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Gailen D Marshall, Matthew T Tull
The global incidence and prevalence of allergic diseases are increasing as is the intensity and duration of excessive psychological stress due to multiple factors associated with living in today's world such as personal, social and political unrest, increased fear and anxiety and/or depression often leading to hopelessness. Both allergy and chronic psychological stress are characterized by immune imbalances that have similar characteristics. Thus it is reasonable to posit that the two are interactive and that stress may induce as well as complicate at least some allergic diseases...
October 16, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Zsolt Horváth, Róbert Urbán
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use may harm not only the individual drinker, but also the lives of their family members. The stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model emphasizes that the stress experienced by family members could lead to the development of various physical and psychological symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to examine the possible moderating and mediating role of coping on the relationship between stress and strain among family members seeking help due to a relative's alcohol misuse...
October 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Johannes Lang, Bernhard Frank, Jad C Halimeh
The Loschmidt echo is a purely quantum-mechanical quantity whose determination for large quantum many-body systems requires an exceptionally precise knowledge of all eigenstates and eigenenergies. One might therefore be tempted to dismiss the applicability of any approximations to the underlying time evolution as hopeless. However, using the fully connected transverse-field Ising model as an example, we show that this indeed is not the case and that a simple semiclassical approximation to systems well described by mean-field theory is, in fact, in good quantitative agreement with the exact quantum-mechanical calculation...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Sigrun Vehling, David W Kissane
A severe life threatening illness can challenge fundamental expectations about security, interrelatedness with others, justness, controllability, certainty, and hope for a long and fruitful life. That distress and suffering but also growth and mastery may arise from confrontation with an existentially threatening stressor is a long-standing idea. But only recently have researchers studied existential distress more rigorously and begun to identify its distinct impact on health care outcomes. Operationalizations of existential distress have included fear of cancer recurrence, death anxiety, demoralization, hopelessness, dignity-related distress, and the desire for hastened death...
October 11, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Thomas Forkmann, Lena Spangenberg, Dajana Rath, Nina Hallensleben, Ulrich Hegerl, Anette Kersting, Heide Glaesmer
Suicidal ideation is a major risk factor for suicidal behavior and has recently been shown to be fluctuating in studies applying ecological momentary assessments (EMAs). The aims of this study are to introduce a reliable and valid item set for assessing suicidal ideation and relevant proximal risk factors that can be used in future EMA studies within suicidology. Additionally, we provide data on the ability of the items to capture moment-to-moment variability and discuss feasibility aspects of EMA studies on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Nuworza Kugbey, Anna Meyer-Weitz, Kwaku Oppong Asante
Objective This study examined whether cancer-specific coping strategies have any significant influence on the quality of life of 205 women living with breast cancer in Ghana. Methods Using a cross-sectional survey design, participants were administered questionnaires which measured their cancer-specific coping strategies and health-related quality of life. Results Correlation analysis showed that helplessness-hopelessness negatively correlated with physical wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functional wellbeing, and breast cancer additional concerns...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Amanda N Burnside, Noni K Gaylord-Harden
Justice-involved boys from urban communities are disproportionately impacted by community violence exposure (ECV) and despite decades of research, rates of ECV in youth continue to increase particularly for youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Despite the increased risk of exposure, the majority of research focuses on what may protect youth from the deleterious outcomes associated with violence exposure, rather than strategies that may prevent the violence exposure from occurring. The current study seeks to shift the focus of research in this area to examining factors that may predict future violence exposure...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Pei-Yu Cheng, Li Fang
This article describes a 76-year-old dialysis patient who experienced widowhood. The nursing intervention occurred between April 2nd to June 28th, 2015. Using observation, interviews, medical records and health examinations, the authors assessed the patient's physical, psychological, social, intellectual, and spiritual status. The patient not only presented poor appetite, insomnia, hopelessness, and grief but had also attempted suicide. Thus, three health problems were identified, including dysfunctional grieving, hopelessness, and sleep pattern disturbance...
October 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Eva Scholtes, Christiaan M Suttorp, Bas A Loomans, Pieter Van Elsas, Jan G Schols
This case report shows the treatment of a severe traumatic tooth injury. For the maxillary right central incisor, the trauma was considered a complicated crown-root fracture. The level of the fracture line, the length of the remaining root segment, and the presence and condition of the tooth fragment determined the type of therapy. Traumatized teeth with fractures below the alveolar crest are often considered hopeless. As this report shows, the treatment of a complicated crown-root fracture in the esthetic region can be challenging...
October 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Lauren K O'Connor, Philip T Yanos, Ruth L Firmin
Research on factors associated with stigma resistance among people with severe mental illness remains relatively scant. This study aimed to (1) replicate previous findings linking stigma resistance with variables associated with recovery; (2) explore associations between stigma resistance and coping strategies and psychiatric symptoms; (3) compare these associations among individuals with different levels of self-stigma; and (4) examine whether race, age and education moderate these relationships. Analyses of a sample (n = 353) and sub-sample (n = 177) of persons with severe mental illness examined associations between stigma resistance and self-stigma, functional and clinical outcomes, and the moderating impact of age, race, and education on these relationships...
September 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Eric S Kim, Tyler J VanderWeele
Mounting evidence consistently shows associations between religious service attendance and reduced risk of mortality; yet research identifying mediators remains limited. Using prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2014; n=5,200), we evaluated a range of potential mediators. After robust control for confounders (demographic, health, health behaviors, and social factors), among positive psychological factors, we observed mediation through increased life satisfaction (5.27% ; P=<.001) and possibly positive affect (1...
September 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Richard Lowry, Michelle M Johns, Allegra R Gordon, S Bryn Austin, Leah E Robin, Laura K Kann
Importance: The cultural roles and expectations attributed to individuals based on their sex often shape health behaviors and outcomes. Gender nonconformity (GNC) (ie, gender expression that differs from societal expectations for feminine or masculine appearance and behavior) is an underresearched area of adolescent health that is often linked to negative health outcomes. Objective: To examine the associations of GNC with mental distress and substance use among high school students...
September 24, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Emi Tsujimoto, Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Hisae Ono, Osamu Shirakawa
Purpose: The rating discrepancy for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is believed to be associated with hopelessness, risk of suicidal behavior, and personality characteristics, such as high neuroticism. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the discrepancy is also mediated by coping styles, which are conceptualized as personality characteristics. Patients and methods: We enrolled 154 participants and divided them into three groups: patients with MDD with a rating discrepancy (MDD-WD; n=46), patients with MDD without a rating discrepancy (MDD-WoD; n=50), and healthy controls (HCs; n=58)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Vasiliki Efstathiou, Athanasia Papadopoulou, Christos Christodoulou, Rossetos Gournellis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Charalabos Papageorgiou, Athanassios Douzenis
This study aimed to assess hopelessness in 170 hospitalized individuals with recent suicide attempt and examine its association with patients' characteristics, with a view to improving awareness in health professionals and especially nurses, who are among the first to take care of these patients. Participants completed Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. More than half (51.18%) experienced moderate-to-severe hopelessness. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, attempted suicide method, past suicide attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis contributed statistically significantly to hopelessness prediction...
September 25, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Irene Bobevski, Dean P McKenzie, Heather Rowe, David W Kissane, David M Clarke, Jane Fisher
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the psychometric properties of the Demoralisation Scale II (DS-II) and adapt it for use with women in the postnatal period. BACKGROUND: Demoralisation is a psychological state characterised by a sense of incompetence and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness in response to a stressful situation. The postnatal period is a life stage of many disruptions. Women may lose their confidence and become demoralised if feeling unprepared for the tasks of motherhood...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Catherine Lee, Amanda J Nguyen, Tara Russell, Yasmina Aules, Paul Bolton
Background: In Kachin State, Myanmar, collapse of a ceasefire in 2011 has resulted in widespread exposure to conflict and ongoing internal displacement. Such exposures are known risk factors for mental health and psychosocial (MHPS) problems, yet mental health services for children and youth are typically scarce in such circumstances. Following evaluation of a mental health treatment for adult trauma survivors on the Thailand-Myanmar border, our study team received requests to support the development of a similar intervention for displaced children in Kachin State...
2018: Conflict and Health
Ewa K Czyz, Adam G Horwitz, Alejandra Arango, Cheryl A King
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of suicidal ideation (SI) and its risk precursors is largely informed by studies spanning over wide time intervals (weeks, months, years). Little is known about SI as it occurs in daily lives of individuals at risk for suicide, the extent to which suicidal thoughts are dynamic over short periods of time, and the degree to which theoretically informed risk factors predict near-term SI. METHODS: Thirty-four adolescents hospitalized due to last-month suicide attempt and/or last-week SI (76% female; ages 13-17) responded to daily surveys sent to their cell phones for four consecutive weeks after discharge (n = 652 observations)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Tamara D Afifi, Walid A Afifi, Michelle Acevedo Callejas, Ariana Shahnazi, Amanda White, Najib Nimah
Most research suggests that communal coping, where a group of people own and act upon a shared stressor or uncertainty together, enhances mental health and fosters coping efficacy. The majority of this research, however, has been conducted in the United States in contexts where stress and uncertainty are relatively short-lived and with samples that are economically secure and moderately to highly educated. The purpose of this study was to understand how socio-emotional conditions, such as exposure to trauma and interparental conflict, influence the functionality of communal coping for adolescents in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, where chronic uncertainty is normative...
September 21, 2018: Health Communication
Lu Yuan, Dong-Fang Wang, Bob Lew, Augustine Osman, Cun-Xian Jia
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Future Disposition Inventory-24 (FDI-24) in a large sample of Chinese university students. METHODS: We translated the English version of the Future Disposition Inventory-24 (FDI-24) into Chinese and examined its factor structure, estimates of internal consistency reliability, and psychometric properties in a representative sample of university students...
September 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Erica Schenhals, Paul Haidet, Lawrence Edward Kass
The objective of this study is to understand patients' perspectives about system-based barriers that may influence decision-making regarding following discharge instructions. In this qualitative study, subjects were interviewed by phone 1-4 weeks following being discharged to home from the emergency department (ED). We used a semi-structured interview guide to ask a series of open-ended questions about subjects' recent ED visit and subsequent course, including discharge instructions, whether or not they complied with those instructions, and reasoning behind their decisions to follow-up or not...
September 18, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
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