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Anxiety and Stress

Jennifer M Re, Suzanne Dean, Jimmy Mullaert, Antoine Guedeney, Samuel Menahem
BACKGROUND: Mothers and infants are exposed to multiple stresses when cardiac surgery is required for the infant. This study reviewed infant responsiveness using a standardized objective observational measure of social withdrawal and explored its association with measures of maternal distress. METHODS: Mother-infant pairs involving infants surviving early cardiac surgery were assessed when the infant was aged two months. Infant social withdrawal was measured using the Alarm Distress Baby Scale...
November 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Alan Kane, Carol Murphy, Michelle Kelly
This aim of this study was to assess implicit and self-reported stigma towards people with dementia in young adults with no contact or experience ( n = 23), and in care-workers ( n = 17 professional dementia care-workers). Data were analysed to determine whether stigma was related to self-reported levels of depression, anxiety, stress and professional burnout. Forty participants completed the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure and Dementia Attitudes Scale. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to measure depression, anxiety, stress and professional burnout...
October 15, 2018: Dementia
Méry Marimoutou, Danielle A Springer, Chengyu Liu, Geumsoo Kim, Rodney L Levine
Methionine 77 in calmodulin can be stereospecifically oxidized to methionine sulfoxide by mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Whether this has in vivo significance is unknown. We therefore created a mutant mouse in which wild type calmodulin-1 was replaced by a calmodulin containing a mimic of methionine sulfoxide at residue 77. Total calmodulin levels were unchanged in the homozygous M77Q mutant, which is viable and fertile. No differences were observed on learning tests, including the Morris water maze and associative learning...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Lili Huang, Yunzhi Zhao, Chunfang Qiang, Bozhen Fan
The present study evaluated the combined effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for postnatal depression. A systematic search was conducted across databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessing CBT versus control for postnatal depression until March 2017. Data was extracted by two reviewers, independently. The Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 11.0 were used to calculate the synthesized effect of CBT on depression, and anxiety...
2018: PloS One
Jose Cortes, Terri L Fletcher, David M Latini, Michael R Kauth
OBJECTIVE: To examine health and identity differences between older (50+) and younger (< 50) lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans. METHODS: Participants (N = 254) completed an internet survey assessing depression, anxiety, alcohol use, identity, minority stress, and outness. T tests and logistic regression were used to analyze results. RESULTS: Older LGBT veterans reported less alcohol use (p < .01) than younger counterparts...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Michael Lyvers, Niloufar Hayatbakhsh, Janet Stalewski, Fred Arne Thorberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Personality traits previously known as risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) were assessed in 29 young adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 68 young adult children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs). Male and female university students (Mage  = 22.11 years) completed questions pertaining to demographics and alcohol use, and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test; Toronto Alexithymia Scale; Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire; and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales...
October 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Julie A Cantelon, Grace E Giles, Marianna D Eddy, Zachary Haga, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor, F Caroline Davis
Individuals with stressful occupations, such as law enforcement and military personnel, are required to operate in high stakes environments that can be simultaneously physically and emotionally demanding. These individuals are tasked with maintaining peak performance under stressful and often unpredictable conditions, exerting high levels of cognitive control to sustain attention and suppress task-irrelevant actions. Previous research has shown that physical and emotional stressors differentially influence such cognitive control processes...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Zeynab Khajian Gelogahi, Nahid Aghebati, Seyed Reza Mazloum, Samira Mohajer
One of the important aspects of recovering after bypass surgery is mental disorders of patients. Despite the importance of intentional presence in interpersonal interactive space in holistic nursing, a few experimental and clinical trial studies are conducted on this subject. This study determines the effect of intentional presence of a holistic nurse on anxiety, stress, and depression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The study used a randomized clinical trial conducted on 80 patients referred to heart surgery department from March 2016 to June 2017, who were allocated to the control and intervention groups randomly...
November 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
Mohammad Bagher Saberi Zafarghandi, Hamid Khanipour, Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi
Objective: Individuals with substance use disorder are not homogeneous as we might regard. Thus, this study was conducted to present a novel classification of substance use disorder based on temperament, addiction severity, and negative emotions. Method : In this correlation study, Temperament and Character Inventory, Addiction Severity Index, Aggression Subscale of MMPI-2, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale, Emotional Schema Questionnaire, and Psychosocial Checklist were used for data collection. Results: The cluster analysis of 324 individuals with substance use disorder explored 4 subtypes...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Fatemeh Ghandi, Amir Sadeghi, Maryam Bakhtyari, Saeed Imani, Saeed Abdi, Seyed Shahab Banihashem
Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder. The perception of stress and GI-specific anxiety play a key role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The present study aims at comparing the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy with emotion regulation on the quality of life and severity in patients IBS. Method : This randomized clinical trial was conducted in 3 phases: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Follow-up was performed 2 months after the last intervention. The study population consisted of 24 IBS patients who were randomly selected according to Rome-IV Criteria and were then divided into 3 eight-member groups: (1) mindfulness-based stress reduction, (2) emotion regulation, and (3) control group...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Eleonora Volpato, Paolo Innocente Banfi, Chiara Valota, Francesco Pagnini
Background: The work of health care professionals (HCPs) exposes them to emotionally difficult situations, anxiety, suffering and death, so they are at risk of burnout. Objectives: To describe HCPs' experiences of a psychological support intervention and its influence on the daily work of a sample caring for patients with neuromuscular and chronic respiratory illnesses. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was carried out at the Respiratory Rehabilitation Unit of IRCCS Santa Maria Nascente, in Milan, Italy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Audrey Henry, Ayman Tourbah, Gauthier Camus, Romain Deschamps, Laurence Mailhan, Cédric Castex, Olivier Gout, Michèle Montreuil
BACKGROUND: Social support has been identified as a buffering or intervening variable in stressful life events. Research has demonstrated that greater social support is associated with better mental health in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about its links to specific aspects of mental health. We therefore investigated if and how perceived social support modulates depression, anxiety and fatigue in patients with MS. METHODS: We recruited 112 patients with MS from three French hospitals and administered a demographic and clinic interview, and self-report measures of perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale)...
October 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Leonardo Santana Novaes, Nilton Barreto Dos Santos, Guilherme Dragunas, Juliano Genaro Perfetto, Juan Carlos Leza, Cristoforo Scavone, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz
Chronic psychogenic stress can increase neuronal calcium influx and generate the intracellular accumulation of oxidative (ROS) and nitrosative (RNS) reactive species, disrupting synaptic transmission in the brain. These molecules impair the Na,K-ATPase (NKA) activity, whose malfunction has been related to neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we assessed how 14 days of restraint stress in rats affect NKA activity via oxidative/nitrosative damage in the frontal cortex (FCx), a crucial region for emotional and cognitive control...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Elizabeth H Eustis, Sarah A Hayes-Skelton, Susan M Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer
The high rates of anxiety in college students and the many barriers to accessing evidence-based care in communities and on campuses indicate a clear need to explore ways to increase access to evidence-based treatments. Web-based interventions and preventions are one way to bridge this gap; they hold the potential to decrease mental health disparities and enhance student functioning. The current RCT examined the acceptability and efficacy of a 3-session web-based therapist-assisted acceptance-based behavioral intervention targeting anxiety (Surviving and Thriving During Stress) for college students versus a waitlist (WL) control condition, in a sample of racially and ethnically diverse college students...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Dean McKay
A wide range of technological approaches has been adopted in assessment and intervention using cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). The articles that comprise this special issue cover a diversity of areas, including motion-tracking devices, ecological momentary assessment, facial recognition software to provide rapid feedback, audio and tablet-based CBT-administered procedures, web-based acceptance program for stress reduction, and videoconferencing for delivery of anxiety treatment in youth. It is expected that technological advances will continue to lead to additional advances in CBT delivery...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Shira Meir Drexler, Christian J Merz, Oliver T Wolf
Extinction learning, which creates new safety associations, is thought to be the mechanism underlying exposure therapy, commonly used for the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The relative strength and availability for retrieval of both the fear and safety memories determine the response in a given situation. While the fear memory is often context-independent and may easily generalize, extinction memory is highly context-specific. "Renewal" of the extinguished fear memory might thus occur following a shift in context...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, David Jw Evans, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: During intensive care unit (ICU) admission, patients and their carers experience physical and psychological stressors that may result in psychological conditions including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Improving communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and their carers may alleviate these disorders. Communication may include information or educational interventions, in different formats, aiming to improve knowledge of the prognosis, treatment, or anticipated challenges after ICU discharge...
October 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jessica L Armstrong, Silvia Ronzitti, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: While data suggest a strong relationship between trauma exposure and psychopathology, less research has investigated relationships between psychopathology and stressful life events more broadly, and how these relationships may differ by gender. AIM: To examine strengths of associations between stressful life events and psychiatric disorders (i.e., past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II, per DSM-IV) and how they may differ by gender. METHODS: Data from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 43,093) were analyzed using chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Carmen Romo-Barrientos, Juan José Criado-Álvarez, Maria Teresa Gil-Ruiz, Jaime González-González, Marta Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana Isabel Corregidor-Sánchez, Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia Mohedano-Moriano, Begoña Polonio-López
CONTEXT: The practice of anatomical dissection and/or prosection on human cadavers is an essential component of human anatomy training programmes. However, this activity can be stressful for inexperienced students when exposed to cadavers for the first time, and it may generate high anxiety levels. The aims of this study are threefold: 1) To analyse the thoughts and feelings of first-year students of the Occupational Therapy degree about prosection practices; 2) to examine their anxiety levels in relation to these practices; and 3) to evaluate how useful and effective they are as an educational tool for anatomy training...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
M M E Riem, M J van Hoof, A S Garrett, S A R B Rombouts, N J A van der Wee, M H van IJzendoorn, R R J M Vermeiren
BACKGROUND: A dimensional approach of psychopathology focuses on features and risk factors that are shared across diagnoses. In support for this dimensional approach, studies point to a general psychopathology factor (GPF) associated with risk for multiple psychiatric disorders. It is, however, unknown how GPF relates to white matter integrity (WMI). In the current diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we examined how GPF relates to abnormalities in a skeleton representation of white matter tracts, taking into account a trans-diagnostic risk factor: unresolved-disorganized attachment (Ud) resulting from loss or trauma...
October 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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