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molecular neuroscience

Marco Palombo, Daniel C Alexander, Hui Zhang
To date, numerical simulations of the brain tissue have been limited by their lack of realism and flexibility. The purpose of this work is to propose a controlled and flexible generative model for brain cell morphology and an efficient computational pipeline for the reliable and robust simulation of realistic cellular structures with application to numerical simulation of intra-cellular diffusion-weighted MR (DW-MR) signal features. Inspired by the advances in computational neuroscience for modelling brain cells, we propose a generative model that enables users to simulate molecular diffusion within realistic digital brain cells, such as neurons, in a completely controlled and flexible fashion...
December 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Luis A Natividad, Matthew W Buczynski, Daniel B McClatchy, John R Yates
Drug addiction is a complex disorder driven by dysregulation in molecular signaling across several different brain regions. Limited therapeutic options currently exist for treating drug addiction and related psychiatric disorders in clinical populations, largely due to our incomplete understanding of the molecular pathways that influence addiction pathology. Recent work provides strong evidence that addiction-related behaviors emerge from the convergence of many subtle changes in molecular signaling networks that include neuropeptides (neuropeptidome), protein-protein interactions (interactome) and post-translational modifications such as protein phosphorylation (phosphoproteome)...
December 9, 2018: Proteomes
Alexander V Gourine, Gareth L Ackland
Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise.
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Eran A Mukamel, John Ngai
The diversity of brain cell types was one of the earliest observations in modern neuroscience and continues to be one of the central concerns of current neuroscience research. Despite impressive recent progress, including single cell transcriptome and epigenome profiling as well as anatomical methods, we still lack a complete census or taxonomy of brain cell types. We argue this is due partly to the conceptual difficulty in defining a cell type. By considering the biological drivers of cell identity, such as networks of genes and gene regulatory elements, we propose a definition of cell type that emphasizes self-stabilizing regulation...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jesse M Gray, Ivo Spiegel
Experience leaves a lasting mark on neural circuit function in part through activity-regulated gene (ARG) expression. New genome wide approaches have revealed that ARG programs are highly cell-type-specific, raising the possibility that they mediate different forms of experience-dependent plasticity in different cell types. The cell-type specificity of these gene programs is achieved by a combination of cell-intrinsic mechanisms that determine the transcriptional response of each neuronal subtype to a given stimulus and by cell-extrinsic mechanisms that influence the nature of the stimulus a cell receives...
December 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Abraham Z Snyder, Adam Q Bauer
Mapping the structural and functional connectivity of the brain is a major focus of systems neuroscience research and will help to identify causally important changes in neural circuitry responsible for behavioral dysfunction. Several methods for examining brain activity in humans have been extended to rodent and monkey models in which molecular and genetic manipulations exist for linking to human disease. In this review, which is part of a special issue focused on bridging brain connectivity information across species and spatiotemporal scales, we address mapping brain activity and neural connectivity in rodents using optogenetics in conjunction with either functional magnetic resonance imaging or optical intrinsic signal imaging...
October 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Matthew W Johnson, Peter S Hendricks, Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yijia Pan, Sangpil Yoon, Linshan Zhu, Yingxiao Wang
From basic studies in understanding the role of signaling pathways to therapeutic applications in engineering new cellular functions, efficient and safe techniques to monitor and modulate molecular targets from cells to organs have been extensively developed. The developmental advancement of engineering devices such as microscope and ultrasonic transducers allows us to investigate biological processes at different scales. Synthetic biology has further emerged recently as a powerful platform for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic molecular tools...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Nikolay T Tzvetkov, Atanas G Atanasov
Background: Considering the enormous progress in the field of neuropharmacology and its global importance, as well as the lack of bibliometric studies examining this field as a whole, it is a high time to assess the prevailing topics and citation performances of its research works. Methods : Web of Science (WoS) was searched to identify relevant neuropharmacology articles, which were analyzed with reference to (1) publication year, (2) journal title, (3) total citation count, (4) authorship, (5) WoS category, and (6) manuscript type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mei He, Jing-Xiang Wei, Min Mao, Guo-Yan Zhao, Jun-Jie Tang, Shuang Feng, Xiu-Min Lu, Yong-Tang Wang
The studying of synaptic plasticity, the ability of synaptic connections between neurons to be weakened or strengthened and specifically long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), is one of the most active areas of research in neuroscience. The process of synaptic connections playing a crucial role in improving cognitive processes is important to the processing of information in brain. In general, the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity was involved in a wide spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including some neurodegenerative disorders...
November 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chiara La Rosa, Luca Bonfanti
Comparative medicine deals with similarities and differences between veterinary and human medicine. All mammals share most basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, thus justifying murine animal models in a translational perspective; yet "mice are not men," thus some biases can emerge when complex biological processes are concerned. Brain plasticity is a cutting-edge, expanding topic in the field of Neurosciences with important translational implications, yet, with remarkable differences among mammals, as emerging from comparative studies...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Gongchen Sun, Hang Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Hans Liljenström
One of the greatest challenges to science, in particular, to neuroscience, is to understand how processes at different levels of organization are related to each other. In connection with this problem is the question of the functional significance of fluctuations, noise, and chaos. This paper deals with three related issues: (1) how processes at different organizational levels of neural systems might be related, (2) the functional significance of non-linear neurodynamics, including oscillations, chaos, and noise, and (3) how computational models can serve as useful tools in elucidating these types of issues...
October 2018: Chaos
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Konstantin A Demin, Vadim A Shevyrin, Allan V Kalueff
Flakka (alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP) is a new psychoactive substance, chemically close to cathinone, the primary psychoactive alkaloid of khat ( Catha edulis). Like other synthetic cathinones, α-PVP is a potent inhibitor of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. Its robust clinical effects include hallucinations, arousal, aggression/violence, and euphoria. In animal models, α-PVP evokes hyperlocomotion and aberrant/stereotypic behaviors. Here, we discuss the history, synthesis, pharmacological mechanisms, metabolism, abuse potential, and societal impact of α-PVP...
November 26, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Michihiro Igarashi, Motohiro Nozumi, Ling-Gang Wu, Francesca Cella Zanacchi, István Katona, László Barna, Pingyong Xu, Mingshu Zhang, Fudong Xue, Edward Boyden
Superresolution microscopy (SM) techniques are among the revolutionary methods for molecular and cellular observations in the 21st century. SM techniques overcome optical limitations, and several new observations using SM lead us to expect these techniques to have a large impact on neuroscience in the near future. Several types of SM have been developed, including structured illumination microscopy (SIM), stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), and photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)/stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), each with special features...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Adesuyi A L Ajayi
Chloroquine (CQ) is an antimalarial drug that elicits severe pruritus in black Africans with malaria fever. This acute itching (2-7 days duration) exhibits age dependency and a racial and genetic predilection. CQ itch is non-histaminergic, which makes it both a good model and a tool to probe the mechanisms of chronic itch. This review focuses on recently discovered mechanisms, neuroscience, mediators, and receptors that are implicated in molecular studies of CQ pruritus. CQ pruritus mechanisms are also compared to that of itching following other systemic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, skin disorders, and burns...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Gregory M James, Gregor Gryglewski, Thomas Vanicek, Neydher Berroterán-Infante, Cécile Philippe, Alexander Kautzky, Lukas Nics, Chrysoula Vraka, Godber M Godbersen, Jakob Unterholzner, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Marie Spies, René Seiger, Georg S Kranz, Andreas Hahn, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Andreas Bauer, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Parcellation of distinct areas in the cerebral cortex has a long history in neuroscience and is of great value for the study of brain function, specialization, and alterations in neuropsychiatric disorders. Analysis of cytoarchitectonical features has revealed their close association with molecular profiles based on protein density. This provides a rationale for the use of in vivo molecular imaging data for parcellation of the cortex with the advantage of whole-brain coverage. In the current work, parcellation was based on expression of key players of the serotonin neurotransmitter system...
October 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Hyun Yong Koh, Jeong Ho Lee
During the cortical development, cells in the brain acquire somatic mutations that can be implicated in various neurodevelopmental disorders. There is increasing evidence that brain somatic mutations lead to sporadic form of epileptic disorders with previously unknown etiology. In particular, malformation of cortical developments (MCD), ganglioglioma (GG) associated with intractable epilepsy and non-lesional focal epilepsy (NLFE) are known to be attributable to brain somatic mutations in mTOR pathway genes and others...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Nancy N Ortiz-Villatoro, Fulvio A Scorza, Esper A Cavalheiro, Carla A Scorza
Background : Diverse forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) have been described, but one of the most investigated is encountered in the glutamatergic synapses of the hippocampal cornu Ammonis (CA1) subfield. However, little is known about synaptic plasticity in wildlife populations. Laboratory animals are extremely inbred populations that have been disconnected from their natural environment and so their essential ecological aspects are entirely absent. Proechimys are small rodents from Brazil's Amazon rainforest and their nervous systems have evolved to carry out specific tasks of their unique ecological environment...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Arshad M Khan, Alice H Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully A P C Burns, Brendan S Thatcher, Vishwanath T Anekonda, Benjamin W Thompson, Zachary S Roberts, Daniel H Moralejo, James E Blevins
This article focuses on approaches to link transcriptomic, proteomic, and peptidomic datasets mined from brain tissue to the original locations within the brain that they are derived from using digital atlas mapping techniques. We use, as an example, the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic analyses conducted in the mammalian hypothalamus. Following a brief historical overview, we highlight studies that have mined biochemical and molecular information from the hypothalamus and then lay out a strategy for how these data can be linked spatially to the mapped locations in a canonical brain atlas where the data come from, thereby allowing researchers to integrate these data with other datasets across multiple scales...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
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