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Anxiety and Stress

A R Ruhaila, H C Chong
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, correlates and independent predictors of self-reported depression, anxiety and stress in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Hospital Melaka. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using convenient sampling of 192 RA patients who attended the Rheumatology Clinic outpatient appointment, Hospital Melaka from June 2013 to December 2013. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) questionnaire was used to evaluate symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress...
August 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Rahel Hoffmann, Julia Kaiser, Anette Kersting
OBJECTIVE: Due to the unique importance of parental and sibling relationships and concurrently existing developmental challenges, the loss of a parent or sibling due to cancer is a highly stressful event for children and adolescents. This is the first systematic review that integrates findings on psychosocial outcomes after parental or sibling cancer bereavement. METHODS: A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PubPsych was conducted, last in December 2017...
August 18, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Wen-Juan Zhang, Wen-Yu Cao, Yan-Qing Huang, Yan-Hui Cui, Bo-Xuan Tu, Lai-Fa Wang, Guang-Jing Zou, Yu Liu, Zhao-Lan Hu, Rong Hu, Chang-Qi Li, Xiao-Wei Xing, Fang Li
Stress plays a crucial role in several psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used acute stress (AS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) models to develop anxiety-like behavior and investigate the role of miR-150 in the hippocampi of mice. Corticosterone levels as well as glutamate receptors in the hippocampus were evaluated. We found that anxiety-like behavior was induced after either AS or CRS, as determined by the open-field test (OFT) and elevated plus-maze test (EPM)...
August 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Natasa Mijailovic, Dragica Selakovic, Jovana Joksimovic, Vladimir Mihailovic, Jelena Katanic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Tamara Nikolic, Sergey Bolevich, Vladimir Zivkovic, Milica Pantic, Gvozden Rosic
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on behavioral manifestations that followed hyperhomocysteinemia induced by special dietary protocols enriched in methionine and deficient in B vitamins (B6, B9, B12) by means of alterations in anxiety levels in rats. Simultaneously, we investigated the alterations of oxidative stress markers in rat hippocampus induced by applied dietary protocols. Furthermore, considering the well-known antioxidant properties of statins, we attempted to assess their impact on major markers of oxidative stress and their possible beneficial role on anxiety-like behavior effect in rats...
August 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Sophie Khadr, Venetia Clarke, Kaye Wellings, Laia Villalta, Andrea Goddard, Jan Welch, Susan Bewley, Tami Kramer, Russell Viner
BACKGROUND: Young people are disproportionately affected by sexual assault, yet longitudinal data are sparse. This paper examines the characteristics of adolescents presenting to sexual assault services and mental and sexual health outcomes after an assault. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in adolescents aged 13-17 years attending the Sexual Assault Referral Centres serving Greater London, UK, over 2 years. Baseline interviews (T0) were done less than 6 weeks after an assault to collect data on sociodemographic and assault characteristics and psychological symptoms, with follow-up interviews (T1) at 4-5 months after the assault...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Maia S Kredentser, Marcus Blouw, Nicole Marten, Jitender Sareen, O Joseph Bienvenu, Jennifer Ryu, Brooke E Beatie, Sarvesh Logsetty, Lesley A Graff, Shauna Eggertson, Sophia Sweatman, Braeden Debroni, Nina Cianflone, Rakesh C Arora, Ryan Zarychanski, Kendiss Olafson
OBJECTIVES: Critical illness can have a significant psychological impact on patients and their families. To inform the design of a larger trial, we assessed feasibility of ICU diaries and psychoeducation to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety following ICU stays. DESIGN: Four-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A 10-bed tertiary ICU in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients greater than 17 years old with predicted ICU stays greater than 72 hours and mechanical ventilation duration greater than 24 hours...
August 16, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Sarah Schumacher, Deborah Weiss, Christine Knaevelsrud
The efficacy of exposure is beyond doubt, which is reflected in guidelines recommending its application in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests exposure to be underutilized in clinical practice in the United States and Europe. A systematic investigation of the dissemination of exposure in Germany is lacking. The present study examined the dissemination and application frequency of exposure among German cognitive behavioural therapists working in routine care...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Dzenana Kartal, Nathan Alkemade, Litza Kiropoulos
This study examined the relationship between traumatic exposure, host language acquisition and mental health (posttraumatic stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) in long-term resettled refugees. Participants included a community sample of Bosnian refugees ( N = 138, 55% male, mean age of 40 years old) that had resettled in Australia and Austria on average 18 years prior. Two mediation models were tested based on two competing theories. Model A examined whether language acquisition mediates the relationship between traumatic exposure and mental health problems experienced by refugees...
August 17, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Kelsi A Clayson, Joseph R Bardeen, Sara L Dolan, Thomas A Fergus
The majority of individuals exposed to trauma do not go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); thus, researchers have sought to identify individual difference variables that make one particularly susceptible to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Trait anxiety is one individual difference variable implicated in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Following from cognitive theories of anxiety and extant data, the purpose of the present study was to examine executive attention as a moderator of the relation between trait anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms, particularly hyperarousal symptoms, among undergraduate women reporting trauma exposure (N = 88)...
August 17, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Gabrielle King, Kathryn D Baker, Madelyne A Bisby, Diana Chan, Caitlin S M Cowan, Anthea A Stylianakis, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Rick Richardson
There is a pressing need to improve treatments for anxiety. Although exposure-based therapy is currently the gold-standard treatment, many people either do not respond to this therapy or experience a relapse of symptoms after treatment has ceased. In recent years, there have been many novel pharmacological agents identified in preclinical research that have potential as adjuncts for exposure therapy, yet very few of these are regularly integrated into clinical practice. Unfortunately, the robust effects observed in the laboratory animal often do not translate to a clinical population...
August 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Saeid Komasi, Ali Soroush, Mozhgan Saeidi, Agostino Brugnera, Massimo Rabboni, Mario Fulcheri, Danilo Carrozzino, Paolo Marchettini, Angelo Compare
Introduction: The causal attributions and perceived risk factors can affect patients' health behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess (i) the effect of an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program on perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs) and on psychological stress, and (ii) the role of changes of PHRFs at pre-post CR in predicting changes in psychological stress. Methods: In this longitudinal study, 110 CR patients were assessed from June to November 2016 in a hospital in Iran. Perceived heart risk factors and perceived stress were investigated using the PHRFs scale and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21, respectively...
2018: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Nan Li, Lin Cui, Ge Song, Li Guo, Huating Gu, Haisheng Cao, Guo-Dong Li, Yu Zhou
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 ( DISC1 ) is a strong candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, all of which are thought to result from interactions between gene mutations and environmental risk factors such as influenza, trauma and stress. Adolescence is a key period susceptible to stress and stress-related mental illnesses. In a previous study, we found that although DISC1 L100P point mutation mice shows object recognition deficits, their sociability and social memory are relatively normal...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Rimas A Kubilius, Paul M Kaplick, Carsten T Wotjak
The prerequisites for responsible cannabis use are at the heart of current inquiries into cannabis decriminalization by policy makers as well as academic and nonacademic stakeholders at a global scale. Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), the prime psychoactive compound of the cannabis sativa , as well as cannabimimetics that resemble the pharmacological properties and psychological effects of Δ9 -THC, lend themselves handsomely to the preclinical scrutiny of reward-related behavior because they carry marked translational value...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
Anna Dencker, Christina Nilsson, Cecily Begley, Elisabeth Jangsten, Margareta Mollberg, Harshida Patel, Helena Wigert, Eva Hessman, Helen Sjöblom, Carina Sparud-Lundin
PROBLEM: Fear of childbirth negatively affects women during pregnancy and after birth. AIM: To summarise the findings of published studies regarding possible causes/predisposing factors and outcomes of fear of childbirth for childbearing women. DESIGN: A systematic review, searching five databases in March 2015 for studies on causes/predisposing factors and outcomes of fear of childbirth, as measured during pregnancy and postpartum. Quality of included studies was assessed independently by pairs of authors...
August 13, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
J O'Flynn, T G Dinan, J R Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Stress is an event that threatens homoeostasis and thus causes physiological and behavioural responses to reinstate equilibrium. Excessive and/or chronic stress can be psychologically and physiologically detrimental. Examinations can represent a significant source of stress for students. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the core endocrine stress system. Investigations into the HPA response to examinations have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to further explore the relationship between examination stress, HPA axis activity, mood, sleep and exercise in students undergoing a naturalistic examination period stressor...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
S Ullah, M T Khalily, I Ahmad, B Hallahan
BACKGROUND: The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of North-West Pakistan has endured increased levels of violence in recent years. The psychological sequelae of such trauma including the presence of dissociative symptoms has been minimally investigated to date. The study examines psychopathology experienced including the presence of dissociative symptoms, and ascertain what factors are potentially predictive of these symptoms. METHOD: Third-level students (n=303) completed psychometric instruments relating to their experience of traumatic events and assessed depression, anxiety and dissociative symptoms...
June 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Fernanda Severo Sabedra Sousa, Paloma Taborda Birmann, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, César Augusto Brüning, Lucielli Savegnago
α-(phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) is an organoselenium compound that presents antidepressive-like and antinociceptive effect in animal models. In this study, we evaluate the potential pharmacological effects of PSAP on acute stress restriction (ARS)-induced depressive and anxiogenic-like behavior associated with hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in male adult Swiss mice (25-35 g). The ARS is an unavoidable stress situation that was applied for a period of 4 h using an individual rodent restraint...
August 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Bronwyn M Graham
Rats exposed to early-life maternal separation (MS) exhibit later alterations in fear conditioning and impairments in fear extinction. As MS creates long-lasting anxiety in the mother, the present study assessed the influence of MS on fear conditioning and extinction in mother rats. It also examined whether estrous cycle effects on extinction, which are robust in nulliparous rats, but abolished in primiparous rats, re-emerge after MS. Following parturition, pups were removed from their mothers for 3 h daily from postpartum day 2-14 (MS), or remained housed with their mothers (standard reared condition, SR)...
August 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
ZuoXia Zhang, Hao Wu, Yue Liu, XiaoPing Gu, Wei Zhang, ZhengLiang Ma
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing surgery often feel anxious. Accumulating evidence indicated that presurgical anxiety was related to the more severe postsurgical pain. An animal model was established that exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to a single-prolonged stress (SPS) procedure to induce presurgical anxiety-like behaviors. The experiment revealed that presurgical anxiety not only aggravated but also prolonged postsurgical pain. However, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. METHODS: The rats in group C + Cort, group I + Cort, group A + Cort, and group AI + Cort were injected with corticosterone...
August 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Susana Pedras, Estela Vilhena, Rui Carvalho, M Graça Pereira
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal multisite study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, psychological reactions, functionality, coping strategies, and social support on psychosocial adjustment to lower limb amputation 10 months after surgery. METHOD: Of an initial referral of 206 Portuguese patients, a sample of 86 patients who underwent a lower limb amputation due to Diabetes Mellitus Type II were evaluated during the hospitalization that preceded surgery (t0) and at inpatient follow-up consultations, 1 (t1), 6 (t2), and 10 months (t3) after surgery...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
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