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Sameera Nallanthighal, Ramune Reliene
Owing to new and unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) likely pose different risks than their constituent chemicals and these risks need to be understood. In particular, it is important to assess genotoxicity, since genotoxicity is a precursor to carcinogenicity. Here we describe a battery of tests for the assessment of genotoxicity of NPs in vivo in mice. Mice can be exposed to NPs for various exposure durations and by any route of exposure, provided NPs are absorbed into the systemic blood circulation...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vernon G Thomas
The chemical composition of non-lead, non-toxic, gunshot used for hunting waterfowl is regulated only in Canada and the USA. No nation regulates the composition of non-lead fishing weights, rifle bullets, and gunshot used for upland game hunting. Compositional criteria for these non-lead products are proposed here, based on established experimental toxicity protocols. Because of the demonstrated acute toxicity of ingested zinc shot to birds, fishing weights and gunshot should never be made of this pure metal...
December 13, 2018: Ambio
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
Circadian disruption (CD) was implicated in chains of cancer causation when the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift-work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic in 2007. In the following decade, epidemiological studies into causal concepts associated with circadian disruption were inconclusive. Unappreciated complexity with an exclusive focus on shift-work, light-at-night, sleep, and melatonin in regard to circadian disruption may be accountable. With compelling non-epidemiological evidence, we posit that ubiquitous circadian disruption causes cancer and, moreover, that this is unexplored epidemiologically...
December 13, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mi Kyung Kim
Tankyrases are multifunctional poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including Wnt signaling, telomere maintenance and mitosis regulation. Tankyrases interact with target proteins and regulate their interactions and stability through poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation. In addition to their roles in telomere maintenance and regulation of mitosis, tankyrase proteins regulate tumor suppressors, including AXIN, phosphatase and tensin homolog and angiomotin. Therefore, tankyrases may be effective targets for cancer treatment...
December 2018: Oncology Letters
Qianying Liu, Zhixin Lei, Qin Wu, Deyu Huang, Shuyu Xie, Xu Wang, Yuanhu Pan, Zonghui Yuan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00361.].
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Heuijoon Park, Sonali Lad, Kelsey Boland, Kelly Johnson, Nyssa Readio, Guangchun Jin, Samuel Asfaha, Kelly S Patterson, Ashok Singh, Xiangdong Yang, Douglas Londono, Anupama Singh, Carol Trempus, Derek Gordon, Timothy C Wang, Rebecca J Morris
We used allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and a mouse multistage cutaneous carcinogenesis model to probe recruitment of bone marrow-derived epithelial cells (BMDECs) in skin tumors initiated with the carcinogen, dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). BMDECs clustered in the lesional epithelium, expressed cytokeratins, proliferated, and stratified. We detected cytokeratin induction in plastic-adherent bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultured in the presence of filter-separated keratinocytes (KCs) and bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5)...
December 13, 2018: Nature Communications
L Chen-Chen, C de Jesus Silva Carvalho, A V de Moraes Filho, J H Véras, C G Cardoso, Eflc Bailão, M A Spanó, K S Cunha
Abacavir (ABC), zidovudine (AZT), and lamivudine (3TC) are nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) widely used as combination-based antiretroviral therapy against human immunodeficiency virus. Despite effective viral suppression using NRTI combinations, genotoxic potential of NRTIs can be increased when administered in combination. This study investigated the toxic and genotoxic potential of ABC when administered alone or in combination with AZT and/or 3TC using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster...
December 14, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
David López-Romero, Jeannett A Izquierdo-Vega, José Antonio Morales-González, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Germán Chamorro-Cevallos, Manuel Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel Betanzos-Cabrera, Isela Alvarez-Gonzalez, Ángel Morales-González, Eduardo Madrigal-Santillán
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens, or teratogens. Genotoxins are also involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases, including hepatic, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular disorders; diabetes; arthritis; cancer; chronic inflammation; and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens...
December 10, 2018: Nutrients
Cristina M de Oliveira
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a group of small DNA viruses that, with around 350 million years of evolution, acquired the capacity of infecting a broad range of vertebrates, including humans. To date, more than 300 PV types have been isolated. Viruses that have a long common evolutionary history with their host typically cause unapparent infections. However, in some Alpha-PV infections, lesions become apparent and may cause benign proliferative disorders or even malignant proliferative lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx...
December 13, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Meng Dong, Yong Dong Liu, Rugang Zhong
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as the most frequently detected disinfection by-product has aroused widespread concern due to its unusually high carcinogenicity, however, there is still limited understanding of its formation mechanisms. In this study, the formation mechanisms of NDMA from some typical hydrazines and hydrazones with high NDMA conversion yields (60%∼90%) during ozonation, i.e., unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine (FDMH), formaldehyde dimethylhydrazone (FDH) and acetone dimethylhydrazone (ADMH), were investigated by using DFT method with the M05 functional...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Michael Oluwatoyin Daniyan, Oluwatoyin Tolulope Ojo
Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90) has been investigated as a potential target of antimalarial drug action using naturally occurring compounds. In this study, we performed in silico screening of 236 phytochemicals of Azadirachta indica, a plant known to possess antimalarial activity, and identified fourteen (14) potential non-carcinogenic, non-mutagenic, non-teratogenic and non-genotoxic phytochemicals. These phytochemicals were docked into the ATP-binding site of PfHsp90 using Autodock vina, and docked poses were rescored using PLANTS ChemPlp, X-Score version 1...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Alpana K Gupta, Sonam Tulsyan, Mausumi Bharadwaj, Ravi Mehrotra
Due to the extensive ban on public smoking, tobacco companies focused their business on new smokeless tobacco (SLT) products promoting them as a harm reduction strategy and a safer alternative to cigarettes. Two nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), present in SLT, listed as group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are found to be the prime agents for most of cancers in SLT users. This review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by NNN and NNK in humans along with factors influencing the formation of NNN and NNK at various stages of tobacco manufacturing...
December 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yin Peng, Xiaojing Zhang, Huijuan Lin, Shiqi Deng, Yong Huang, Ying Qin, Xianling Feng, Ruibin Yan, Yanqiu Zhao, Yulan Cheng, Yanjie Wei, Jian Wang, Wangchun Chen, Xinmin Fan, Hassan Ashktorab, Duane Smoot, Stephen J Meltzer, Song Li, Zhong Zhang, Zhe Jin
A mounting body of evidence has revealed that microRNAs (miRs) serve pivotal roles in various developmental processes, and in tumourigenesis, by binding to target genes and subsequently regulating gene expression. Continued activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin signalling is positively associated with human malignancy. In addition, miR‑194 dysregulation has been implicated in gastric cancer (GC); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of miR‑194 on GC carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated...
October 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Tamás Pándics, Ádám Hofer, Gyula Dura, Márta Vargha, Tamás Szigeti, Erika Tóth
While disinfection of swimming pools is indispensable for microbiological safety, it may lead to the formation of disinfection by-products. Most studies agree that inhalation exposure is the predominant pathway of the associated health risks, but assumptions are based on concentrations measured in water and evaporation models. Pool water and air were sampled in 19 swimming pools. Trihalomethanes were detected in all sites; chloroform being the most abundant species. Concentrations ranged between 12.8-71.2 μg/L and 11...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Dinesh Sah, Puneet Kumar Verma, K Maharaj Kumari, Anita Lakhani
Samples of PM2.5 were collected from an urban area close to a national highway in Agra, India and sequentially extracted into four different fractions: water soluble (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fraction (F4) for chemical fractionation of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). The metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in each fraction. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 93 ± 24 μg m-3 ...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
James Ahodantin, Myriam Bou-Nader, Corinne Cordier, Jérôme Mégret, Patrick Soussan, Chantal Desdouets, Dina Kremsdorf
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) contributes to Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cancer. However, its impact on hepatocyte proliferation and genomic stability remains elusive. We studied the role of HBx expression on the progression of cell cycle and liver polyploidization during proliferation and liver carcinogenesis. Full-length HBx transgenic mice (FL-HBx) were developed to investigate liver ploidy as well as hepatocyte proliferation, along normal liver maturation and during cancer initiation (chemical carcinogen treatment)...
December 11, 2018: Oncogene
Jessica De Loma, Noemi Tirado, Franz Ascui, Michael Levi, Marie Vahter, Karin Broberg, Jacques Gardon
Elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic, one of the most potent environmental toxicants and carcinogens, have been detected in well water around Lake Poopó, Bolivia. This study aimed to assess human exposure to arsenic in villages around Lake Poopó, and also to elucidate whether the metabolism and detoxification of arsenic in this population is as efficient as previously indicated in other Andean areas. We recruited 201 women from 10 villages around Lake Poopó. Arsenic exposure was determined as the sum concentration of arsenic metabolites (inorganic arsenic; monomethylarsonic acid, MMA; and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA) in urine (U-As), measured by HPLC-HG-ICP-MS...
December 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Behrooz Kasraee, Parvin Mansouri, Susan Farshi
L-Cysteamine is a biological antioxidant produced during the coenzyme A metabolism cycle and is naturally present in all mammalian cells. The efficacy of topical cysteamine for the treatment of melasma has been recently shown in two double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trials. Herein, we report a 44-year-old patient with melasma resistant to Kligman's formula (Pigmanorm cream), who was successfully treated with topical cysteamine as a new depigmenting agent. Skin colorimetric measurements, MASI score determination, and standard photographies after 2 and 4 months of once daily application of cysteamine cream showed a marked improvement of the hyperpigmented lesions...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Claire Marant-Micallef, Kevin D Shield, Jérôme Vignat, Enora Cléro, Ausrele Kesminiene, Catherine Hill, Agnès Rogel, Blandine Vacquier, Freddie Bray, Dominique Laurier, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Although medical ionizing radiation (IR) has clear clinical benefits, it is an established carcinogen. This study estimates the number of new cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to IR exposure from medical procedures. Exposures from external (X-rays, CT scans, interventional radiology) and internal (nuclear medicine) sources were considered. We used 2007 national frequencies of diagnostic examinations by sex and age to estimate the lifetime organ dose exposure adjusted for changes in the use of such procedures over time...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hayato Nakagawa, Nobumi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Koike
A good mouse model is mandatory for elucidating carcinogenic mechanisms and identifying the cellular origin of cancer. Although the lack of an appropriate mouse model has hampered investigation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), we recently established a novel mouse model of biliary injury-related ECC by ductal cell-specific activation of Kras and deletion of transforming growth factor (TGF) β receptor type 2 and E-cadherin. Using this mouse model, we identified that peribiliary glands, which are considered a biliary epithelial stem cell niche, are potential cellular origins of ECC...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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