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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083957/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-analysis-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#1
Karin Gmitterová, Joanna Gawinecka, Franc Llorens, Daniela Varges, Peter Valkovič, Inga Zerr
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) share a couple of clinical similarities that is often a source of diagnostic pitfalls. We evaluated the discriminatory potential of brain-derived CSF markers [tau, p-tau (181P), Aβ1-42 , NSE and S100B] across the spectrum of Lewy body disorders and assessed whether particular markers are associated with cognitive status in investigated patients. The tau CSF level, amyloid β1-42 and p-tau/tau ratio were helpful in the distinction between DLB and PDD (p = 0...
August 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072922/mental-ill-health-and-the-epidemiology-of-representations
#2
Ladislav Kesner
One of major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the insufficient grasp of relationship between individual and collective mental pathologies. A long tradition of diagnosing "mental illness" of society-exemplified by Erich Fromm-stands apart from approach of contemporary social psychiatry and is not perceived as relevant for psychiatric discourse. In this Perspective article, I argue that it is possible to uphold the idea of a supra-individual dimension to mental health, while avoiding the obvious pitfalls involved in categorical diagnosing of society as suffering from mental illness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006122/diversity-matters-combinatorial-information-coding-by-gaba-a-receptor-subunits-during-spatial-learning-and-its-allosteric-modulation
#3
REVIEW
Edit Szodorai, Konstantina Bampali, Roman A Romanov, Siegfried Kasper, Tomas Hökfelt, Margot Ernst, Gert Lubec, Tibor Harkany
In the hippocampus, GABA inhibition tunes network oscillations and shapes synchronous activity during spatial learning and memory coding. Once released from the presynapse, GABA primarily binds to ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), which are heteropentamers combinatorially assembled from nineteen known subunits to induce Cl- currents postsynaptically. Dissecting GABAA R subtype specificities in neurobiology is daunting because of differences in their developmental dynamics, regional distribution and subcellular compartmentalization...
October 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974274/consistent-individual-differences-in-associative-learning-speed-are-not-linked-to-boldness-in-female-atlantic-mollies
#4
Carolin Sommer-Trembo, Martin Plath
Recent studies on consistent individual differences in behavioural tendencies (animal personality) raised the question of whether individual differences in cognitive abilities can be linked to certain personality types. We tested female Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) in two different classical conditioning experiments. For the first time, we provide evidence for highly consistent individual differences in associative learning speed in fish. We characterized the same individuals for boldness in two experimental situations (latency to emerge from shelter and freezing time after a simulated predator attack) and found high behavioural repeatability...
July 4, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962022/cognitive-and-visual-diagnostic-errors-in-dermatology-part-1
#5
REVIEW
E J Lowenstein, R Sidlow
Sir William Osler famously and ironically stated that "Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability." 1 The processes by which each physician metes out diagnostic uncertainty and navigates probabilities in dermatology is far from uniform. While certain ubiquitous cognitive and visual heuristics can enhance diagnostic speed, they also create pitfalls and thinking traps that introduce significant variation in the diagnostic process. Discussed in this part 1 of a 2-part article are various cognitive and visual heuristics as they pertain to skin disease, with introduction and special attention given to the heuristic methods classically applied by dermatologists...
July 1, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924477/system-neuroscience-past-present-and-future
#6
REVIEW
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
August 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886845/opening-the-debate-on-deep-brain-stimulation-for-alzheimer-disease-a-critical-evaluation-of-rationale-shortcomings-and-ethical-justification
#7
Merlin Bittlinger, Sabine Müller
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as investigational intervention for symptomatic relief from Alzheimer disease (AD) has generated big expectations. Our aim is to discuss the ethical justification of this research agenda by examining the underlying research rationale as well as potential methodological pitfalls. The shortcomings we address are of high ethical importance because only scientifically valid research has the potential to be ethical. METHOD: We performed a systematic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE...
June 11, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779065/digital-technologies-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-recent-innovations-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Joseph Firth, John Torous, Rebekah Carney, Jill Newby, Theodore D Cosco, Helen Christensen, Jerome Sarris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716455/five-popular-study-strategies-their-pitfalls-and-optimal-implementations
#9
Toshiya Miyatsu, Khuyen Nguyen, Mark A McDaniel
Researchers' and educators' enthusiasm in applying cognitive principles to enhance educational practices has become more evident. Several published reviews have suggested that some potent strategies can help students learn more efficaciously. Unfortunately, for whatever reason, students do not report frequent reliance on these empirically supported techniques. In the present review, we take a novel approach, identifying study strategies for which students have strong preferences and assessing whether these preferred strategies have any merit given existing empirical evidence from the cognitive and educational literatures...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590512/progress-its-glories-and-pitfalls
#10
Daniel Callahan
Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist and linguist at Harvard and a savant of big ideas, is one of the latest to take on the idea of progress. He does it under the aegis of "enlightenment," which comes down to a kind of holy trinity of reason, science, and humanism. His new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, is ambitious and cantankerous and heady with hope. On the whole, Pinker makes a good case for the benefits of progress, but with an overdose of feel-good prose...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584735/prospective-memory-retrospective-memory-and-individual-differences-in-cognitive-abilities-personality-and-psychopathology
#11
Bob Uttl, Carmela A White, Kelsey Cnudde, Laura M Grant
Although individual differences in processing speed, working memory, intelligence, and other cognitive functions were found to explain individual differences in retrospective memory (RetM), much less is known about their relationship with prospective memory (ProM). Moreover, the studies that investigated the relationship between ProM and cognitive functions arrived to contradictory conclusions. The relationship between ProM, personality, and psychopathology is similarly unsettled. Meta-analytic reviews of the relationships of ProM with aging and personality suggest that the contradictory findings may be due to widespread methodological problems plaguing ProM research including the prevalent use of inefficient, unreliable binary measures; widespread ceiling effects; failure to distinguish between various ProM subdomains (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578030/practices-and-pitfalls-in-inferring-neural-representations
#12
REVIEW
Vencislav Popov, Markus Ostarek, Caitlin Tenison
A key challenge for cognitive neuroscience is deciphering the representational schemes of the brain. Stimulus-feature-based encoding models are becoming increasingly popular for inferring the dimensions of neural representational spaces from stimulus-feature spaces. We argue that such inferences are not always valid because successful prediction can occur even if the two representational spaces use different, but correlated, representational schemes. We support this claim with three simulations in which we achieved high prediction accuracy despite systematic differences in the geometries and dimensions of the underlying representations...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548515/cell-replacement-to-reverse-brain-aging-challenges-pitfalls-and-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Jean M Hébert, Jan Vijg
Current antiaging strategies focusing on druggable targets have met with relatively limited success to date. Replacement of cells, tissues, and organs could provide an alternative means for targeting age-induced damage and potentially eliminating some of it. However, before this is a viable option, numerous challenges need to be addressed. Most notably, whether the brain, which defines our self-identity, is amenable to replacement therapies is unclear. Here, we consider whether progressive cell replacement is a potential approach to reverse brain aging without grossly altering function...
May 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472384/neuropsychological-testing
#14
EDITORIAL
Chiara Zucchella, Angela Federico, Alice Martini, Michele Tinazzi, Michelangelo Bartolo, Stefano Tamburin
Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features...
June 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453517/probable-diagnosis-of-a-patient-with-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-managing-pitfalls-of-exome-sequencing
#15
William A Zeiger, Nasheed I Jamal, Maren T Scheuner, Patricia Pittman, Kimiyo M Raymond, Massimo Morra, Shri K Mishra
Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old man with progressive cognitive decline, ataxia, and dystonia. Extensive laboratory, radiographic, and targeted genetic studies over the course of several years failed to yield a diagnosis. Initial whole exome sequencing through a commercial laboratory identified several variants of uncertain significance; however, follow-up clinical examination and testing ruled each of these out. Eventually, repeat whole exome sequencing identified a known pathogenic intronic variant in the NPC1 gene (NM_000271...
February 17, 2018: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450793/the-quality-of-response-time-data-inference-a-blinded-collaborative-assessment-of-the-validity-of-cognitive-models
#16
Gilles Dutilh, Jeffrey Annis, Scott D Brown, Peter Cassey, Nathan J Evans, Raoul P P P Grasman, Guy E Hawkins, Andrew Heathcote, William R Holmes, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Colin N Kupitz, Fábio P Leite, Veronika Lerche, Yi-Shin Lin, Gordon D Logan, Thomas J Palmeri, Jeffrey J Starns, Jennifer S Trueblood, Leendert van Maanen, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ingmar Visser, Andreas Voss, Corey N White, Thomas V Wiecki, Jörg Rieskamp, Chris Donkin
Most data analyses rely on models. To complement statistical models, psychologists have developed cognitive models, which translate observed variables into psychologically interesting constructs. Response time models, in particular, assume that response time and accuracy are the observed expression of latent variables including 1) ease of processing, 2) response caution, 3) response bias, and 4) non-decision time. Inferences about these psychological factors hinge upon the validity of the models' parameters...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414071/sex-differences-in-behavioral-strategies-avoiding-interpretational-pitfalls
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca M Shansky
Despite ample evidence for sex differences in brain structure and function, our understanding of the neurobiological basis of behavior comes almost exclusively from male animals. As neuroscientists move to comply with recent NIH mandates that biomedical researchers include both sexes in their studies, the ways we interpret outcomes in classic rodent behavioral models deserve closer scrutiny and more nuanced evaluation. In this mini-review, we highlight recent sex differences papers in learning, decision-making, and spatial navigation paradigms that underscore the distinctions between cognitive capabilities versus behavioral strategies that may confer unique benefits to males and females...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384275/-femoral-hernia-in-geriatric-patient
#18
Doriane Ischer, Charlotte Renoult, Benjamin Gold, Jean-Marie Mégevand
When facing an elderly patient with cognitive impairment and unspecific digestive symptoms, the physical examination should include the research of a groin hernia. Additional radiological exam may be required to confirm the diagnosis. Femoral hernia is a diagnostic pitfall, as clinical signs are not always obvious. It occurs late in life and is often found to be already complicated when the patient seeks attention. While the elective surgical treatment is simple, it needs an emergency surgical repair when it is incarcerated that is often associated with intestinal resection and post-operative complications including death...
January 31, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369526/generative-models-for-clinical-applications-in-computational-psychiatry
#19
REVIEW
Stefan Frässle, Yu Yao, Dario Schöbi, Eduardo A Aponte, Jakob Heinzle, Klaas E Stephan
Despite the success of modern neuroimaging techniques in furthering our understanding of cognitive and pathophysiological processes, translation of these advances into clinically relevant tools has been virtually absent until now. Neuromodeling represents a powerful framework for overcoming this translational deadlock, and the development of computational models to solve clinical problems has become a major scientific goal over the last decade, as reflected by the emergence of clinically oriented neuromodeling fields like Computational Psychiatry, Computational Neurology, and Computational Psychosomatics...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349808/promises-and-pitfalls-in-the-development-of-biomarkers-that-can-promote-early-intervention-in-children-at-risk
#20
EDITORIAL
Sara Jaffee
The cost to individuals and to society of psychopathology that emerges in childhood is substantial. Children whose problems are undiagnosed or inadequately treated struggle in school, experience rejection by peers, and become a source of stress for caregivers and teachers. As adults, their mental health problems tend to recur and their cognitive difficulties persist. Clinicians hold a well-founded belief that early identification of children who are at risk for psychopathology is the key to prevention.
February 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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