects of emotion on word learning and the underlying neural mechanism have not been systematically investigated. Sixteen participants were trained to learn novel concrete or abstract words under negative, neutral, and positive contextual emotions over 3 days; then, fMRI scanning was done during the testing sessions on day 1 and day 3...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sarah Dury
The aim of this study was to contribute to the understanding of why volunteers in a time bank known as "NeighborhoodPension," which involves community-based care, are motivated to start, continue, and quit volunteering. The time bank started in 2013 and is the first time bank in Brussels, Belgium. A planned prospective longitudinal study involving qualitative focus group interviews was used to study a group of volunteers at four time points over 1 year. There were two main themes, the first of which pertains to older adults' motives for volunteering with the time bank...
December 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Sonali Wayal, Catherine R H Aicken, Catherine Griffiths, Paula B Blomquist, Gwenda Hughes, Catherine H Mercer
BACKGROUND: In the UK, people of black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity continue to be disproportionately affected by bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between bacterial STIs/TV and ethnicity (BC compared to white/white British (WB)) accounting for other risk factors; and differences between these two ethnic groups in the prevalence of risk factors associated with these STIs, sexual healthcare seeking behaviours, and contextual factors influencing STI risk...
2018: PloS One
Joana Wensing, Laura Carraresi, Stefanie Bröring
A transition towards a bio-based economy is accompanied by a growing demand for biomass resources as fossil fuels need to be replaced for the more sustainable production of consumer goods, chemicals and energy. To increase the supply of renewable biomass and avoid a conflict with food production, currently underutilized by-products (i.e. leaves, stems) from horticultural production could be valorised as feedstock. The success of this approach depends on farmers' willingness to adopt novel practices like the collection and treatment of plant leaves...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Gino Roberto Corazza, Pietro Formagnana, Marco Vincenzo Lenti
Modern medicine, still largely focused on single diseases, is unprepared for managing clinical complexity (CC), which is an emerging issue. Ageing of the general population has favoured the occurrence of chronic diseases, which generate multimorbidity that has been considered for many years the main feature of CC. However, more recent studies have shown that CC is something more and different and originates from the dynamic interaction among the patient's intrinsic factors (age, gender, multimorbidity, frailty) as well as contextual factors (socioeconomic, behavioural, cultural, and environmental)...
December 5, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Mady Ouédraogo, Sékou Samadoulougou, Toussaint Rouamba, Hervé Hien, John E M Sawadogo, Halidou Tinto, Victor A Alegana, Niko Speybroeck, Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic countries, asymptomatic cases constitute an important reservoir of infections sustaining transmission. Estimating the burden of the asymptomatic population and identifying areas with elevated risk is important for malaria control in Burkina Faso. This study analysed the spatial distribution of asymptomatic malaria infection among children under 5 in 24 health districts in Burkina Faso and identified the determinants of this distribution. METHODS: The data used in this study were collected in a baseline survey on "evaluation of the impact of pay for performance on the quality of care" conducted in 24 health districts in Burkina Faso, between October 2013 and March 2014...
December 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Claire Kendall, Michael Fitzgerald, Rachel Seoyeon Kang, Sabrina T Wong, Alan Katz, Martin Fortin, Emilie Dionne, Kerry Kuluski, Mary Ann O'Brien, Jenny Ploeg, Lois Crowe, Clare Liddy
Plain English summary: Increasingly, health researchers are conducting their research in partnership with non-researchers such as patients and caregivers, advocacy groups, clinicians, and policymakers. The idea behind this partnership is to make research more relevant and appropriate. However, so far there is not much evidence about how this partnership or engagement actually affects research. We conducted an online survey of 12 teams in Canada that have engaged patients and other stakeholders in community based health research, partly as a requirement to obtain funding...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
Abdulwahab Alasfour, Paolo Gutierrez Gabriel, Xi Jiang, Isaac Shamie, Lucia Melloni, Thomas Thesen, Patricia Dugan, Daniel Friedman, Werner Doyle, Orrin Devinsky, Shiffteh Sattar, David Gonda, Sonya Wang, Eric Halgren, Vikash Gilja
OBJECTIVE: Current brain-computer interface (BCI) studies demonstrate the potential to decode neural signals obtained from structured and trial-based tasks to drive actuators with high performance within the context of these tasks. Ideally, to maximize utility, such systems will be applied to a wide range of behavioral settings or contexts. Thus, we explore the potential to augment such systems with the ability to decode abstract behavioral contextual states from neural activity. APPROACH: To demonstrate the feasibility of such context decoding, we used electrocorticography (ECoG) and stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) data recorded from the cortical surface and deeper brain structures, respectively, continuously across multiple days from three subjects...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kent Garber, Carla Cecilia Ramírez Cabrera, Quang-Le Dinh, Justin T Gerstle, AiXuan Holterman, Leecarlo Millano, Nyagetuba J K Muma, Liem Thanh Nguyen, Hoang Tran, Son Ngoc Tran, Shant Shekherdimian
BACKGROUND: The global burden of pediatric surgical conditions continues to remain inadequately addressed, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Among the many factors contributing to this gap are a lack of access to care secondary to resource shortages and inequitable distribution, underfinancing of healthcare systems, poor quality of care, and contextual challenges such as natural disasters and conflict. The relative contribution of these and other factors varies widely by region and even with countries of a region...
December 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Sarah Zimmermann, Simon Forstmeier
OBJECTIVES: Survivors of the Holocaust have reached an age during which it is common for them to look back on their lives. Previous research has shown that reminiscence can take on either adaptive ('self-positive') or detrimental ('self-negative') forms, which in turn are differently linked to psychological well-being. Thus, the question of "why" and "how" Holocaust survivors recall their autobiographical memories may hold important information about the underlying coping processes at play...
December 6, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
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