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Antibiotic treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225917/oxacillin-magnetically-targeted-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-infection-in-rats
#1
Juliana Fernandes de Carvalho, Ítalo Medeiros de Azevedo, Keyla Borges Ferreira Rocha, Aldo Cunha Medeiros, Artur da Silva Carriço
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oxacillin bonded to magnetic nanoparticles in local infection model in rat. Methods: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 290±18g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, each) and all rats had a magnet ring sutured on their right thighs. In the biodistribution group rats 0.1mL of 99mTc-magnetite (0.66 MBq) was injected i.v and after 30 minutes, biodistribution of 99mTc-magnetite was evaluated in right and left thighs. The other groups were inoculated with MRSA in each thigh muscles...
January 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#2
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225587/compms2miner-an-automatable-metabolite-identification-visualization-and-data-sharing-r-package-for-high-resolution-lc-ms-datasets
#3
William Matthew Bell Edmands, Lauren M Petrick, Dinesh Kumar Barupal, Augustin Scalbert, Mark Wilson, Jeffrey Wickliffe, Stephen M Rappaport
A long-standing challenge of untargeted metabolomic profiling by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is efficient transition from unknown mass spectral features to confident metabolite annotations. The compMS2Miner (Comprehensive MS2 Miner) package was developed in the R language to facilitate rapid, comprehensive feature annotation using a peak-picker-output and MS2 data files as inputs. The number of MS2 spectra that can be collected during a metabolomic profiling experiment far outweigh the amount of time required for pain-staking manual interpretation, therefore a degree of software workflow autonomy is required for broad-scale metabolite annotation...
February 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225347/liquid-culture-enhances-diagnosis-of-patients-with-milder-forms-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#4
H Lee, J-H Han, H Y Park, K Jeon, H J Huh, C-S Ki, N Y Lee, W-J Koh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proportion and clinical characteristics of patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease diagnosed based on positive culture results in liquid medium only. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 978 patients diagnosed with NTM lung disease. All clinical samples were cultured in both solid and liquid media. RESULTS: Of the 978 patients, 111 (11.3%) were culture-positive in liquid medium only (liquid culture group), and 867 (88...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225264/fatty-acid-comprising-lysine-conjugates-anti-mrsa-agents-that-display-in-vivo-efficacy-by-disrupting-biofilms-with-no-resistance-development
#5
Mohini Mohan Konai, Jayanta Haldar
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have developed resistance to antibiotics of last resort such as vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin. Additionally, their biofilm forming capability has set an alarming situation in the treatment of bacterial infections. Herein we report the potency of fatty acid comprising lysine conjugates as novel anti-MRSA agents, which were not only capable of killing growing planktonic MRSA at low concentration (MIC = 3.1-6.3 µg/mL), but also displayed potent activity against non-dividing stationary phase cells...
February 22, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225198/adjunctive-steroid-therapy-versus-antibiotics-alone-for-acute-endophthalmitis-after-intraocular-procedure
#6
REVIEW
Carole H Kim, Monica F Chen, Anne L Coleman
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis refers to severe infection within the eye that involves the aqueous humor or vitreous humor, or both, and threatens vision. Most cases of endophthalmitis are exogenous (i.e. due to inoculation of organisms from an outside source), and most exogenous endophthalmitis is acute and occurs after an intraocular procedure. The mainstay of treatment is emergent administration of broad-spectrum intravitreous antibiotics. Due to their anti-inflammatory effects, steroids in conjunction with antibiotics have been proposed to be beneficial in endophthalmitis management...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225152/topical-phenytoin-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#7
REVIEW
Xiang Yong Hao, Hong Ling Li, He Su, Hui Cai, Tian Kang Guo, Ruifeng Liu, Lei Jiang, Yan Fei Shen
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224661/recurrent-obstructive-fibrinous-tracheal-pseudomembranes-in-a-young-english-bulldog
#8
E Robin, L V Guieu, K Le Boedec
Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure, rarely associated with life-threatening complications (e.g., tracheal rupture, necrosis, foreign body). A 1.5-year-old English Bulldog was presented for respiratory distress, with increased respiratory efforts and stridor, 2 days after endotracheal intubation. Cervical and thoracic radiographs disclosed a severe narrowing of the tracheal lumen associated with an intraluminal soft-tissue structure at the thoracic inlet. Tracheoscopy confirmed the presence of an obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane (OFTP) creating a 1-way valve obstruction...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224049/the-role-of-topical-antiseptic-agents-within-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-surgical-site-and-chronic-open-wound-infection
#9
Christopher D Roberts, David J Leaper, Ojan Assadian
Scope and Significance: The topical use of antiseptics for wound care has a role in an antimicrobial stewardship strategy. However, the details of this role need clarification. Further clinical research into the use of topical antiseptics in wound care would lower the risk of furthering antibiotic resistance and contribute to more effective antibiotic use. As part of this research, experimental and surveillance data are needed on the resistance and tolerance patterns associated with topical antiseptic use in wound infections...
February 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224048/wound-penetration-of-cefazolin-ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam-and-vancomycin-during-negative-pressure-wound-therapy
#10
Matthew P Rowan, Krista L Niece, Julie A Rizzo, Kevin S Akers
Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) uses subatmospheric pressure as a noninvasive adjunct to treat wounds and has demonstrated clinical efficacy by accelerating healing of a variety of acute and chronic wounds. NPWT may also play a role in preventing or treating wound infections, possibly by increasing wound penetration of antibiotics. However, clinical data in patients undergoing antibiotic and NPWT treatment are limited. Approach: To evaluate the wound penetration of antibiotics in NPWT patients, we conducted a prospective, observational study of burn and trauma patients treated with NPWT and systemic antibiotics...
February 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224028/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-integron-carriage-in-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-patients
#11
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mohsen Heidary, Mehdi Azad, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of integron in H. pylori isolates collected from patients referred to private health care centers in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for failure of Helicobacter pylori therapy. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play main roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance gene. METHODS: During a 12-month cross-sectional study period, 65 H...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223895/rosacea-fulminans-precipitated-by-acute-stress-a-case-report-describing-an-integrative-approach-for-a-patient-reluctant-to-use-isotretinoin
#12
Patrick Veerkamp, Nico Mousdicas, Robert Bednarek
CONTEXT: Rosacea fulminans is a rare skin disorder with a multifactorial etiology. Stress is one of the common precipitating factors of this condition but is not often targeted in treatment. Isotretinoin is considered part of the first-line therapy for this condition but, in cases where its use is restricted, other therapeutic interventions as part of an integrative approach may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 38-y-old female presented with rosacea fulminans brought on by an acutely stressful event...
December 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223744/usefulness-of-dermoscopy-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-ruptured-and-unruptured-epidermal-cysts
#13
Kee Suck Suh, Dong Young Kang, Jong Bin Park, Myeong Hyeon Yang, Joon Hee Kim, Kang Hoon Lee, Sang Hwa Han, Yun Deok Choi, Sang Tae Kim, Min Soo Jang
BACKGROUND: An epidermal cyst is a common keratin-filled epithelial-lined cyst. The treatment of choice for epidermal cysts is surgical excision. If the cyst becomes ruptured, incision and drainage with oral antibiotic therapy or intralesional steroid injection are required. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the dermoscopic features that can differentiate between ruptured and unruptured epidermal cysts. METHODS: The clinical and dermoscopic features of the pathologically confirmed epidermal cysts of two subgroups of 38 patients, 20 with unruptured cysts and 18 with ruptured cysts, were reviewed...
February 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223382/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-omadacycline-against-two-biothreat-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#14
Judith Steenbergen, S Ken Tanaka, Lynda L Miller, Stephanie A Halasohoris, Jeremy R Hershfield
Introduction: The in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of omadacycline (OMC) were evaluated against the causative pathogens of anthrax and plague, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, respectively.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OMC were determined by microbroth dilution according to CLSI guidelines for 30 isolates each of Y. pestis and B. anthracis The in vivo efficacy of omadacycline was studied at a range of dosages in both a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) murine model of anthrax and plague as well as in a delayed treatment model of inhalational anthrax...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223381/a-phase-i-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-and-moxifloxacin-controlled-4-period-crossover-study-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-gepotidacin-on-cardiac-conduction-as-assessed-by-12-lead-electrocardiogram-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Mohammad Hossain, Meijian Zhou, Courtney Tiffany, Etienne Dumont, Borje Darpo
Gepotidacin is a novel, first in class triazaacenaphthylene antibiotic in development for treatment of conventional and biothreat infections. This was a single-dose, cross-over thorough QT study in healthy subjects who were administered an IV gepotidacin as a therapeutic (1000 mg), and supra-therapeutic (1800 mg) dose, placebo and 400 mg oral moxifloxacin in 4 separate treatment periods.Gepotidacin caused a mild effect on heart rate with a largest placebo-corrected change-from-baseline HR of 7 and 10 bpm at the end of the 1000 mg and 1800 mg infusion, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223380/vitamin-k3-induces-the-expression-of-the-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-smevwx-multidrug-efflux-pump
#16
P Blanco, F Corona, M B Sánchez, J L Martínez
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen, with increasing prevalence, able to cause infections in immunocompromised patients or in those with a previous pathology. The treatment of the infections caused by this bacterium is often complicated due to the several intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms that it presents. Multidrug efflux pumps are among the best studied mechanisms of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistance. Some of these efflux pumps have a basal expression level but, in general, their expression is often low and only reaches high levels when the local regulator is mutated or bacteria are in the presence of an effector...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223246/physical-key-properties-of-antibiotic-free-plga-hpmc-based-in-situ-forming-implants-for-local-periodontitis-treatment
#18
K Agossa, M Lizambard, T Rongthong, E Delcourt-Debruyne, J Siepmann, F Siepmann
In-situ forming implants (ISFI) offer an interesting potential for the treatment of periodontitis, allowing for time-controlled drug release directly at the site of action (which is difficult to reach). For this purpose, ISFI loaded with antibiotics have been reported in the literature. But the use of antibiotic drugs at low doses over prolonged periods of time can lead to the development of bacterial resistances. This risk should be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a novel type of in-situ forming implants, loaded with the antiseptic drug chlorhexidine...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222811/recurring-septic-shock-in-a-patient-with-blunt-abdominal-and-pelvic-trauma-how-mandatory-is-source-control-surgery-a-case-report
#19
Antonella Frattari, Giustino Parruti, Rocco Erasmo, Luigi Guerra, Ennio Polilli, Rosamaria Zocaro, Giuliano Iervese, Paolo Fazii, Tullio Spina
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients with colonization/infection of multidrug-resistant organisms, source control surgery is one of the major determinants of clinical success. In more complex cases, the use of different tools for sepsis management may allow survival until complete source control. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old white man presented with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Unstable pelvic fractures led to emergency stabilization surgery. Fever ensued with diarrhea, followed by septic shock...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222723/rapid-precise-quantification-of-bacterial-cellular-dimensions-across-a-genomic-scale-knockout-library
#20
Tristan Ursell, Timothy K Lee, Daisuke Shiomi, Handuo Shi, Carolina Tropini, Russell D Monds, Alexandre Colavin, Gabriel Billings, Ilina Bhaya-Grossman, Michael Broxton, Bevan Emma Huang, Hironori Niki, Kerwyn Casey Huang
BACKGROUND: The determination and regulation of cell morphology are critical components of cell-cycle control, fitness, and development in both single-cell and multicellular organisms. Understanding how environmental factors, chemical perturbations, and genetic differences affect cell morphology requires precise, unbiased, and validated measurements of cell-shape features. RESULTS: Here we introduce two software packages, Morphometrics and BlurLab, that together enable automated, computationally efficient, unbiased identification of cells and morphological features...
February 21, 2017: BMC Biology
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