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Cerebral hypoperfusion injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092283/topological-remodeling-of-cortical-perineuronal-nets-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-mild-hypoperfusion
#1
Egor Dzyubenko, Daniel Manrique-Castano, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Andreas Faissner, Dirk M Hermann
Despite the crucial role of perineuronal nets (PNNs) in neural plasticity and neurological disorders, their ultrastructural organization remains largely unresolved. We have developed a novel approach combining superresolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) and mathematical reconstruction that allows for quantitative analysis of PNN topology. Since perineuronal matrix is capable to restrict neural plasticity but at the same time is necessary to maintain synapses, we hypothesized that a beneficial post stroke recovery requires a reversible loosening of PNNs...
August 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084882/brain-perfusion-regional-volumes-and-cognitive-function-in-hiv-positive-patients-treated-with-protease-inhibitor-monotherapy
#2
Lewis J Haddow, Claudia Godi, Magdalena Sokolska, M Jorge Cardoso, Ruth Oliver, Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Fabian Chen, Ian G Williams, Margaret Johnson, Nick Paton, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Xavier Golay, Hans Rolf Jäger
Background: Protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIM) for HIV may exert suboptimal viral control in the central nervous system. We determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional brain volumes were associated with PIM, and whether specific cognitive domains were associated with imaging biomarkers. Methods: Cognitive assessment and brain MRI were performed after the final visit of a randomized HIV treatment strategy trial. Participants were virologically suppressed on triple therapy at trial entry and followed for 3-5 years...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010004/hypoxia-promotes-tau-hyperphosphorylation-with-associated-neuropathology-in-vascular-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Limor Raz, Kiran Bhaskar, John Weaver, Sandro Marini, Quanguang Zhang, Jeffery F Thompson, Candice Espinoza, Sulaiman Iqbal, Nicole M Maphis, Lea Weston, Laurel O Sillerud, Arvind Caprihan, John C Pesko, Erik B Erhardt, Gary A Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Hypertension-induced microvascular brain injury is a major vascular contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia. We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia promotes the hyperphosphorylation of tau and cell death in an accelerated spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat model of vascular cognitive impairment. METHODS: Hypertensive male rats (n = 13) were fed a high salt, low protein Japanese permissive diet and were compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats (n = 5)...
July 25, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973904/mild-intrauterine-hypoperfusion-leads-to-lumbar-and-cortical-hyperexcitability-spasticity-and-muscle-dysfunctions-in-rats-implications-for-prematurity
#4
Jacques-Olivier Coq, Maxime Delcour, Yuko Ogawa, Julie Peyronnet, Francis Castets, Nathalie Turle-Lorenzo, Valérie Montel, Laurence Bodineau, Phillipe Cardot, Cécile Brocard, Sylvie Liabeuf, Bruno Bastide, Marie-Hélène Canu, Masahiro Tsuji, Florence Cayetanot
Intrauterine ischemia-hypoxia is detrimental to the developing brain and leads to white matter injury (WMI), encephalopathy of prematurity (EP), and often to cerebral palsy (CP), but the related pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. In prior studies, we used mild intrauterine hypoperfusion (MIUH) in rats to successfully reproduce the diversity of clinical signs of EP, and some CP symptoms. Briefly, MIUH led to inflammatory processes, diffuse gray and WMI, minor locomotor deficits, musculoskeletal pathologies, neuroanatomical and functional disorganization of the primary somatosensory and motor cortices, delayed sensorimotor reflexes, spontaneous hyperactivity, deficits in sensory information processing, memory and learning impairments...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945839/cerebrovascular-injuries-found-in-acute-type-b-aortic-dissections-are-associated-with-blood-pressure-derangements-and-poor-outcome
#5
Ziad Al Adas, Alexander D Shepard, Mitchell R Weaver, Daniel J Miller, Timothy J Nypaver, Sumul Modi, Muhammad Affan, Khaled Nour, Praveen Balraj, Loay S Kabbani
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular injury (CVI) is a recognized but underappreciated complication of acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD). This study was performed to determine risk factors for CVI associated with ATBAD and, in particular, the possible contributory role of aggressive anti-impulse therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients presenting to a tertiary medical center with an ATBAD between January 2003 and October 2012 was conducted. All CVIs were adjudicated by a vascular neurologist and assigned a probable cause...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933009/roflumilast-promotes-memory-recovery-and-attenuates-white-matter-injury-in-aged-rats-subjected-to-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#6
Amanda Santiago, Lígia Mendes Soares, Melissa Schepers, Humberto Milani, Tim Vanmierlo, Jos Prickaerts, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been associated with aging-related vascular dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. It can be induced by the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4VO/ICA) model in aged rats, resulting in persistent memory deficits, white matter injury, and significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I) roflumilast has been reported to have pro-cognitive effects in several behavioral paradigms. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated roflumilast treatment in aged rats that were subjected to CCH...
August 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867577/rat-pial-microvascular-changes-during-cerebral-blood-flow-decrease-and-recovery-effects-of-cyanidin-administration
#7
Teresa Mastantuono, Martina Di Maro, Martina Chiurazzi, Laura Battiloro, Espedita Muscariello, Gilda Nasti, Noemy Starita, Antonio Colantuoni, Dominga Lapi
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to play a major role in many pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia and reperfusion injury. The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vivo cyanidin (anthocyanin) effects on damages induced by rat pial microvascular hypoperfusion-reperfusion injury by cerebral blood flow decrease (CBFD) and subsequent cerebral blood flow recovery (CBFR). In particular, the main purpose was to detect changes in ROS production after cyanidin administration. Rat pial microvasculature was investigated using fluorescence microscopy through a cranial window (closed); Strahler's method was utilized to define the geometric features of pial vessels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867570/xinnao-shutong-modulates-the-neuronal-plasticity-through-regulation-of-microglia-macrophage-polarization-following-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#8
Liye Wang, Rongliang Wang, Zhigang Chen, Haiping Zhao, Yumin Luo
Xinnao shutong (XNST) capsules have been clinically used in China to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that XNST has significant neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral ischemic stroke. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of XNST treatment following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with XNST or vehicle following permanent bilateral common carotid artery (BCCA) ligation. Body weight was recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 post-surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780723/cerebral-perfusion-issues-in-type-a-aortic-dissection
#9
REVIEW
Davide Pacini, Giacomo Murana, Luca Di Marco, Marianna Berardi, Carlo Mariani, Giuditta Coppola, Mariafrancesca Fiorentino, Alessandro Leone, Roberto Di Bartolomeo
Stroke events are very common in acute type A aortic dissection. Cerebral malperfusion could manifest at presentation due to prolonged arch vessels hypoperfusion or develop after surgery for inadequate cerebral protection during arch repair. To reduce this detrimental complication there are several adjuncts that can be adopted for cerebral protection such as direct antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) and use period of deep to moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest time; however, they are often insufficient as preoperative malperfusion already caused irreversible ischemic damages...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722318/-panax-ginseng-extract-attenuates-neuronal-injury-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-with-vascular-dementia-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#10
Jun-De Zhu, Jun-Jie Wang, Xian-Hu Zhang, Yan Yu, Zhao-Sheng Kang
Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713525/efficacy-of-osthole-in-management-of-hypoperfused-retina
#11
Ran Du, Zhao-Yang Meng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yan-Ling Wang
Purpose: To determine the effect of osthole on the retina in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rat model and to investigate its therapeutic activity. Methods: Seventy-two rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups. CCH was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in five groups. Sham surgery was performed without occlusion of the artery in the sixth group (control group). Animals were administered with saline (model group), osthole (osthole-IG group), aspirin (aspirin group), or ginaton (ginaton group); the osthole-PI group was performed with peribulbar injection of osthole...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668855/the-negative-ultraslow-potential-electrophysiological-correlate-of-infarction-in-the-human-cortex
#12
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
June 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625150/nimodipine-represses-ampk-phosphorylation-and-excessive-autophagy-after-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#13
Yan Chen, Zhenli Guo, Xingming Peng, Wenting Xie, Lizhu Chen, Zihu Tan
Chronic cerebral hypofusion (CCH) after bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2VO) causes cognitive damage and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 area, and influences the oxygen and glucose supply in the brain which often results in metabolic alterations and oxidative stress. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, a sensor of cellular energy status, directs metabolic adaptation to support cellular growth and survival after CCH. Autophagy is also likely to be involved in metabolic adaptation and plays an important role in neuronal deterioration and cognitive decline after CCH...
June 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604081/the-peripheral-chemoreflex-indefatigable-guardian-of-fetal-physiological-adaptation-to-labour
#14
Christopher A Lear, Guido Wassink, Jenny A Westgate, Jan G Nijhuis, Austin Ugwumadu, Robert Galinsky, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
The fetus is consistently exposed to repeated periods of impaired oxygen (hypoxaemia) and nutrient supply in labour. This is balanced by the healthy fetus's remarkable anaerobic tolerance and impressive ability to mount protective adaptations to hypoxaemia. The most important mediator of fetal adaptations to brief repeated hypoxaemia is the peripheral chemoreflex, a rapid reflex response to acute falls in arterial oxygen tension. The overwhelming majority of fetuses are able to respond to repeated uterine contractions without developing hypotension or hypoxic-ischaemic injury...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602614/estradiol-protects-white-matter-of-male-c57bl6j-mice-against-experimental-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#15
Reymundo Dominguez, Madison Zitting, Qinghai Liu, Arati Patel, Robin Babadjouni, Drew M Hodis, Robert H Chow, William J Mack
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Estradiol is a sex steroid hormone known to protect the brain against damage related to transient and global cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we leverage an experimental murine model of bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) to examine the putative effects of estradiol therapy on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We hypothesize that long-term estradiol therapy protects against white matter injury and declarative memory deficits associated with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
July 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577471/focal-but-not-global-cerebral-ischaemia-causes-loss-of-myenteric-neurons-and-upregulation-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-in-mouse-ileum
#16
Xiaowen Cheng, Martina Svensson, Yiyi Yang, Tomas Deierborg, Eva Ekblad, Ulrikke Voss
Reduced blood flow to the brain induces cerebral ischaemia, potentially causing central injury and peripheral complications including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. The pathophysiology behind GI symptoms is suspected to be neuropathy in the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is essential in regulating GI function. This study investigates if enteric neuropathy occurs after cerebral ischaemia, by analysing neuronal survival and relative numbers of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons in mouse ileum after three types of cerebral ischaemia...
February 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574462/remote-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-attenuates-cerebrovascular-depression-during-sinusoidal-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-endothelial-no-synthase-pathway-in-rats
#17
Devin W McBride, Cesar Reis, John H Zhang, Richard Applegate, Jiping Tang
BACKGROUND: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is characterized by hypotension and bradycardia followed by lowering of cerebral blood flow. Remote limb ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is well documented to provide cardio- and neuroprotection as well as to improve cerebral blood flow. We hypothesized that RIPC will provide protection against VVS-induced hypotension, bradycardia, and cerebral hypoperfusion. Second, because endothelial nitric oxide synthase has been reported as a mediator of cerebral blood flow control, we hypothesized that the mechanism by which RIPC primes the vasculature against VVS is via the α1 -adrenoceptor-protein kinase Cε-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway...
March 24, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560022/paeoniflorin-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-by-modulating-the-m1-m2-subset-polarization-of-microglia-macrophages-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-region-of-vascular-dementia-rats-via-cannabinoid-receptor-2
#18
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511131/endothelial-progenitor-cell-secretome-and-oligovascular-repair-in-a-mouse-model-of-prolonged-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#19
Takakuni Maki, Anna Morancho, Pablo Martinez-San Segundo, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Hajime Takase, Anna C Liang, Marina Gabriel-Salazar, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Kazuo Washida, Joan Montaner, Josephine Lok, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai, Anna Rosell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been extensively investigated as a therapeutic approach for repairing the vascular system in cerebrovascular diseases. Beyond vascular regeneration per se, EPCs may also release factors that affect the entire neurovascular unit. Here, we aim to study the effects of the EPC secretome on oligovascular remodeling in a mouse model of white matter injury after prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: The secretome of mouse EPCs was analyzed with a proteome array...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508280/the-dynamics-of-impaired-blood-brain-barrier-restoration-in-a-rat-model-of-co-morbid-injury
#20
Zareen Amtul, Jun Yang, Simona Nikolova, Ting-Yim Lee, Robert Bartha, David F Cechetto
Defect in brain microperfusion is increasingly recognized as an antecedent event to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemia. Nevertheless, studies on the role of impaired microperfusion as a pathological trigger to neuroinflammation, Aβ deposition as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the etiological link between AD and ischemia are lacking. In this study, we employ in vivo sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging in a co-morbid rat model of β-amyloid toxicity (Aβ) and ischemia (ET1) with subsequent histopathology of striatal lesion core and penumbra at 1, 7, and 28 days post injury...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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