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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913897/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-pro-oxidant-and-genotoxic-responses-following-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-the-antibiotic-oxytetracycline
#2
Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Bruno Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world, but also in human and veterinary medicines. Because of its intensive use, low rates of absorption by treated animals, inadequate disposal, and low efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This work aimed to assess the effects of this antibiotic in rainbow trout, following both acute and chronic exposures. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers, in gills and liver...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913829/glutamate-fermentation-2-mechanism-of-l-glutamate-overproduction-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#3
Takashi Hirasawa, Masaaki Wachi
The nonpathogenic coryneform bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was isolated as an L-glutamate-overproducing microorganism by Japanese researchers and is currently utilized in various amino acid fermentation processes. L-Glutamate production by C. glutamicum is induced by limitation of biotin and addition of fatty acid ester surfactants and β-lactam antibiotics. These treatments affect the cell surface structures of C. glutamicum. After the discovery of C. glutamicum, many researchers have investigated the underlying mechanism of L-glutamate overproduction with respect to the cell surface structures of this organism...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913240/activity-of-vancomycin-release-from-bioinspired-coatings-of-hydroxyapatite-or-tio2-nanotubes
#4
Daniela Ionita, Daniela Bajenaru-Georgescu, Georgeta Totea, Anca Mazare, Patrik Schmuki, Ioana Demetrescu
Herein we investigate the efficiency of various biomimetic coatings for localized drug delivery, using vancomycin as key therapeutic drug, which is a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of strong infections caused by positive Gram bacteria. We evaluate classical hydroxyapatite and biomimetic hydroxyapatite-collagen coatings obtained by electrochemical deposition as well as TiO2 nanotubes arrays obtained by electrochemical anodization. Surface morphology, compositional and structural data confirm the incorporation of vancomycin into the layers and drug release profiles for vancomycin evaluate their release ability...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913024/impact-of-wastewater-treatment-plant-discharge-on-the-contamination-of-river-biofilms-by-pharmaceuticals-and-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Elodie Aubertheau, Thibault Stalder, Leslie Mondamert, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Dagot, Jérôme Labanowski
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceutical residue in surface water. Epilithic biofilms were collected downstream from 12 WWTPs of various types and capacities to study the impacts of their discharge through the changes in biofilm composition (compared to a corresponding upstream biofilm) in terms of pharmaceutical concentrations and bacterial community modifications (microbial diversity and resistance integrons). The biofilm is a promising indicator to evaluate the impacts of WWTPs on the surrounding aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912925/cardiac-arrest-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-azithromycin
#6
Santiago O Valdés, Jeffrey J Kim, Mary C Niu, Caridad M de la Uz, Christina Y Miyake, Brady S Moffett
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of pediatric patients treated with azithromycin compared with penicillin or cephalosporin. We hypothesized that azithromycin use would not be associated with increased cardiac mortality in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2008 and 2012. Patients <19 years of age with a principal diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia who received an antibiotic were included...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912845/molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-of-bacterial-persistence
#7
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Any bacterial population harbors a small number of phenotypic variants that survive exposure to high concentrations of antibiotic. Importantly, these so-called 'persister cells' compromise successful antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections and are thought to contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Intriguingly, drug-tolerant persisters have also been identified as a factor underlying failure of chemotherapy in tumor cell populations. Recent studies have begun to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying persister formation and revolve around stress responses and toxin-antitoxin modules...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#8
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912102/toyocamycin-induces-apoptosis-via-the-crosstalk-between-reactive-oxygen-species-and-p38-erk-mapks-signaling-pathway-in-human-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells
#10
Sul-Gi Park, Sang-Hun Kim, Kwang-Youn Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Hyeun-Deok Choi, Young-Wook Kim, Hyo-Won Nam, Young-Kyo Seo, Soon-Cheol Ahn
BACKGROUND: Toyocamycin, an antibiotic agent isolated from Streptomyces species, has been shown to have anticancer and chemopreventive effects on various cancer cells. Until now, Toyocamycin-induced apoptosis has not been reported to be involved in the regulation between mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. METHODS: Cell viability assay, western blot, cell-cycle arrest, annexin V/propidium iodide assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) flux were assayed...
October 24, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911924/plasmodium-yoelii-nigeriensis-n67-is-a-robust-animal-model-to-study-malaria-transmission-by-south-american-anopheline-mosquitoes
#12
Alessandra S Orfano, Ana Paula M Duarte, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Paulo F Pimenta, Carolina Barillas-Mury
Malaria is endemic in the American continent and the Amazonian rainforest is the region with the highest risk of transmission. However, the lack of suitable experimental models to infect malaria vectors from the Americas has limited the progress to understand the biology of transmission in this region. Anopheles aquasalis, a major vector in coastal areas of South America, was found to be highly refractory to infection with two strains of Plasmodium falciparum (NF54 and 7G8) and with Plasmodium berghei (mouse malaria), even when the microbiota was eliminated with antibiotics and oxidative stress was reduced with uric acid...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911604/neutrophil-elastase-activity-is-associated-with-exacerbations-and-lung-function-decline-in-bronchiectasis
#13
James D Chalmers, Kelly L Moffitt, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Oriol Sibila, Simon Finch, Elizabeth Furrie, Alison Dicker, Karolina Wrobel, J Stuart Elborn, Brian Walker, S Lorraine Martin, Sara E Marshall, Jeffrey T-J Huang, Thomas C Fardon
RATIONALE: Sputum neutrophil elastase and serum desmosine, a linked marker of endogenous elastin degradation, are possible biomarkers of disease severity and progression in bronchiectasis. This study aimed to determine the association of elastase activity and desmosine with exacerbations and lung function decline in bronchiectasis. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective cohort study using the TAYBRIDGE registry in Dundee, UK. 433 patients with HRCT-confirmed bronchiectasis provided blood samples for desmosine measurement and 381 provided sputum for baseline elastase activity measurements using an activity based immunosassay and fluorometric substrate assay...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911477/vascularized-appendicular-lymph-node-transfer-for-treatment-of-extremity-lymphedema-a-case-report
#14
Pedro Ciudad, Oscar J Manrique, Shivprasad Date, Wei-Ling Chang, Fabio Nicoli, Stamatis Sapountzis, Hsu-Tang Cheng, Agko Mouchammed, Hung-Chi Chen
Vascularized lymph node transfer has demonstrated promising results for the treatment of extremity lymphedema. In an attempt to find the ideal donor site, several vascularized lymph nodes have been described. Each has a common goal of decreasing morbidity and avoiding iatrogenic lymphedema while obtaining good clinical results. Herein, we present the preliminary clinical outcomes of an intra-abdominal lymph node flap option based on the appendicular artery and vein used for the treatment of extremity lymphedema...
December 2, 2016: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#15
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911257/individualized-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#16
Gurdal Yilmaz, Sedat Saylan, Firdevs Aksoy, Iftihar Koksal
The optimal duration of treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is still the subject of debate. While 1-week treatment has been reported as possibly sufficient, patients generally receive antibiotic therapy for 10-14 days. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether length of treatment in patients with VAP can be reduced with an individualized therapeutic strategy. The study was performed prospectively with patients diagnosed with VAP in our hospital's intensive care units between 1 January and 31 December, 2015...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911082/necrotizing-and-haemorrhagic-hepatitis-and-enteritis-in-commercial-layer-pullets
#17
Yuko Sato, William L Wigle, Tsang Long Lin, Eric Gingerich, Patricia S Wakenell
This case report describes an episode of recurring severe necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis and enteritis experienced in a flock of commercial layer pullets at 12 weeks of age and again at 18 weeks of age in Indiana. Pullets had been vaccinated at 10 weeks old using a trivalent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)/Newcastle disease/infectious bronchitis oil-emulsion-inactivated vaccine. The pullets were found dead at 12 weeks with firm but friable, enlarged, haemorrhagic livers, enlarged spleens, and necrohaemorrhagic intestines...
December 2, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910930/design-of-a-hydroxyapatite-binding-antimicrobial-peptide-with-improved-retention-and-antibacterial-efficacy-for-oral-pathogen-control
#18
Zhi-Bin Huang, Xin Shi, Jing Mao, Shi-Qiang Gong
Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#20
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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