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Michael Fischer, Rohit Ramaswamy, Luz Fischer-Flores, Grace Mugisha
Depression is highly prevalent and the cause of considerable suffering for peoples across the globe. Case finding for depression is challenging because individuals often do not recognize the symptoms in themselves or may resist the diagnosis as a result of cultural stigma. Screening instruments, to be accurate, must be valid in the particular setting in which they are being applied, and diagnosis in primary care settings, is further made challenging because patients often present with a wide variety of somatic symptoms that could be medical...
August 13, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Patrick Pössel, Caroline M Pittard
Integrations of cognitive models of depression, specifically, the hopelessness model (Abramson et al. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 358-372, 1989) and the response style theory (Nolen-Hoecksema et al. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405-422, 1992) have been suggested but no previous study has compared the integrations of these models with each other and the original models. Further, previous studies only tested the associations between composite scores of inferences, from the hopelessness model, and rumination (incl...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Cecilia Brain, Steven Kymes, Dana B DiBenedetti, Thomas Brevig, Dawn I Velligan
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) affects about one-third of individuals with schizophrenia. People with TRS do not experience sustained symptom relief and at the same time have the most severe disease-related disability and associated costs among individuals with severe mental disorders. Like caregivers of people with treatment-responsive schizophrenia, caregivers of individuals with TRS experience the disease burden along with their care recipients; however, for those providing care for individuals with TRS, the stress of the burden is unrelenting due to uncontrolled symptoms and a lack of effective treatment options...
August 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Antonio Terracciano
Depressive symptoms and a history of mental disorders are associated with increased risk for dementia. Less is known about whether other aspects of psychological distress and negative self-beliefs also increase risk. The purpose of this research is to examine 1) whether eight aspects of psychological distress and self-beliefs (anxiety, negative affect, hostility, anger-in, anger-out, hopelessness, pessimism, perceived constraints) are associated with risk of incident dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND), 2) whether the associations are independent of depressive symptoms and history of a mental health diagnosis, and 3) whether the associations are also independent of behavioral, clinical, and genetic risk factors...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
David Mou, Evan M Kleiman, Szymon Fedor, Stuart Beck, Jeff C Huffman, Matthew K Nock
Patients suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) are at elevated risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), but this well-described and clinically important association is not well-understood. Prior research suggests that STBs often function as an attempt to escape aversive affect, and that people with BPD experience stronger emotion reactivity and greater discomfort with emotion than those without BPD. Here, we tested whether negative affective states are more likely to predict suicidal thoughts among those with BPD than those without this disorder...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kathryn M Roeder, David A Cole
OBJECTIVE: Based on Beck's hopelessness model (Beck, Kovacs, & Weissman, Journal of the American Medical Association, 234, 1975, 1146) and Joiner's (Why people die by suicide, 2005, Harvard University Press, Boston, MA) interpersonal theory of suicide, this study simultaneously examined three cognitive risk factors (hopelessness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness) as predictors of suicide ideation. METHOD: The study focused on high school and college students (ns = 192 and 142, respectively), assessed twice 4 months apart...
August 11, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Sven M Piepenburg, Hermann Faller, Stefan Störk, Georg Ertl, Christiane E Angermann
BACKGROUND: Depression is more common in females than in males and is 3-5 times more prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) than in the general population. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a validated depression screening instrument; higher sum-scores predict adverse clinical outcomes. Sex- and gender differences in PHQ-9 symptom profile, diagnostic and prognostic properties, and impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have not been comprehensively studied in HF patients...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Moujan Mirdamadi
This paper is divided into two parts. First I argue for the existence of a death-conscious culture in Iran, traceable in religious and literary texts, and manifested strongly in the discourse following the Iran-Iraq war. I then look at how this culture influences articulations and experiences of depression as felt by Iranian patients. Adopting a phenomenological perspective and drawing on empirical data, I show how death-consciousness, as a point of cultural divergence between the UK and Iran, can be used to account for some of the phenomenologically significant cultural variations in the experience of depression...
August 9, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Jumana Antoun, Alan Johnson, Brock Clive, Maya Romani
Background It is not known in what ways is the doctor whose practice is secure in a clinic challenged to maintain a therapeutic doctor-patient relationship when confronting a flood of immigrants within a country that is politically volatile, internally fractionalized, and surrounded by sporadic military incursions? Methods During Balint seminars, a family medicine resident presents a troubling case which all group members reflect upon from the perspective of the doctor, the patient, and their relationship. Balint leaders later debrief and review the work of the group...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Derek de Beurs, Nikita Vancayseele, Claudia van Borkulo, Gwendolyn Portzky, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: A history of self-harm is a major risk factor for suicide. Some patients are more likely than others to repeat suicidal behaviour after an episode of self-harm. Insight in the relation between current thoughts of self-harm, motives for the self-harm episode and perceived problems may improve prevention strategies. Network analysis allows to investigate the co-occurence of these factors and their association with each other. METHODS: Ising model based networks are estimated on data collected between 2007-2015 within the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in Flanders...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Fan-Ko Sun, Chu-Yun Lu, Hui-Man Huang, Pei-Jane Yu, Chun-Ying Chiang
Assessing the recovery ability of individuals who have attempted suicide is crucial for psychiatric health nurses. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a psychometric Suicidal Recovery Ability Scale (SRAS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that three subscales with 15 items best fit the data. The global SRAS score showed significant negative correlation with the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score. The Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability scores for the global SRAS and the subscales all exceeded 0...
August 7, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Filipa Alves-Costa, Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis, Hope Christie, Sarah L Halligan
OBJECTIVE: Research on homicidal bereavement has focused on postloss impact and coping. Less is known about how individuals perceive their adjustment posthomicide. Adverse experiences are likely to leave individuals with an increased risk of developing severe psychological difficulties, such as depression, Post-traumatic stress ( PTSD), anxiety and complicated grief. This study aimed to explore how individuals perceive their change and progression posthomicide and post-psychoeducational intervention...
August 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Y Amare, S Paul, L M Sibley
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made significant progress in reducing child mortality but newborn mortality has stagnated at around 29 deaths per 1000 births. The Maternal Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) was a 3.5-year implementation project aimed at developing a community-oriented model of maternal and newborn health in rural Ethiopia and to position it for scale up. In 2014, we conducted a case study of the project focusing on recognition of and timely biomedical care seeking for maternal and newborn complications...
August 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Batya Engel-Yeger, Boaz Bloch, Xenia Gonda, Giovanna Canepa, Maurizio Pompili, Leo Sher, Zoltan Rihmer, Mario Amore, Gianluca Serafini
INTRODUCTION: Sensory processing patterns have been proposed as a stable dimension able to characterize individuals with major affective disorders, but to what extent specific impairments in sensory processing may be involved in the pathophysiology of these conditions is poorly understood. We aimed to explore which sensory profiles may better respond to psychoactive medications, with particular regard to antidepressants, according to depression, alexithymia, and hopelessness levels. METHODS: A total of 402 outpatients who received maintenance treatment and were in stable psychopathological conditions were recruited and completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) according to a longitudinal prospective study design including three time points of measurements...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chih-Tao Cheng, Samuel My Ho, Yi-Chen Hou, Yihuan Lai, Ging-Long Wang
A total of 84 breast cancer survivors completed a package of psychological inventories in 2009 (Time 1), 2012 (Time 2), and 2016 (Time 3). Latent class growth analysis revealed three posttraumatic growth trajectory patterns: distressed posttraumatic growth ( n = 5, 6.7%), illusory posttraumatic growth ( n = 42, 56.0%), and constructive posttraumatic growth ( n = 28, 37.3%). Women with more frequent use of helplessness-hopelessness coping and lower depression levels at Time 1 were more likely to display an illusory than a constructive posttraumatic growth trajectory pattern...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Melanie A Hom, Lisa Davis, Thomas E Joiner
Suicide attempt survivors represent a high-risk group for death by suicide; however, few empirically supported, tailored interventions exist for this population. One intervention format that may be useful in reducing suicide risk among suicide attempt survivors is support groups co-led by a clinician and peer survivor. This study aimed to evaluate changes in suicidal symptoms and resilience appraisals following attempt survivors' participation in the Survivors of Suicide Attempts (SOSA) support group. A sample of 92 suicide attempt survivors was recruited to participate in the 8-week SOSA support group...
August 2018: Psychological Services
Jessica M LaCroix, Kanchana U Perera, Laura L Neely, Geoffrey Grammer, Jennifer Weaver, Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway
Suicide remains a significant public health problem for the United States military. Trauma-related diagnoses such as acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may exacerbate suicide risk, particularly among service members psychiatrically hospitalized following suicide-related events. To date, treatments to address suicide risk and trauma symptomatology among service members within inpatient milieus have been nonexistent. To address this gap, a randomized controlled pilot trial of Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) was conducted to evaluate a targeted cognitive-behavioral program among traumatized military personnel (N = 36) hospitalized following a recent suicide attempt...
August 2018: Psychological Services
Maribeth H Bosshardt, Patrick J Coyne, Justin Marsden, Zemin Su, Cathy L Melvin
Moral distress affects workplace environment, burnout, employee retention, and patient safety. Palliative care is frequently involved in complex care for patients that may cause moral distress among staff. The goal of this study was to measure change in moral distress among nurses after implementation of a policy that allows nurses to consult palliative care. Before the policy change, data were gathered via email using the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. The scale was redistributed 6 months after implementation of the consult policy...
August 2018: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing: JHPN
Lieve Hoeyberghs, Emily Verté, Dominique Verté, Nico De Witte, Jos Schols
Identifying frail older people, and in particular, people who are psychologically frail in a community setting is difficult. This article investigates predictors of psychological frailty and constructs a short and effective pre-detection tool for highly psychologically frail older people. The Belgian Ageing Studies, a cross-sectional study (n=28.245) was used. Measures included four items of the Geriatric Depression Scale, the psychological domain of the Comprehensive Frailty Assessment Instrument. First bivariate analyses were used...
August 2, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
Ayse Kilincaslan, Adem Gunes, Mehmet Eskin, Alok Madan
Objective The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale is a semistructured, interview-based assessment tool, which is increasingly being used for clinical and research purposes across the globe, despite its limited psychometric evaluation outside of English-speaking populations. The aim of this study was to linguistically adapt the measure and investigate reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Turkish version of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale in a heterogeneous sample of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric outpatient adolescents...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
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