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Yinka Titilawo, Abiodun Adeniji, Mobolaji Adeniyi, Anthony Okoh
This study evaluated levels of heavy metals and macro-elements in ten major rivers in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. Triplicate water samples collected from selected rivers were analyzed for metal pollutants by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations were obtained as follows: iron: 60-960 μg L-1 ; manganese: ND - 3 μg L-1 ; chromium 0-2100 μg L-1 ; aluminium: 0-800 μg L-1 ; copper: 0-1350 μg L-1 ; zinc: 10-650 μg L-1 ; calcium: 6400-232000 μg L-1 and magnesium: 2000-71000 μg L-1 but lead was not detected...
August 1, 2018: Chemosphere
T Kobets, M J Iatropoulos, J D Duan, K D Brunnemann, D A Iacobas, S Iacobas, E Vock, U Deschl, G M Williams
The Chicken Egg Genotoxicity Assay (CEGA) demonstrated responsiveness to various DNA-reactive chemicals requiring metabolic activation, which implies broad biactivation capability. To assess potential metabolic competence, expression profiles of metabolic genes in the embryo-fetal chicken livers were determined using microarray technology. Fertilized chicken eggs were injected under the CEGA protocol with vehicle (deionized water (DW)), the activation-dependent carcinogens, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) at doses producing no effect on survival...
August 9, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ben Niu, Denise M Coslo, Alain R Bataille, Istvan Albert, B Franklin Pugh, Curtis J Omiecinski
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a nuclear receptor orchestrating complex roles in cell and systems biology. Species differences in CAR's effector pathways remain poorly understood, including its role in regulating liver tumor promotion. We developed transgenic mouse models to assess genome-wide binding of mouse and human CAR, following receptor activation in liver with direct ligands and with phenobarbital, an indirect CAR activator. Genomic interaction profiles were integrated with transcriptional and biological pathway analyses...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Akos Banyasz, Lara Martínez-Fernández, Roberto Improta, Tiia-Maaria Ketola, Clémence Balty, Dimitra Markovitsi
Recent studies have evidenced that oxidatively damaged DNA, which potentially leads to carcinogenic mutations and aging, may result from the direct absorption of low-energy photons (>250 nm). Herein, the primary species, i.e., ejected electrons and base radicals associated with such damage in duplexes with an alternating guanine-cytosine sequence are quantified by nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The one-photon ionization quantum yield at 266 nm is 1.2 × 10-3, which is similar to those reported previously for adenine-thymine duplexes...
August 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nor Diyana Md Sani, Lee Yook Heng, Radha Swathe Priya Malon Marugan, Nor Fadilah Rajab
The presence of carcinogens in food is a major food safety concern. A nanocomposite-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was constructed for potential carcinogen detection in food samples by immobilizing amine terminated single stranded DNA onto silica nanospheres deposited onto a screen-printed electrode modified using gold nanoparticles. The effect of three different DNA sequences: 15-base guanine, 24-base guanine and 24-base adenine-thymine rich DNA on carcinogen (formaldehyde and acrylamide) detection was evaluated...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Gaofei Hu, Huaizhi Liu, Yan Zhu, Marta Hernandez, Tatiana Koutchma, Suqin Shao
Furan, which has been identified as a carcinogenic risk for humans, can be induced in different foods by UV-C light. In this study, we hypothesized that furan was produced by a UV light-induced free radical mechanism and antioxidants could suppress its formation. Our results demonstrated that, by adding antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyl toluene, ascorbic acid or gallic acid, to simulated juice or apple cider during UV-C treatment, amounts of furan were significantly reduced. For example, the concentration of furan produced in apple cider by UV-C at 9...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Che-Jui Chang, Yu-Kang Tu, Pau-Chung Chen, Hsiao-Yu Yang
Talc powder is widely used in various industries, but the carcinogenic effects associated with talc are not well understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of stomach cancer after occupational talc exposure. We conducted a meta-analysis was performed to calculate the meta-relative risk (mRR) of stomach cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI and Wanfang Data databases for publications prior to January 1, 2017 using talc, cancer, and mortality as the search terms. Only cohort studies with occupational talc exposure and stomach cancer statistics were included...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Pei Lei, Ke Pan, Hong Zhang, Jianlin Bi
Concentrations, sources and risk of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments from 19 representative tributaries in a regional scale of Chongqing City. The total concentration of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) ranged from 221 to 3205 ng g-1 with a mean of 1055 ng g-1 . Most tributaries of the Jialing River exhibited significantly higher ΣPAHs concentrations (mean 1864 ng g-1 ) compared to those flowing into the Yangtze River (mean 787 ng g-1 ). Isomeric ratio and hierarchical clustering analysis showed combustion may impact sedimentary PAHs at most center sites of the City, while PAHs at most sites were mixed of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources...
August 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Eric S Johnson, Mohammed Faramawi, Irene P Chedjieu, Robert Delongchamp, Kyung-Mee Choi, Tianjiao Shen
Certain viruses naturally infect and cause cancer in chickens and turkeys. Humans are widely exposed. The viruses cause cancer in primates, and transform human cells in vitro, but it is not known if they cause cancer in humans, mainly because of the lack of epidemiologic evidence. We conducted cohort mortality studies of workers in poultry slaughtering/processing plants across the United States, because they have the highest human exposures. An excess of lung cancer and other deaths was recorded in the poultry workers...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Research
Farhad Sharafati Chaleshtori, Ayda Arian, Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori
The purpose was to assess of sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium sorbate (PS) preservatives in 103 samples of cake, toast bread, tomato paste, mayonnaise sauce, carbonated soft drink and Olovieh salad in Kashan, by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The chronic daily intake (CDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) of SB and PS for Iranian population were calculated. The results showed that SB and PS were not detected in the tomato paste samples. SB and PS concentrations for all samples were less than regulatory limits except for PS in one cake sample (3...
August 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Qian Wang, Jiayi Wang, Wu Ding, Dequan Zhang, Kevin Reed, Boce Zhang
Preservatives in processed meat raise significant concerns associated with bowel cancer and diabetes, and implicate various public health issues. This introduces the need for safer preservatives to uphold public health standards. However, developing safer alternatives to these preservatives poses a significant challenge to food industry. A potential solution to this issue is the use of loaded nanoparticles as preservative agents. This study investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sorbic acid-loaded chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (SAN) in Chinese Sausage...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Aisha Siddiqi, Bano Saidullah, Sarwat Sultana
The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin, a flavonoid on DEN initiated and Fe-NTA promoted renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Renal cancer was initiated by a single i.p. injection of DEN (200 mg/kg b.wt.) and promoted with Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg b.wt. i.p.) twice a week for 16 weeks. Rats were simultaneously administered with hesperidin (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt.) for 16 consecutive weeks. The chemopreventive effect of hesperidin was assessed in terms of antioxidant activities, renal function, PGE2 level, and the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF...
August 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Wei-Hwa Lee, Li-Ching Chen, Chia-Jung Lee, Chi-Cheng Huang, Yuan-Soon Ho, Po-Sheng Yang, Chi-Tang Ho, Hang-Lung Chang, I-Hsuan Lin, Hui-Wen Chang, Yun-Ru Liu, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Shih-Hsin Tu
The DNA primase polypeptide 1 (PRIM1) is responsible for synthesizing small RNA primers for Okazaki fragments generated during discontinuous DNA replication. PRIM1 mRNA expression levels in breast tumor samples were detected by real-time PCR analysis. Xenografted tumor model was established to study the carcinogenic role of PRIM1 and its potential therapeutic applications. The average PRIM1 mRNA (copy number x 103 /μg) expression was 4.7-fold higher in tumors than in normal tissue (*p = 0.005, n = 254). PRIM1 was detected preferentially at a higher level (> 40-fold) in poorly differentiated tumor tissues (n = 46) compared with more highly differentiated tumors tissues (n = 10) (*p = 0...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ankit Hirpara, Mathew Bloomfield, Peter Duesberg
It has been known for over 100 years that cancers have individual karyotypes and arise only years to decades after initiating carcinogens. However, there is still no coherent theory to explain these definitive characteristics of cancer. The prevailing mutation theory holds that cancers are late because the primary cell must accumulate 3⁻8 causative mutations to become carcinogenic and that mutations, which induce chromosomal instability (CIN), generate the individual karyotypes of cancers. However, since there is still no proven set of mutations that transforms a normal to a cancer cell, we have recently advanced the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation...
August 9, 2018: Genes
Maite de Blas, Pablo Ibáñez, Jose Antonio García, Maria Carmen Gómez, Marino Navazo, Lucio Alonso, Nieves Durana, Jon Iza, Gotzon Gangoiti, Estíbaliz Sáez de Cámara
On rural background areas atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) is important for its abundance and chemical reactivity, directly linked to the tropospheric ozone formation processes. HCHO is also toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Atmospheric HCHO was continuously measured in summer 2016 during 81 days (N = 6722, average: 1.42 ppbv) in a rural background area in Northern Spain, Valderejo Natural Park (VNP) using a Hantzsch fluorimetric system. To better characterize the photochemical processes the database was completed with hourly measurements of 63 Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) performed by gas chromatography and other common atmospheric pollutants and meteorological parameters...
July 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Harm J Heusinkveld, Paul Fk Wackers, Willem G Schoonen, Leo van der Ven, Jeroen LA Pennings, Mirjam Luijten
Mode of action information is one of the key components for chemical risk assessment as mechanistic insight leads to better understanding of potential adverse health effects of a chemical. This insight greatly facilitates assessment of human relevance and enhances the use of non-animal methods for risk assessment, as it ultimately enables extrapolation from initiating events to adverse effects. Recently, we reported an in vitro toxicogenomics comparison approach to categorize (non-)genotoxic carcinogens according to similarities in their proposed modes of action...
August 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Reuben Chukwuka Okocha, Isaac Olufemi Olatoye, Olufemi Bolarinwa Adedeji
Background: Residues of antimicrobials in food have received much attention in recent years because of growing food safety and public health concerns. Their presence in food of animal origin constitutes socioeconomic challenges in international trade in animal and animal products. The major public health significances of antimicrobial residues include the development of antimicrobial drug resistance, hypersensitivity reaction, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, bone marrow depression, and disruption of normal intestinal flora...
2018: Public Health Reviews
Juan Li, Zhigang Cui, Hang Li, Xiaoting Lv, Min Gao, Zitai Yang, Yanhong Bi, Ziwei Zhang, Shengli Wang, Baosen Zhou, Zhihua Yin
Background: The aberrant regulation of MALAT1 has been indicated to be involved in various carcinogenic pathways contributing to the tumourigenesis and progression of cancers. The current meta-analysis summarized the research advances of MALAT1 functions and analyzed its prognostic value among multiple types of cancers. Methods: Eligible studies were identified through retrieving the PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI databases, up to Mar 1, 2018. 28 studies of 5436 patients and 36 studies of 3325 patients were enrolled in the meta-analysis to evaluate the association of MALAT1 expression with survival outcomes and clinical parameters...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Takuma Tsuchiya, Aki Kijima, Yuji Ishii, Shinji Takasu, Yuh Yokoo, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Tokuma Yanai, Takashi Umemura
Oxidative stress is well known as a key factor of chemical carcinogenesis. However, the actual role of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, such as oxidative stress-related in vivo mutagenicity, remains unclear. It has been reported that 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidized DNA lesion, might contribute to chemical carcinogenesis. Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) and nitrofurantoin (NFT) are known as renal carcinogens in rats. Our previous studies showed an increase in mutant frequencies accompanied by an increased level of 8-OHdG in the kidneys of rodents following KBrO3 or NFT exposure...
July 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Takuma Tsuchiya, Aki Kijima, Yuji Ishii, Shinji Takasu, Yuh Yokoo, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Tokuma Yanai, Takashi Umemura
Despite its antimicrobial activity, nitrofurantoin (NFT) is a renal carcinogen in rats. Oxidative stress induced by reduction of the nitro group of NFT may contribute to its genotoxicity. This is supported by our recent results indicating that the structure of the nitrofuran plays a key role in NFT-induced genotoxicity, and oxidative DNA damage is involved in renal carcinogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) regulates cellular responses to oxidative stress. To clarify the role of oxidative stress in the chemical structure-related genotoxic mechanism of NFT, we performed reporter gene mutation assays for NFT and 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (NFA) using Nrf2 -proficient and Nrf2 -deficient gpt delta mice...
July 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
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