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molecular neuroscience

Risako Nakai, Mari Ohnuki, Kota Kuroki, Haruka Ito, Hirohisa Hirai, Ryunosuke Kitajima, Toko Fujimoto, Masato Nakagawa, Wolfgang Enard, Masanori Imamura
Non-human primates are our closest relatives and are of special interest for ecological, evolutionary and biomedical research. The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) has contributed to the progress of primatology and neurosciences over 60 years. Despite this importance, the molecular and cellular basis of the Japanese macaque remains unexplored since useful cellular tools are lacking. Here we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from skin fibroblasts of the Japanese macaque with Sendai virus or plasmid vectors...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Haibo Ni, Stefano Morotti, Eleonora Grandi
In cardiac electrophysiology, there exist many sources of inter- and intra-personal variability. These include variability in conditions and environment, and genotypic and molecular diversity, including differences in expression and behavior of ion channels and transporters, which lead to phenotypic diversity (e.g., variable integrated responses at the cell, tissue, and organ levels). These variabilities play an important role in progression of heart disease and arrhythmia syndromes and outcomes of therapeutic interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tayfun Tumkaya, Stanislav Ott, Adam Claridge-Chang
Geneticists use olfactory conditioning in Drosophila to identify learning genes; however, little is known about how these genes are integrated into short-term memory (STM) pathways. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the STM evidence base is weak. We performed systematic review and meta-analysis of the field. Using metrics to quantify variation between discovery articles and follow-up studies, we found that seven genes were both highly replicated, and highly reproducible. However, ~80% of STM genes have never been replicated...
August 2, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Bart P F Rutten
Epigenetics refers to environmentally sensitive modifications to DNA and chromatin that regulate gene transcription without altering the genetic sequence itself. Because of the brain's central role in a person's adaptation to dynamic changes in the environment, the field of epigenetic research is particularly pertinent for the neurosciences and mental health and illness. "Neuroepigenetics" refers to the field of epigenetics, as applied to research of the nervous system and related functional abilities...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Juan P Jiménez, Alberto Botto, Luisa Herrera, Caroline Leighton, José L Rossi, Yamil Quevedo, Jaime R Silva, Felipe Martínez, Rodrigo Assar, Luis A Salazar, Manuel Ortiz, Ulises Ríos, Paulina Barros, Karina Jaramillo, Patrick Luyten
Recent research in psychiatric genetics has led to a move away from simple diathesis-stress models to more complex models of psychopathology incorporating a focus on gene-environment interactions and epigenetics. Our increased understanding of the way biology encodes the impact of life events on organisms has also generated more sophisticated theoretical models concerning the molecular processes at the interface between "nature" and "nurture." There is also increasing consensus that psychotherapy entails a specific type of learning in the context of an emotional relationship (i...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Abby K Scurfield
Signaling transduction pathways are now known to be foundational mechanisms for a wide variety of biological function. Nobel laureate Paul Greengard dedicated his early career to the exploration of how these molecular cascades are triggered by neurotransmitters, hence applying a general phenomenon to the nervous system. A review by Hemmings, Nairn, McGuinness, Huganir, and Greengard published in the FASEB journal in 1989 identifies three different effects of protein phosphorylation, namely vesicle release, modulation of receptor sensitivity, and initiation of positive or negative feedback systems...
2018: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Swastik Phulera, Hongtao Zhu, Jie Yu, Derek P Claxton, Nate Yoder, Craig Yoshioka, Eric Gouaux
Fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian nervous system is largely mediated by GABAA receptors, chloride-selective members of the superfamily of pentameric Cys-loop receptors. Native GABAA receptors are heteromeric assemblies sensitive to many important drugs, from sedatives to anesthetics and anticonvulsant agents, with mutant forms of GABAA receptors implicated in multiple neurological diseases. Despite the profound importance of heteromeric GABAA receptors in neuroscience and medicine, they have proven recalcitrant to structure determination...
July 25, 2018: ELife
M C Soares, R Gerlai, C Maximino
Animal-focused research has been crucial for scientific advancement, but rodents are still taking a starring role. Starting as merely supporting evidence found in rodents, the use of fish models has slowly taken a more central role and expanded its overall contributions in areas such as social sciences, evolution, physiology and recently in translational medical research. In the neurosciences, zebrafish Danio rerio have been widely adopted, contributing to our understanding of the genetic control of brain processes and the effects of pharmacological manipulations...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Ramon Guirado, Héctor Carceller, Esther Castillo-Gómez, Eero Castrén, Juan Nacher
The quantification of the expression of different molecules is a key question in both basic and applied sciences. While protein quantification through molecular techniques leads to the loss of spatial information and resolution, immunohistochemistry is usually associated with time-consuming image analysis and human bias. In addition, the scarce automatic software analysis is often proprietary and expensive and relies on a fixed threshold binarization. Here we describe and share a set of macros ready for automated fluorescence analysis of large batches of fixed tissue samples using FIJI/ImageJ...
June 2018: Heliyon
Hirofumi Tanaka, Megumi Akai-Kasaya, Amin TermehYousefi, Liu Hong, Lingxiang Fu, Hakaru Tamukoh, Daisuke Tanaka, Tetsuya Asai, Takuji Ogawa
In contrast to AI hardware, neuromorphic hardware is based on neuroscience, wherein constructing both spiking neurons and their dense and complex networks is essential to obtain intelligent abilities. However, the integration density of present neuromorphic devices is much less than that of human brains. In this report, we present molecular neuromorphic devices, composed of a dynamic and extremely dense network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) complexed with polyoxometalate (POM). We show experimentally that the SWNT/POM network generates spontaneous spikes and noise...
July 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Jean-Philippe Brosseau, Dominique C Pichard, Eric H Legius, Pierre Wolkenstein, Robert M Lavker, Jaishri O Blakeley, Vincent M Riccardi, Sharad K Verma, Isaac Brownell, Lu Q Le
OBJECTIVE: A group of experts in dermatology, genetics, neuroscience, and regenerative medicine collaborated to summarize current knowledge on the defined factors contributing to cutaneous neurofibroma (cNF) development and to provide consensus recommendations for future research priorities to gain an improved understanding of the biology of cNF. METHODS: The group members reviewed published and unpublished data on cNF and related diseases via literature search, defined a set of key topic areas deemed critical in cNF pathogenesis, and developed recommendations in a series of consensus meetings...
July 10, 2018: Neurology
Scott Barish, Pelin C Volkan
The olfactory system of Drosophila is a widely used system in developmental neurobiology, systems neuroscience, as well as neurophysiology, behavior, and behavioral evolution. Drosophila olfactory tissues house the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that detect volatile chemical cues in addition to hydro- and thermo-sensory neurons. In this protocol, we describe the dissection of developing peripheral olfactory tissue of the adult Drosophila species. We first describe how to stage and age Drosophila larvae, followed by the dissection of the antennal disc from early pupal stages, followed by the dissection of the antennae from mid-pupal stages and adults...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
R Nitsch, F W Stahnisch
Research on memory has been a major focus in the neurosciences over the past decades. An important advance was achieved by Wilder Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute, who reported from the 1930s to the 1950s about experiential phenomena induced by electrical brain stimulation in humans, implying neuronal causation of memory. Since then, neuroscientists have addressed the topic of memory from a range of subdisciplines; however, these reports by Penfield and his group as well as those on patient H...
July 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Anna-Sophia Wahl
Current experimental stroke research faces the same challenge as neuroscience: to transform correlative findings in causative ones. Research of recent years has shown the tremendous potential of the central nervous system to react to noxious stimuli such as a stroke: Increased plastic changes leading to reorganization in form of neuronal rewiring, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis, accompanied by transcriptional and translational turnover in the affected cells, have been described both clinically and in experimental stroke research...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Margaret M McCarthy
Identifying and understanding the sources of inherent risk to neurodevelopmental disorders is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Being male or being exposed to inflammation early in life are two known risk factors, but they are only infrequently associated with each other. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the masculinization of the brain in animal models reveal a consistent role for inflammatory signaling molecules and immune cells in the healthy male brain. Why this is so remains in the realm of speculation but may have its origins in the maternal immune system...
June 29, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Bevil R Conway, Rhea T Eskew, Paul R Martin, Andrew Stockman
The study of color vision encompasses many disciplines, including art, biochemistry, biophysics, brain imaging, cognitive neuroscience, color preferences, colorimetry, computer modelling, design, electrophysiology, language and cognition, molecular genetics, neuroscience, physiological optics, psychophysics and physiological optics. Coupled with the elusive nature of the subjective experience of color, this wide range of disciplines makes the study of color as challenging as it is fascinating. This overview of the special issue Color: Cone Opponency and Beyond outlines the state of the science of color, and points to some of the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field...
June 27, 2018: Vision Research
Srikant Rangaraju, Eric B Dammer, Syed Ali Raza, Tianwen Gao, Hailian Xiao, Ranjita Betarbet, Duc M Duong, James A Webster, Chadwick M Hales, James J Lah, Allan I Levey, Nicholas T Seyfried
BACKGROUND: Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain that perform phagocytic and inflammatory functions in disease conditions. Transcriptomic studies of acutely-isolated microglia have provided novel insights into their molecular and functional diversity in homeostatic and neurodegenerative disease states. State-of-the-art mass spectrometry methods can comprehensively characterize proteomic alterations in microglia in neurodegenerative disorders, potentially providing novel functionally relevant molecular insights that are not provided by transcriptomics...
June 28, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sara Palumbo, Veronica Mariotti, Caterina Iofrida, Silvia Pellegrini
Over the last two decades, the study of the relationship between nature and nurture in shaping human behavior has encountered a renewed interest. Behavioral genetics showed that distinct polymorphisms of genes that code for proteins that control neurotransmitter metabolic and synaptic function are associated with individual vulnerability to aversive experiences, such as stressful and traumatic life events, and may result in an increased risk of developing psychopathologies associated with violence. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that experiencing aversive events modulates gene expression by introducing stable changes to DNA without modifying its sequence, a mechanism known as "epigenetics"...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
David L Perez, Matcheri S Keshavan, Jeremiah M Scharf, Aaron D Boes, Bruce H Price
Neurology and psychiatry share common historical origins and rely on similar tools to study brain disorders. Yet the practical integration of medical and scientific approaches across these clinical neurosciences remains elusive. Although much has been written about the need to incorporate emerging systems-level, cellular-molecular, and genetic-epigenetic advances into a science of mind for psychiatric disorders, less attention has been given to applying clinical neuroscience principles to conceptualize neurologic conditions with an integrated neurobio-psycho-social approach...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Muhammad Javed Iqbal, Muhammad Wasim, Umer Rashid, Nadia Zeeshan, Rizwan Ali, Sawera Nayyab, Sahrish Habib, Bushra Manzoor, Nouman Zahid
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a multifaceted and multistep disorder that disrupts the proper functioning of neurons. It is becoming increasingly clear that the responsiveness of neurons depends on the appropriate trafficking of ions across the channels in the membrane of neurons. In line with this notion, impairment among these ion channels due to mutations has gain increasing attention in molecular neuroscience. METHODS: Mutation analysis of the coding exons (exon 3, 5 and 9) was performed by sequencing GABRG2 to identify any complex biological entities among two different types of epilepsies...
August 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
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