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Cognitive pitfall

Diego Vidaurre, Nicholas E Myers, Mark Stokes, Anna C Nobre, Mark W Woolrich
In this article, we propose a method to track trial-specific neural dynamics of stimulus processing and decision making with high temporal precision. By applying this novel method to a perceptual template-matching task, we tracked representational brain states associated with the cascade of neural processing, from early sensory areas to higher order areas that are involved in integration and decision making. We address a major limitation of the traditional decoding approach: that it relies on consistent timing of these processes over trials...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Thomas T Hills
There are well-understood psychological limits on our capacity to process information. As information proliferation-the consumption and sharing of information-increases through social media and other communications technology, these limits create an attentional bottleneck, favoring information that is more likely to be searched for, attended to, comprehended, encoded, and later reproduced. In information-rich environments, this bottleneck influences the evolution of information via four forces of cognitive selection, selecting for information that is belief-consistent, negative, social, and predictive...
November 29, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Mark Jit
Background: Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured decision-making process that offers greater flexibility to incorporate multiple objectives than cost-effectiveness analysis or benefit-cost analysis. Conclusions: The flexibility of MCDA requires careful consideration of its methodological underpinnings, analytical forms and cognitive biases that may arise in eliciting trade-off. The methodology of MCDA should ideally incorporate both deliberative and technical processes...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Fabien Huet, Mariama Akodad, Eran Kalmanovitch, Jerome Adda, Audrey Agullo, Pascal Batistella, Camille Roubille, François Roubille
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have been the cornerstone for the treatment of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction for decades. According to recent and promising studies, sacubitril/valsartan (SV) might be efficient in alternative indications in the area of HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, chronic kidney disease, and so on. This review briefly summarizes these promising therapeutic options regarding SV and the potential limits and pitfalls for its use in routine practice (due to cognitive uncertainties)...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Shu Wen Ng, Jonathan L Blitstein, Alison Gustafson, Mihai Niculescu
OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine the current state of online grocery shopping, including individuals' motivations for shopping for groceries online and types of foods purchased; and (ii) to identify the potential promise and pitfalls that online grocery shopping may offer in relation to food and beverage purchases. DESIGN: PubMed, ABI/INFORM and Google Scholar were searched to identify published research. SETTING: To be included, studies must have been published between 2007 and 2017 in English, based in the USA or Europe (including the UK), and focused on: (i) motivations for online grocery shopping; (ii) the cognitive/psychosocial domain; and (iii) the community or neighbourhood food environment domain...
October 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Phil Hutchinson, Daniel E Moerman
In 2002, Dan Moerman outlined three candidate explanations for the "placebo response": the "conditioned stimulus-response," Irving Kirsch's "response-expectancy" explanation, and the "meaning response." The meaning response, Moerman argued, was the only one of the three candidate explanations that could cover all the data, gained from decades of RCTs and centuries of historical record. Moerman went so far as to propose replacing the term "placebo effect/response" with the term "meaning response," because people are not responding to placebos, since there is nothing to respond to; people are responding to meanings...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Anna Lena Bercht, Nanda Wijermans
Social-ecological systems (SES) research underlines the tremendous impact of human behaviour on planet Earth. To enable a sustainable course of humanity, the integration of human cognition in SES research is crucial for better understanding the processes leading to and involved in human behaviour. However, this integration is proving a challenge, not only in terms of diverging ontological and epistemological perspectives, but also-and this has received little attention in SES research-in terms of (lacking) precision of communication regarding cognition...
September 22, 2018: Ambio
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Can higher level cognition directly influence visual spatial perception? Many recent studies have claimed so, on the basis that manipulating cognitive factors (e.g., morality, emotion, action capacity) seems to directly affect perception. However, Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1-77, 2016) argued that such studies often fall prey to at least one of six pitfalls. They further argued that if an effect could be accounted for by any of these pitfalls, it is not a true demonstration of a top-down influence of cognition on perception...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Julia Lühnen, Anke Steckelberg, Susanne Buhse
BACKGROUND: Health information often includes different categories of pictures. This study comprises: A) exploration of the perception of photos presented in a brochure on the prevention of osteoporosis and B) a systematic review on the effects of pictures in health information. METHODS: A) We conducted four focus groups. Participants with heterogeneous cultural and educational background were included. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis...
September 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Filip Majer, Lenka Piherova, Martin Reboun, Veronika Stara, Ondrej Pelak, Patricia Norambuena, Viktor Stranecky, Alice Krebsova, Hana Vlaskova, Lenka Dvorakova, Stanislav Kmoch, Tomas Kalina, Milos Kubanek, Jakub Sikora
Danon disease (DD) is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene (Xq24). DD is characterized by cognitive deficit, myopathy, and cardiomyopathy in male patients. The phenotype is variable and mitigated in females. The timely identification of de-novo LAMP2 mutated family members, many of whom are heterozygous females, remains critical for their treatment and family counseling. DD laboratory testing builds on minimally invasive quantification of the LAMP2 protein in white blood cells and characterization of the specific mutation...
September 8, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Caroline J Charpentier, John P O'Doherty
Interactions with conspecifics are key to any social species. In order to navigate this social world, it is crucial for individuals to learn from and about others. From learning new skills by observing parents perform them to making complex collective decisions, understanding the mechanisms underlying social cognitive processes has been of considerable interest to psychologists and neuroscientists. Here, we review studies that have used computational modelling techniques, combined with neuroimaging, to shed light on how people learn and make decisions in social contexts...
December 2018: Social Neuroscience
Inga Zerr, Peter Hermann
Rapidly progressive dementia is a syndrome caused by numerous disease entities. Accurate diagnosis is crucial as substantial proportion of these diseases is highly treatable. Others might implicate specific hygienic problems. Still, differential diagnosis remains challenging because of a huge overlap of clinical presentations. Areas covered: The paper reviews PubMed-listed research articles with a focus on diagnosis and treatment of diseases showing rapid cognitive decline such as inflammatory diseases, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases, toxic-metabolic encephalopathies and prion diseases...
September 17, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Victor G B Liem, Sanne E Hoeks, Felix van Lier, Jurgen C de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review will discuss what value Big Data has to offer anesthesiology and aims to highlight recently published articles of large databases exploring factors influencing perioperative outcome. Additionally, the future perspectives of Big Data and its major pitfalls will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The potential of Big Data has given an incentive to create nationwide and anesthesia-initiated registries like the MPOG and NACOR. These large databases have contributed in elucidating some of the rare perioperative complications, such as declined cognition after exposure to general anesthesia and epidural hematomas in parturients...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Karin Gmitterová, Joanna Gawinecka, Franc Llorens, Daniela Varges, Peter Valkovič, Inga Zerr
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) share a couple of clinical similarities that is often a source of diagnostic pitfalls. We evaluated the discriminatory potential of brain-derived CSF markers [tau, p-tau (181P), Aβ1-42 , NSE and S100B] across the spectrum of Lewy body disorders and assessed whether particular markers are associated with cognitive status in investigated patients. The tau CSF level, amyloid β1-42 and p-tau/tau ratio were helpful in the distinction between DLB and PDD (p = 0...
August 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ladislav Kesner
One of major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the insufficient grasp of relationship between individual and collective mental pathologies. A long tradition of diagnosing "mental illness" of society-exemplified by Erich Fromm-stands apart from approach of contemporary social psychiatry and is not perceived as relevant for psychiatric discourse. In this Perspective article, I argue that it is possible to uphold the idea of a supra-individual dimension to mental health, while avoiding the obvious pitfalls involved in categorical diagnosing of society as suffering from mental illness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Edit Szodorai, Konstantina Bampali, Roman A Romanov, Siegfried Kasper, Tomas Hökfelt, Margot Ernst, Gert Lubec, Tibor Harkany
In the hippocampus, GABA inhibition tunes network oscillations and shapes synchronous activity during spatial learning and memory coding. Once released from the presynapse, GABA primarily binds to ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), which are heteropentamers combinatorially assembled from nineteen known subunits to induce Cl- currents postsynaptically. Dissecting GABAA R subtype specificities in neurobiology is daunting because of differences in their developmental dynamics, regional distribution and subcellular compartmentalization...
October 2018: Cellular Signalling
Carolin Sommer-Trembo, Martin Plath
Recent studies on consistent individual differences in behavioural tendencies (animal personality) raised the question of whether individual differences in cognitive abilities can be linked to certain personality types. We tested female Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) in two different classical conditioning experiments. For the first time, we provide evidence for highly consistent individual differences in associative learning speed in fish. We characterized the same individuals for boldness in two experimental situations (latency to emerge from shelter and freezing time after a simulated predator attack) and found high behavioural repeatability...
September 2018: Animal Cognition
E J Lowenstein, R Sidlow
Sir William Osler famously, and ironically, stated that 'Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability'. The processes by which each physician metes out diagnostic uncertainty and navigates probabilities in dermatology is far from uniform. While certain ubiquitous cognitive and visual heuristics can enhance diagnostic speed, they also create pitfalls and thinking traps that introduce significant variation in the diagnostic process. Discussed in this part of a two-part article are various cognitive and visual heuristics as they pertain to skin disease, with an introduction and special attention paid to the heuristic methods classically applied by dermatologists...
December 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
August 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Merlin Bittlinger, Sabine Müller
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as investigational intervention for symptomatic relief from Alzheimer disease (AD) has generated big expectations. Our aim is to discuss the ethical justification of this research agenda by examining the underlying research rationale as well as potential methodological pitfalls. The shortcomings we address are of high ethical importance because only scientifically valid research has the potential to be ethical. METHOD: We performed a systematic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE...
June 11, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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