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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433989/oral-contraceptives-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
Joël Schlatter
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery offers a highly effective mode of treatment for obese patients. Some procedures such as bypass cause an alteration in normal gastrointestinal tract with possible consequences for the uptake of orally administered drugs. METHODS: We assessed the literature to ascertain whether the use of oral drugs and especially oral contraceptives is effective and adequate after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: The bioavailability of drugs could be affected by the solubility and pH of the modified medium after bariatric surgery and by the loss of gastrointestinal transporters...
April 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433879/sulfamethoxazole-degradation-in-anaerobic-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-sludge-system
#2
Yanyan Jia, Samir Kumar Khanal, Huiqun Zhang, Guang-Hao Chen, Hui Lu
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most commonly used antibiotics. SMX degradation in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) sludge systems has not been reported so far. This research investigated the SMX degradation using SRB sludge in a sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed reactor. Moreover, the mechanisms and kinetics of SMX removal were also investigated using SRB sludge via a series of batch experiments. The results showed that SMX removal was characterized by a rapid sorption onto SRB sludge, and desorption from SRB sludge to aqueous phase until achieving equilibrium, and then followed by slow biodegradation...
April 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433849/clinical-significance-of-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-posttraumatic-skull-base-fracture
#3
Sharon Leibu, Guy Rosenthal, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
BACKGROUND: To assess in children with skull base fractures, incidences of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, meningitis, and the need for prophylactic antibiotics, anti-pneumococcal vaccination, and surgical interventions. METHODS: We reviewed the records of children with skull base fractures who were admitted to our tertiary care center during 2009-2014. RESULTS: 196 children (153 male) were hospitalized with skull base fractures, aged 1 month to 18 years (mean 6 ± 4 years)...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433362/effect-of-preadmission-bowel-preparation-on-outcomes-of-elective-colorectal-procedures-in-young-children
#4
Guillermo J Ares, Irene Helenowski, Catherine J Hunter, Marybeth Madonna, Marleta Reynolds, Timothy Lautz
BACKGROUND: The utility of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) to minimize infectious complications in elective colorectal surgery is contentious. Though data is scarce in children, adult studies suggest a benefit to MBP when administered with oral antibiotics (OAB). METHODS: After IRB approval, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) was queried for young children undergoing elective colon surgery from 2011 to 2014. Patients were divided into: no bowel preparation (Group 1), MBP (Group 2), and MBP plus OAB (Group 3)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433104/wilson-disease-symptomatic-liver-therapy
#5
Jan Pfeiffenberger, Karl-Heinz Weiss, Wolfgang Stremmel
Wilson disease leads to symptomatic impairment of liver function or liver cirrhosis. Strict adherence to decoppering agents is essential in these patients. Secondary prevention of additional hepatic damage by avoidance of other toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs) and sufficient calorie intake is recommended. Routine examinations in cirrhotic patients include screening for signs of portal hypertension (esophagus varices), development of ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Where varices are present, primary or secondary preventive interventions may include treatment with nonselective beta-blockers or variceal ligation, similar to the approach in patients with liver cirrhosis due to other etiologies...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432952/removal-of-antibiotics-from-piggery-wastewater-by-biological-aerated-filter-system-treatment-efficiency-and-biodegradation-kinetics
#6
Jun Chen, You-Sheng Liu, Jin-Na Zhang, Yong-Qiang Yang, Li-Xin Hu, Yuan-Yuan Yang, Jian-Liang Zhao, Fan-Rong Chen, Guang-Guo Ying
This study aimed to investigate the removal efficiency and mechanism for antibiotics in swine wastewater by a biological aerated filter system (BAF system) in combination with laboratory aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments. Nine antibiotics including sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, leucomycin and oxytetracycline were detected in the wastewater with concentrations up to 192,000ng/L. The results from this pilot study showed efficient removals (>82%) of the conventional wastewater pollutants (BOD5, COD, TN and NH3-N) and the detected nine antibiotics by the BAF system...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432937/subantibiotic-dose-of-azithromycin-attenuates-alveolar-bone-destruction-and-improves-trabecular-microarchitectures-in-a-rat-model-of-experimental-periodontitis-a-study-using-micro-computed-tomography
#7
Hye-Shin Park, Yong Sun Lee, Eun-Young Choi, Jeom-Il Choi, In Soon Choi, Sung-Jo Kim
Azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities apart from its antibacterial properties. In this study, we examined the efficacy of subantibiotic dose of azithromycin on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging and bone parameter analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to the following four groups: non-ligation (NL) group; ligation-only (L) group; ligation-plus-subantibiotic dose azithromycin (SA) group; and 4) ligation-plus-antibiotic dose azithromycin (AA) group...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#8
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432607/impact-of-the-medical-specialty-on-knowledge-regarding-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-strategies-toward-antimicrobial-stewardship
#9
Steffen Lebentrau, Christian Gilfrich, Malte W Vetterlein, Harald Schumacher, Philipp J Spachmann, Sabine D Brookman-May, Hans M Fritsche, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Matthias May
PURPOSE: Evidence is scarce on subject-specific knowledge of multidrug-resistant organisms and rational use of antibiotics. We aimed at evaluating attitude, perception, and knowledge about multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic prescribing among urologists versus other medical specialties. METHODS: Within the MR2-study (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria), a questionnaire was conducted targeting general surgeons, internists, gynecologists, and urologists in 18 German hospitals...
April 21, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432551/partial-p53-dependence-of-anisomycin-induced-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#10
R Schipp, J Varga, J Bátor, M Vecsernyés, Z Árvai, M Pap, József Szeberényi
The bacterial antibiotic anisomycin is known to induce apoptosis by activating several mitogen-activated protein kinases and by inhibiting protein synthesis. In this study, the influence of p53 protein on the apoptosis-inducing effect of anisomycin was investigated. The effect of protein synthesis-inhibiting concentration of anisomycin on apoptotic events was analyzed using Western blot, DNA fragmentation, and cell viability assays in wild-type PC12 and in mutant p53 protein expressing p143p53PC12 cells. Anisomycin stimulated the main apoptotic pathways in both cell lines, but p143p53PC12 cells showed lower sensitivity to the drug than their wild-type counterparts...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432472/anti-infective-and-anti-inflammatory-pharmacotherapies
#11
Mark I Rosenblatt
Ocular infection and inflammation are common and are associated with myriad ocular conditions ranging from mild disease to blinding conditions. There are numerous anti-invectives with spectra against inciting pathogens. Given the potential for ocular infections to rapidly progress initial broad spectrum therapy is usually required, with therapy tailored as microbiological identification and sensitivities become available. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has become a major health problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy can be institutes to prevent ocular symptoms and end-organ damage...
April 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#12
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431897/failure-renal-aetiology-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-the-role-of-antibiotics
#13
Miguel Ángel Goenaga Sánchez, Xabier Kortajarena Urkola, Emilio Bouza Santiago, Patricia Muñoz García, Eduardo Verde Moreno, M Carmen Fariñas Álvarez, Ramón Teira Cobo, Juan Manuel Pericás Pulido, Arístides de Alarcón González, Dolores Sousa Regueiro, Josefa Ruiz Morales, Regino José Rodríguez-Álvarez, Isabel Antorrena Miranda, José Antonio Iribarren Loyarte
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The possible renal toxicity of certain antibiotics (AB) is well known. The objective of our work is to know the possible effect of AB treatments in the development of renal failure (RF) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Collection from a national multi-centre registry of collection on renal function, both prior and its impairment, if any, during the treatment of IE and in relation to possible causative factors, including the use of AB...
April 18, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431777/lomefloxacin
#14
Reem I Al-Wabli
Lomefloxacin is a second-generation difluorinated broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic. It is used for the treatment of bronchitis, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, otitis externa, and otitis media. A comprehensive profile was performed on lomefloxacin including nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition appearance, and physical characteristics. Spectral methods including ultraviolet spectrum, vibrational spectrum, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance one- and two-dimensional spectra, and mass spectrum were used for both identification and analysis of the drug...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431478/successful-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-meningitis-with-ampicillin-sulbactam-in-primary-hospital
#15
Leitao Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Zefu Li
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections, especially those due to multi-drug resistant strains, are increasingly detected. We want to find the effective treatment measures about multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections through this research. METHODOLOGY: The clinical features and the outcomes of twelve cases of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis treated with ampicillin sulbactam and intrathecal use of amikacin are reported in primary hospital...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431390/sulfonamides-photoassisted-oxidation-treatments-catalyzed-by-ilmenite
#16
P García-Muñoz, G Pliego, J A Zazo, A Bahamonde, J A Casas
This work assesses the feasibility of several advanced oxidation processes (CWPO Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation), Photocatalysis and their combination (CWPO-Photoassisted process) for sulfonamide antibiotic degradation. Raw ilmenite was used as catalyst in both processes, because of the presence of iron and titanium in its structure. Despite both treatments allowed reaching a total starting antibiotic depletion working at pH0 = 3 and T0 = 30 °C within 30 min reaction time, significant differences were observed in terms of mineralization...
April 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#17
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431183/efficacy-of-tiamulin-alone-or-in-combination-with-chlortetracycline-against-experimental-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-infection-in-chickens
#18
A Garmyn, M Vereecken, K Degussem, W Depondt, F Haesebrouck, A Martel
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M. gallisepticum) remains one of the most important diseases in poultry production. Controlling the impact of the disease is done by eradication of positive breeder flocks or by vaccination and medication. A widely used molecule in medication programs is tiamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic. Since recent data on the in vivo efficacy of this molecule are scarce, 2 challenge studies were conducted using a recently isolated M. gallisepticum strain belonging to the wildtype population with regard to its tiamulin and tetracycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#19
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430300/left-ventricular-assist-pump-pocket-infection-conservative-treatment-strategy-for-destination-therapy-candidates
#20
Elie Haddad, François-Xavier Lescure, Walid Ghodhbane, Laurent Lepage, Camille D'humieres, William Vindrios, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Patrick Nataf, Matthias Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly among patients with advanced disease and no access to cardiac transplantation. LVAD implantation is not only a bridge-to-transplantation option for patients awaiting a heart donor, but is often used as bridge-to-destination therapy in patients unsuited for transplantation for various reasons. LVAD infection is considered the second-most common cause of death in patients who survive the initial 6 months on LVAD support...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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