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Cognitive pitfall

Phil Hutchinson, Daniel E Moerman
In 2002, Dan Moerman outlined three candidate explanations for the "placebo response": the "conditioned stimulus-response," Irving Kirsch's "response-expectancy" explanation, and the "meaning response." The meaning response, Moerman argued, was the only one of the three candidate explanations that could cover all the data, gained from decades of RCTs and centuries of historical record. Moerman went so far as to propose replacing the term "placebo effect/response" with the term "meaning response," because people are not responding to placebos, since there is nothing to respond to; people are responding to meanings...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Anna Lena Bercht, Nanda Wijermans
Social-ecological systems (SES) research underlines the tremendous impact of human behaviour on planet Earth. To enable a sustainable course of humanity, the integration of human cognition in SES research is crucial for better understanding the processes leading to and involved in human behaviour. However, this integration is proving a challenge, not only in terms of diverging ontological and epistemological perspectives, but also-and this has received little attention in SES research-in terms of (lacking) precision of communication regarding cognition...
September 22, 2018: Ambio
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Can higher level cognition directly influence visual spatial perception? Many recent studies have claimed so, on the basis that manipulating cognitive factors (e.g., morality, emotion, action capacity) seems to directly affect perception. However, Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1-77, 2016) argued that such studies often fall prey to at least one of six pitfalls. They further argued that if an effect could be accounted for by any of these pitfalls, it is not a true demonstration of a top-down influence of cognition on perception...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Julia Lühnen, Anke Steckelberg, Susanne Buhse
BACKGROUND: Health information often includes different categories of pictures. This study comprises: A) exploration of the perception of photos presented in a brochure on the prevention of osteoporosis and B) a systematic review on the effects of pictures in health information. METHODS: A) We conducted four focus groups. Participants with heterogeneous cultural and educational background were included. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis...
September 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Filip Majer, Lenka Piherova, Martin Reboun, Veronika Stara, Ondrej Pelak, Patricia Norambuena, Viktor Stranecky, Alice Krebsova, Hana Vlaskova, Lenka Dvorakova, Stanislav Kmoch, Tomas Kalina, Milos Kubanek, Jakub Sikora
Danon disease (DD) is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene (Xq24). DD is characterized by cognitive deficit, myopathy, and cardiomyopathy in male patients. The phenotype is variable and mitigated in females. The timely identification of de-novo LAMP2 mutated family members, many of whom are heterozygous females, remains critical for their treatment and family counseling. DD laboratory testing builds on minimally invasive quantification of the LAMP2 protein in white blood cells and characterization of the specific mutation...
September 8, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Caroline J Charpentier, John P O'Doherty
Interactions with conspecifics are key to any social species. In order to navigate this social world, it is crucial for individuals to learn from and about others. From learning new skills by observing parents perform them to making complex collective decisions, understanding the mechanisms underlying social cognitive processes has been of considerable interest to psychologists and neuroscientists. Here, we review studies that have used computational modelling techniques, combined with neuroimaging, to shed light on how people learn and make decisions in social contexts...
December 2018: Social Neuroscience
Inga Zerr, Peter Hermann
Rapidly progressive dementia is a syndrome caused by numerous disease entities. Accurate diagnosis is crucial as substantial proportion of these diseases is highly treatable. Others might implicate specific hygienic problems. Still, differential diagnosis remains challenging because of a huge overlap of clinical presentations. Areas covered: The paper reviews PubMed-listed research articles with a focus on diagnosis and treatment of diseases showing rapid cognitive decline such as inflammatory diseases, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases, toxic-metabolic encephalopathies and prion diseases...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Victor G B Liem, Sanne E Hoeks, Felix van Lier, Jurgen C de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review will discuss what value Big Data has to offer anesthesiology and aims to highlight recently published articles of large databases exploring factors influencing perioperative outcome. Additionally, the future perspectives of Big Data and its major pitfalls will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The potential of Big Data has given an incentive to create nationwide and anesthesia-initiated registries like the MPOG and NACOR. These large databases have contributed in elucidating some of the rare perioperative complications, such as declined cognition after exposure to general anesthesia and epidural hematomas in parturients...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Karin Gmitterová, Joanna Gawinecka, Franc Llorens, Daniela Varges, Peter Valkovič, Inga Zerr
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) share a couple of clinical similarities that is often a source of diagnostic pitfalls. We evaluated the discriminatory potential of brain-derived CSF markers [tau, p-tau (181P), Aβ1-42 , NSE and S100B] across the spectrum of Lewy body disorders and assessed whether particular markers are associated with cognitive status in investigated patients. The tau CSF level, amyloid β1-42 and p-tau/tau ratio were helpful in the distinction between DLB and PDD (p = 0...
August 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ladislav Kesner
One of major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the insufficient grasp of relationship between individual and collective mental pathologies. A long tradition of diagnosing "mental illness" of society-exemplified by Erich Fromm-stands apart from approach of contemporary social psychiatry and is not perceived as relevant for psychiatric discourse. In this Perspective article, I argue that it is possible to uphold the idea of a supra-individual dimension to mental health, while avoiding the obvious pitfalls involved in categorical diagnosing of society as suffering from mental illness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Edit Szodorai, Konstantina Bampali, Roman A Romanov, Siegfried Kasper, Tomas Hökfelt, Margot Ernst, Gert Lubec, Tibor Harkany
In the hippocampus, GABA inhibition tunes network oscillations and shapes synchronous activity during spatial learning and memory coding. Once released from the presynapse, GABA primarily binds to ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), which are heteropentamers combinatorially assembled from nineteen known subunits to induce Cl- currents postsynaptically. Dissecting GABAA R subtype specificities in neurobiology is daunting because of differences in their developmental dynamics, regional distribution and subcellular compartmentalization...
October 2018: Cellular Signalling
Carolin Sommer-Trembo, Martin Plath
Recent studies on consistent individual differences in behavioural tendencies (animal personality) raised the question of whether individual differences in cognitive abilities can be linked to certain personality types. We tested female Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) in two different classical conditioning experiments. For the first time, we provide evidence for highly consistent individual differences in associative learning speed in fish. We characterized the same individuals for boldness in two experimental situations (latency to emerge from shelter and freezing time after a simulated predator attack) and found high behavioural repeatability...
September 2018: Animal Cognition
E J Lowenstein, R Sidlow
Sir William Osler famously, and ironically, stated that 'Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability'. The processes by which each physician metes out diagnostic uncertainty and navigates probabilities in dermatology is far from uniform. While certain ubiquitous cognitive and visual heuristics can enhance diagnostic speed, they also create pitfalls and thinking traps that introduce significant variation in the diagnostic process. Discussed in this part of a two-part article are various cognitive and visual heuristics as they pertain to skin disease, with an introduction and special attention paid to the heuristic methods classically applied by dermatologists...
July 1, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
August 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Merlin Bittlinger, Sabine Müller
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as investigational intervention for symptomatic relief from Alzheimer disease (AD) has generated big expectations. Our aim is to discuss the ethical justification of this research agenda by examining the underlying research rationale as well as potential methodological pitfalls. The shortcomings we address are of high ethical importance because only scientifically valid research has the potential to be ethical. METHOD: We performed a systematic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE...
June 11, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Joseph Firth, John Torous, Rebekah Carney, Jill Newby, Theodore D Cosco, Helen Christensen, Jerome Sarris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Toshiya Miyatsu, Khuyen Nguyen, Mark A McDaniel
Researchers' and educators' enthusiasm in applying cognitive principles to enhance educational practices has become more evident. Several published reviews have suggested that some potent strategies can help students learn more efficaciously. Unfortunately, for whatever reason, students do not report frequent reliance on these empirically supported techniques. In the present review, we take a novel approach, identifying study strategies for which students have strong preferences and assessing whether these preferred strategies have any merit given existing empirical evidence from the cognitive and educational literatures...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Daniel Callahan
Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist and linguist at Harvard and a savant of big ideas, is one of the latest to take on the idea of progress. He does it under the aegis of "enlightenment," which comes down to a kind of holy trinity of reason, science, and humanism. His new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, is ambitious and cantankerous and heady with hope. On the whole, Pinker makes a good case for the benefits of progress, but with an overdose of feel-good prose...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
Bob Uttl, Carmela A White, Kelsey Cnudde, Laura M Grant
Although individual differences in processing speed, working memory, intelligence, and other cognitive functions were found to explain individual differences in retrospective memory (RetM), much less is known about their relationship with prospective memory (ProM). Moreover, the studies that investigated the relationship between ProM and cognitive functions arrived to contradictory conclusions. The relationship between ProM, personality, and psychopathology is similarly unsettled. Meta-analytic reviews of the relationships of ProM with aging and personality suggest that the contradictory findings may be due to widespread methodological problems plaguing ProM research including the prevalent use of inefficient, unreliable binary measures; widespread ceiling effects; failure to distinguish between various ProM subdomains (e...
2018: PloS One
Vencislav Popov, Markus Ostarek, Caitlin Tenison
A key challenge for cognitive neuroscience is deciphering the representational schemes of the brain. Stimulus-feature-based encoding models are becoming increasingly popular for inferring the dimensions of neural representational spaces from stimulus-feature spaces. We argue that such inferences are not always valid because successful prediction can occur even if the two representational spaces use different, but correlated, representational schemes. We support this claim with three simulations in which we achieved high prediction accuracy despite systematic differences in the geometries and dimensions of the underlying representations...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
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