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Cerebral hypoperfusion injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283542/burr-holes-revascularization-in-three-pediatric-cases-of-moyamoya-syndrome-easy-choice-or-insidious-trap-case-series-and-review
#1
Mattia Pacetti, Domenico Tortora, Pietro Fiaschi, Alessandro Consales, Gianluca Piatelli, Marcello Ravegnani, Armando Cama, Marco Pavanello
Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology involving the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and the proximal portions of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries with associated collateral vascular network. When the vascular pattern is associated with a particular condition (e.g., Type 1 neurofibromatosis, Down syndrome), it is defined as moyamoya syndrome (MMS) (or quasi-moyamoya). Among different indirect bypass techniques used to prevent ischemic injury by increasing collateral blood flow to hypoperfused areas of the cortex, multiple burr holes technique is an easy and diffuse indirect revascularization approach in the treatment of moyamoya...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270845/late-failure-of-cerebral-autoregulation-in-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-is-associated-with-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#2
Zachary A Vesoulis, Steve M Liao, Amit M Mathur
Post-resuscitation reperfusion following hypoxic-ischemia (HIE) is associated with secondary brain injury in neonates. 
 
 Objective: To quantify the association between perfusion exceeding autoregulatory limits and brain injury.
 
 Methods: Continuous mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data were prospectively collected from infants with HIE. Cerebral oximetry index (COx) was calculated as a moving correlation coefficient between MABP and NIRS...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269810/is-technology-for-orthostatic-hypotension-ready-for-primetime
#3
REVIEW
Zoe K Sarafis, Aaron K Monga, Aaron A Phillips, Andrei V Krassioukov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in the devastating loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function. After SCI, the interruption of descending sympathoexcitatory pathways disrupts supraspinal control of blood pressure (BP). A common clinical consequence of cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI is orthostatic hypotension (OH), a debilitating condition characterized by rapid profound decreases in BP when assuming an upright posture. OH can result in a diverse array of insidious and pernicious health consequences...
September 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228838/advanced-neuroimaging-in-balo-s-concentric-sclerosis-mri-mrs-dti-and-asl-perfusion-imaging-over-1-year
#4
Crystal Jing Jing Yeo, George J Hutton, Steve H Fung
Balo concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare, atypical demyelinating disease, which may rapidly progress to become severe and fatal. Advanced neuroimaging has proven helpful for early diagnosis, classification, prognostication, and monitoring of progression in multiple sclerosis, but has not been fully explored in BCS. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman with BCS in whom advanced neuroimaging was used to correlate the evolution of disease with clinical findings over the course of 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and arterial spin labeling cerebral perfusion were obtained at presentation (Day 0), and at Day 67 and Day 252...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196311/neonatal-cerebrovascular-autoregulation
#5
REVIEW
Christopher J Rhee, Cristine Sortica da Costa, Topun Austin, Ken M Brady, Marek Czosnyka, Jennifer K Lee
Cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is the physiologic mechanism that holds cerebral blood flow (CBF) relatively constant across changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Cerebral vasoreactivity refers to the vasoconstriction and vasodilation that occur during fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) to maintain autoregulation. These are vital protective mechanisms of the brain. Impairments in pressure autoregulation increase the risk of brain injury and persistent neurologic disability. Autoregulation may be impaired during various neonatal disease states including prematurity, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage, congenital cardiac disease, and infants requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)...
September 8, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192196/a-refined-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-resulting-in-cognitive-impairment-and-a-low-mortality-rate-in-rats
#6
Ahmed Mansour, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Sherif Rashad, Akira Sumiyoshi, Rie Ryoke, Hidenori Endo, Toshiki Endo, Kenichi Sato, Ryuta Kawashima, Teiji Tominaga
OBJECTIVE The cognitive deficits of vascular dementia and the vasoocclusive state of moyamoya disease have often been mimicked with bilateral stenosis/occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) declines abruptly in these models after ligation of the CCA, which differs from "chronic" cerebral hypoperfusion. While some modified but time-consuming techniques have used staged occlusion of both CCAs, others used microcoils for CCA stenosis, producing an adverse effect on the arterial endothelium...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178324/cerebral-hemodynamics-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-patients-with-consequences-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Alexey O Trofimov, George Kalentiev, Michael Karelsky, Cristina Ksenofontova, Alevtina Ruzavina, Michail Yuriev, Denis E Bragin
In recent years, hopes for better treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have focused on non-pharmacologic transcranial electrical brain stimulation; however, studies of perfusion changes after stimulation are few and contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess cerebral perfusion after high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in patients with posttraumatic encephalopathy (PTE). METHODS: Twenty patients with PTE (16 men and 4 women, aged 35...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149778/perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-large-animal-models-relevance-to-human-neonatal-encephalopathy
#8
Raymond C Koehler, Zeng-Jin Yang, Jennifer K Lee, Lee J Martin
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia resulting in death or lifelong disabilities remains a major clinical disorder. Neonatal models of hypoxia-ischemia in rodents have enhanced our understanding of cellular mechanisms of neural injury in developing brain, but have limitations in simulating the range, accuracy, and physiology of clinical hypoxia-ischemia and the relevant systems neuropathology that contribute to the human brain injury pattern. Large animal models of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia, such as partial or complete asphyxia at the time of delivery of fetal monkeys, umbilical cord occlusion and cerebral hypoperfusion at different stages of gestation in fetal sheep, and severe hypoxia and hypoperfusion in newborn piglets, have largely overcome these limitations...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092283/topological-remodeling-of-cortical-perineuronal-nets-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-mild-hypoperfusion
#9
Egor Dzyubenko, Daniel Manrique-Castano, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Andreas Faissner, Dirk M Hermann
Despite the crucial role of perineuronal nets (PNNs) in neural plasticity and neurological disorders, their ultrastructural organization remains largely unresolved. We have developed a novel approach combining superresolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) and mathematical reconstruction that allows for quantitative analysis of PNN topology. Since perineuronal matrix is capable to restrict neural plasticity but at the same time is necessary to maintain synapses, we hypothesized that a beneficial post stroke recovery requires a reversible loosening of PNNs...
August 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084882/brain-perfusion-regional-volumes-and-cognitive-function-in-hiv-positive-patients-treated-with-protease-inhibitor-monotherapy
#10
Lewis J Haddow, Claudia Godi, Magdalena Sokolska, M Jorge Cardoso, Ruth Oliver, Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Fabian Chen, Ian G Williams, Margaret Johnson, Nick Paton, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Xavier Golay, Hans Rolf Jäger
Background: Protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIM) for HIV may exert suboptimal viral control in the central nervous system. We determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional brain volumes were associated with PIM, and whether specific cognitive domains were associated with imaging biomarkers. Methods: Cognitive assessment and brain MRI were performed after the final visit of a randomized HIV treatment strategy trial. Participants were virologically suppressed on triple therapy at trial entry and followed for 3-5 years...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010004/hypoxia-promotes-tau-hyperphosphorylation-with-associated-neuropathology-in-vascular-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Limor Raz, Kiran Bhaskar, John Weaver, Sandro Marini, Quanguang Zhang, Jeffery F Thompson, Candice Espinoza, Sulaiman Iqbal, Nicole M Maphis, Lea Weston, Laurel O Sillerud, Arvind Caprihan, John C Pesko, Erik B Erhardt, Gary A Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Hypertension-induced microvascular brain injury is a major vascular contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia. We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia promotes the hyperphosphorylation of tau and cell death in an accelerated spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat model of vascular cognitive impairment. METHODS: Hypertensive male rats (n = 13) were fed a high salt, low protein Japanese permissive diet and were compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats (n = 5)...
July 25, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973904/mild-intrauterine-hypoperfusion-leads-to-lumbar-and-cortical-hyperexcitability-spasticity-and-muscle-dysfunctions-in-rats-implications-for-prematurity
#12
Jacques-Olivier Coq, Maxime Delcour, Yuko Ogawa, Julie Peyronnet, Francis Castets, Nathalie Turle-Lorenzo, Valérie Montel, Laurence Bodineau, Phillipe Cardot, Cécile Brocard, Sylvie Liabeuf, Bruno Bastide, Marie-Hélène Canu, Masahiro Tsuji, Florence Cayetanot
Intrauterine ischemia-hypoxia is detrimental to the developing brain and leads to white matter injury (WMI), encephalopathy of prematurity (EP), and often to cerebral palsy (CP), but the related pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. In prior studies, we used mild intrauterine hypoperfusion (MIUH) in rats to successfully reproduce the diversity of clinical signs of EP, and some CP symptoms. Briefly, MIUH led to inflammatory processes, diffuse gray and WMI, minor locomotor deficits, musculoskeletal pathologies, neuroanatomical and functional disorganization of the primary somatosensory and motor cortices, delayed sensorimotor reflexes, spontaneous hyperactivity, deficits in sensory information processing, memory and learning impairments...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945839/cerebrovascular-injuries-found-in-acute-type-b-aortic-dissections-are-associated-with-blood-pressure-derangements-and-poor-outcome
#13
Ziad Al Adas, Alexander D Shepard, Mitchell R Weaver, Daniel J Miller, Timothy J Nypaver, Sumul Modi, Muhammad Affan, Khaled Nour, Praveen Balraj, Loay S Kabbani
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular injury (CVI) is a recognized but underappreciated complication of acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD). This study was performed to determine risk factors for CVI associated with ATBAD and, in particular, the possible contributory role of aggressive anti-impulse therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients presenting to a tertiary medical center with an ATBAD between January 2003 and October 2012 was conducted. All CVIs were adjudicated by a vascular neurologist and assigned a probable cause...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933009/roflumilast-promotes-memory-recovery-and-attenuates-white-matter-injury-in-aged-rats-subjected-to-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#14
Amanda Santiago, Lígia Mendes Soares, Melissa Schepers, Humberto Milani, Tim Vanmierlo, Jos Prickaerts, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been associated with aging-related vascular dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. It can be induced by the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4VO/ICA) model in aged rats, resulting in persistent memory deficits, white matter injury, and significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I) roflumilast has been reported to have pro-cognitive effects in several behavioral paradigms. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated roflumilast treatment in aged rats that were subjected to CCH...
August 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867577/rat-pial-microvascular-changes-during-cerebral-blood-flow-decrease-and-recovery-effects-of-cyanidin-administration
#15
Teresa Mastantuono, Martina Di Maro, Martina Chiurazzi, Laura Battiloro, Espedita Muscariello, Gilda Nasti, Noemy Starita, Antonio Colantuoni, Dominga Lapi
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to play a major role in many pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia and reperfusion injury. The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vivo cyanidin (anthocyanin) effects on damages induced by rat pial microvascular hypoperfusion-reperfusion injury by cerebral blood flow decrease (CBFD) and subsequent cerebral blood flow recovery (CBFR). In particular, the main purpose was to detect changes in ROS production after cyanidin administration. Rat pial microvasculature was investigated using fluorescence microscopy through a cranial window (closed); Strahler's method was utilized to define the geometric features of pial vessels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867570/xinnao-shutong-modulates-the-neuronal-plasticity-through-regulation-of-microglia-macrophage-polarization-following-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#16
Liye Wang, Rongliang Wang, Zhigang Chen, Haiping Zhao, Yumin Luo
Xinnao shutong (XNST) capsules have been clinically used in China to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that XNST has significant neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral ischemic stroke. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of XNST treatment following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with XNST or vehicle following permanent bilateral common carotid artery (BCCA) ligation. Body weight was recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 post-surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780723/cerebral-perfusion-issues-in-type-a-aortic-dissection
#17
REVIEW
Davide Pacini, Giacomo Murana, Luca Di Marco, Marianna Berardi, Carlo Mariani, Giuditta Coppola, Mariafrancesca Fiorentino, Alessandro Leone, Roberto Di Bartolomeo
Stroke events are very common in acute type A aortic dissection. Cerebral malperfusion could manifest at presentation due to prolonged arch vessels hypoperfusion or develop after surgery for inadequate cerebral protection during arch repair. To reduce this detrimental complication there are several adjuncts that can be adopted for cerebral protection such as direct antegrade or retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) and use period of deep to moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest time; however, they are often insufficient as preoperative malperfusion already caused irreversible ischemic damages...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722318/-panax-ginseng-extract-attenuates-neuronal-injury-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-with-vascular-dementia-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#18
Jun-De Zhu, Jun-Jie Wang, Xian-Hu Zhang, Yan Yu, Zhao-Sheng Kang
Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713525/efficacy-of-osthole-in-management-of-hypoperfused-retina
#19
Ran Du, Zhao-Yang Meng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yan-Ling Wang
Purpose: To determine the effect of osthole on the retina in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rat model and to investigate its therapeutic activity. Methods: Seventy-two rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups. CCH was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in five groups. Sham surgery was performed without occlusion of the artery in the sixth group (control group). Animals were administered with saline (model group), osthole (osthole-IG group), aspirin (aspirin group), or ginaton (ginaton group); the osthole-PI group was performed with peribulbar injection of osthole...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668855/the-negative-ultraslow-potential-electrophysiological-correlate-of-infarction-in-the-human-cortex
#20
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
June 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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