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Andrea B Burke, Kristie L Cheng, Jesse T Han, Jasjit K Dillon, Thomas B Dodson, Srinivas M Susarla
PURPOSE: Several studies of surgical specialties have shown disparities in measures of research productivity and academic rank between female and male surgeons. The purpose of this work was to measure the role of surgeon gender in academic success in oral and maxillofacial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of full-time academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) in the United States as of June 2017. The primary study variable was surgeon gender (male or female)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Shivani Verma, Puneet Utreja
BACKGROUND: Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive approach for both local and systemic therapeutics of various diseases. Transdermal drug delivery systems show various advantages like reduction of local irritation, prevention of first pass hepatic metabolism, and bioavailability enhancement of bioactive molecules over conventional drug delivery systems. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present research work was to develop and characterize (in-vitro and ex-vivo) econazole nitrate loaded transethosomes and their comparison with marketed cream of econazole nitrate [Ecoderm, Brown and Burk Pharmaceutical (Pvt...
August 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Chung Eun Lee, Meghan M Burke, Catherine K Arnold, Aleksa Owen
BACKGROUND: Parents often face many barriers when taking care of their offspring with disabilities. In childhood, support needs vary with families of children with Down syndrome often reporting less caregiving challenges. However, it is unclear whether support needs vary in adulthood. This study compared parents of adults with Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) regarding support needs of their offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and their families...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Amardeep Legha, Richard D Riley, Joie Ensor, Kym I E Snell, Tim P Morris, Danielle L Burke
One-stage individual participant data meta-analysis models should account for within-trial clustering, but it is currently debated how to do this. For continuous outcomes modeled using a linear regression framework, two competing approaches are a stratified intercept or a random intercept. The stratified approach involves estimating a separate intercept term for each trial, whereas the random intercept approach assumes that trial intercepts are drawn from a normal distribution. Here, through an extensive simulation study for continuous outcomes, we evaluate the impact of using the stratified and random intercept approaches on statistical properties of the summary treatment effect estimate...
August 13, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
M M Mrdutt, R A Weber, L M Burke, J S Thomas, H T Papaconstantinou, C T Cable
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the replacement cost of patient care provided by surgical residents and build a Graduate Medical Education (GME) value analysis model. DESIGN: Our Graduate Medical Education Executive Steering Committee designed a resident replacement cost model, based on patient care hours (adjusted for educational activities and a clinical efficiency factor, differential cost of faculty supervision for residents vs. APPs, and current program financials (revenue minus expenses)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Shirley Cueva, Channing Burks, Dana McQueen, Marla S Barkoff, Mary D Stephenson
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an association exists between maternal antithyroid antibodies and euploid miscarriage in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Two academic medical centers. PATIENT(S): Women seen between 2004-2015 with a history of REPL, who were euthyroid or had subclinical hypothyroidism, had maternal antithyroid antibody testing and had at least one subsequent early pregnancy loss (<10 weeks' gestation)...
August 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Cornelius Krull, Marina Castelli, Prokop Hapala, Dhaneesh Kumar, Anton Tadich, Martina Capsoni, Mark T Edmonds, Jack Hellerstedt, Sarah A Burke, Pavel Jelinek, Agustin Schiffrin
Coordination chemistry relies on harnessing active metal sites within organic matrices. Polynuclear complexes-where organic ligands bind to several metal atoms-are relevant due to their electronic/magnetic properties and potential for functional reactivity pathways. However, their synthesis remains challenging; few geometries and configurations have been achieved. Here, we synthesise-via supramolecular chemistry on a noble metal surface-one-dimensional metal-organic nanostructures composed of terpyridine (tpy)-based molecules coordinated with well-defined polynuclear iron clusters...
August 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Emily L Johnson, Anne E Burke, Anqi Wang, Page B Pennell
OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportions of unintended pregnancies, prenatal vitamin or folic acid (PNVF) use, adequate prenatal care visits, and breastfeeding among women with epilepsy (WWE) to women without epilepsy (WWoE). METHODS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an annual survey of randomly sampled postpartum women administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used PRAMS data from 13 states from 2009 to 2014 to compare the primary outcomes in WWE and WWoE, as well as our secondary outcomes of contraception practices, newborn outcomes, and time to recognition of pregnancy...
August 10, 2018: Neurology
Kathrin Reetz, Imis Dogan, Christian Hohenfeld, Claire Didszun, Paola Giunti, Caterina Mariotti, Alexandra Durr, Sylvia Boesch, Thomas Klopstock, Francisco Javier Rodríguez de Rivera Garrido, Ludger Schöls, Ilaria Giordano, Katrin Bürk, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz
OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic evaluation of the broad clinical variability in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), a multisystem disorder presenting mainly with afferent ataxia but also a complex phenotype of nonataxia symptoms. METHODS: From the large database of the European Friedreich's Ataxia Consortium for Translational Studies, 650 patients with genetically confirmed FRDA were included. Detailed data of medical history documentation, questionnaires, and reports on clinical features were analyzed to provide in-depth description of the clinical profile and frequency rates of phenotypical features with a focus on differences between typical-onset and late-onset FRDA...
August 10, 2018: Neurology
Qingjie Liu, Douglas G Batt, Charu Chaudhry, Jonathan S Lippy, Mark A Pattoli, Neha Surti, Songmei Xu, Percy H Carter, James R Burke, Joseph A Tino
Incorporation of a suitably-placed electrophilic group transformed a series of reversible BTK inhibitors based on carbazole-1-carboxamide and tetrahydrocarbazole-1-carboxamide into potent, irreversible inhibitors. Removal of one ring from the core of these compounds provided a potent irreversible series of 2,3-dimethylindole-7-carboxamides having excellent potency and improved selectivity, with the additional advantages of reduced lipophilicity and molecular weight.
July 30, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Xinxin Zhang, Guanqun Zhan, Ming Jin, Hui Zhang, Jun Dang, Yan Zhang, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito
BACKGROUND: Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Megan J Bester, Albert W Neitz, Anabella R M Gaspar
Treatment of type 2 diabetes is achieved through the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The present study was conducted to identify novel α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides and to validate the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of two promising candidates. A total of 4210 potential α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides with 3-5 amino acid residues were designed and individually subjected to in silico simulated gastrointestinal (GIT) digestion using the BIOPEP database...
August 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Thomas A Massaquoi, Rachael M Burke, Guang Yang, Suliaman Lakoh, Stephen Sevalie, Bo Li, Hongjun Jia, Lei Huang, Gibrilla F Deen, Fenella Beynon, Foday Sahr
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. Sierra Leone has no national hepatitis B strategy plan or high quality estimates of prevalence. Healthcare workers are perceived as an at-risk group for hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B among healthcare workers at two hospital sites in Freetown, Sierra Leone. METHODS: In October 2017, healthcare workers were offered voluntary testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) using rapid lateral flow assay for all samples, followed by Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay to confirm positive results...
2018: PloS One
Michael R Karns, Daniel L Jones, Dane C Todd, Travis G Maak, Stephen K Aoki, Robert T Burks, Minkyoung Yoo, Richard E Nelson, Patrick E Greis
Background: Few studies have investigated the influence of patient-specific variables or procedure-specific factors on the overall cost of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in an ambulatory surgery setting. Purpose: To determine patient- and procedure-specific factors influencing the overall direct cost of outpatient arthroscopic ACLR utilizing a unique value-driven outcomes (VDO) tool. Study Design: Cohort study (economic and decision analysis); Level of evidence, 3...
August 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Joshua A Burk, Sarah A Blumenthal, Eden B Maness
Early philosophers and psychologists defined and began to describe attention. Beginning in the 1950's, numerous models of attention were developed. This corresponded with an increased understanding of pharmacological approaches to manipulate neurotransmitter systems. The present review focuses on the knowledge that has been gained about these neurotransmitter systems with respect to attentional processing, with emphasis on the functions mediated within the medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the use of pharmacotherapies to treat psychiatric conditions characterized by attentional dysfunction are discussed...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jonathan Proctor, Solomon Hsiang, Jennifer Burney, Marshall Burke, Wolfram Schlenker
Solar radiation management is increasingly considered to be an option for managing global temperatures1,2 , yet the economic effects of ameliorating climatic changes by scattering sunlight back to space remain largely unknown3 . Although solar radiation management may increase crop yields by reducing heat stress4 , the effects of concomitant changes in available sunlight have never been empirically estimated. Here we use the volcanic eruptions that inspired modern solar radiation management proposals as natural experiments to provide the first estimates, to our knowledge, of how the stratospheric sulfate aerosols created by the eruptions of El Chichón and Mount Pinatubo altered the quantity and quality of global sunlight, and how these changes in sunlight affected global crop yields...
August 8, 2018: Nature
Tianhui Liu, Bina Fu, Dong H Zhang
We first constructed six-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the dissociative chemisorption of HCl on rigid Ag(111). Three global PESs were calculated using the neural network method based on extensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations with Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof, Perdew-Wang91, and revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functionals, respectively. The resulting three PESs are all accurately fitted and smooth, based on the small fitting errors and good agreements between the fitted PESs and the direct DFT calculations...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ruchi Jain, Josh P Frederick, Eric Y Huang, Kristine E Burke, David M Mauger, Elizaveta A Andrianova, Sam J Farlow, Summar Siddiqui, Jeffrey Pimentel, Kahlin Cheung-Ong, Kristine M McKinney, Caroline Köhrer, Melissa J Moore, Tirtha Chakraborty
The advent of therapeutic mRNAs significantly increases the possibilities of protein-based biologics beyond those that can be synthesized by recombinant technologies (eg, monoclonal antibodies, extracellular enzymes, and cytokines). In addition to their application in the areas of vaccine development, immune-oncology, and protein replacement therapies, one exciting possibility is to use therapeutic mRNAs to program undesired, diseased cells to synthesize a toxic intracellular protein, causing cells to self-destruct...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
E S Castro-Silva, M Bello, M Hernández-Rodríguez, J Correa-Basurto, J I Murillo-Álvarez, M C Rosales-Hernández, M Muñoz-Ochoa
The fucosterol has been reported numerous biological activities. In this study, the activity in vitro of the fucosterol from Sargassum horridum as potential human acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was evaluated. The structural identification was obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and based on experimental data, we combined docking and molecular dynamics simulations coupled to the Molecular-Mechanics-Generalized-Born-Surface-Area approach to evaluating the structural and energetic basis for the molecular recognition of fucosterol and neostigmine at the binding site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Anna B Harper, Tom Powell, Peter M Cox, Joanna House, Chris Huntingford, Timothy M Lenton, Stephen Sitch, Eleanor Burke, Sarah E Chadburn, William J Collins, Edward Comyn-Platt, Vassilis Daioglou, Jonathan C Doelman, Garry Hayman, Eddy Robertson, Detlef van Vuuren, Andy Wiltshire, Christopher P Webber, Ana Bastos, Lena Boysen, Philippe Ciais, Narayanappa Devaraju, Atul K Jain, Andreas Krause, Ben Poulter, Shijie Shu
Scenarios that limit global warming to below 2 °C by 2100 assume significant land-use change to support large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2 ) removal from the atmosphere by afforestation/reforestation, avoided deforestation, and Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS). The more ambitious mitigation scenarios require even greater land area for mitigation and/or earlier adoption of CO2 removal strategies. Here we show that additional land-use change to meet a 1.5 °C climate change target could result in net losses of carbon from the land...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
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