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Eye infections

Twishaa Sheth, Michelle Attzs, Katya Tambe
Lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant condition associated with FOXC2 mutations. Patients with distichiasis are mostly symptomatic, and efforts to deal with their ocular complaints comprise of electrolysis, cryotherapy and a variety of surgical techniques. We describe an enhanced surgical technique for a case of symptomatic distichiasis of the right eye with scarred, irregular eyelid margins secondary to initial cryotherapy, whereby the distorted tarsus was excised to remove the aberrant hair follicles, the levator palpebrae superioris was released to extend the upper lid and prevent lagophthalmos and a mucous membrane graft was used to cover the exposed portion of the tarsal plate...
December 5, 2018: Orbit
Manisha Agarwal, Richa Ranjan, Lagan Paul, Deepa Sharma
BACKGROUND: Syphilitic uveitis is an infective uveitis and a great mimicker. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in the specific treatment resulting in deterioration of uveitis and loss of vision. FINDINGS: A 38-year-old unmarried female presented with pain, redness, and blurring of vision in the left eye for the last 5 days. She denied history of any sexual exposure in the past. Anterior segment examination of the right eye was normal and the left eye showed keratic precipitates with anterior chamber cells and iris pigments on anterior lens capsule...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Niloofar Rajabli, Lauren Williamson, Pierre S Nimmer, Marie Kelly-Worden, Jill S Bange, Yenling Ho, John L McKillip
Bacillus cereus can cause endophthalmitis through secretion of virulence factors, including hemolysin BL (Hbl) and nonhemolytic entertoxin (Nhe). Carvacrol is an extract from oregano oil, with potential for curtailing B. cereus endophthalmitis, due to antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory qualities. However, sublethal levels of carvacrol increases B. cereus virulence. The goal of this study was to investigate the increase in B. cereus virulence potential in response stress induced by a subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of carvacrol...
2018: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Luca Pecoraro, Lucia Martini, Franco Antoniazzi, Giorgio Piacentini, Angelo Pietrobelli
Vitamin C is an organic compound that is almost ubiquitous in the daily diet of individuals. There are clear indications of supplementation when secondary deficiency is detected related with reduced dietary intake or reduced absorption. On the other hand, indications for supplementation concerning an increased need are controversial. Several authors have studied the role of vitamin C as an adjuvant in the treatment of diseases that may affect children and adolescents. These diseases affect all organs and systems: specifically, vitamin C supplementation could play a role in respiratory, neurological, psychiatric, oncohematological, nephrological, ophthalmological and nutritional disorders...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Ernesto Crisafulli, Ilaria Aredano, Ilaria Valzano, Barbara Burgazzi, Francesco Andrani, Alfredo Chetta
Pleural effusions may be related to pleuro-pulmonary or systemic disorders, including malignancy. Thoracentesis and thoracoscopy may be useful to diagnosis. In some cases, the diagnosis may be difficult and uncommon. We report the case of a hospitalized male for a pleuritis, with pleural effusion caused by a Bacillus megaterium infection, a Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacterium. To our knowledge, our case report is the first evidence of pleuritis due to B. megaterium. In the literature, up to now, B...
January 2019: Respirology Case Reports
John P Fezza
Purpose: A new cross-linked hyaluronic acid (xlHA) gel occlusive device was assessed for safety and efficacy in the treatment of dry eyes. Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, single-site, open-label, prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of placing the xlHA gel in the lower canaliculus. Seventy-four participants aged 25-95 years with dry eyes, who failed treatment with artificial tears, were included. Patients were assessed with corneal slit lamp examination with fluorescein staining and with Schirmer's test, breakup time (TBUT), and tear meniscus height (TMH) at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Ying-Wei Wang, Yao-Qiang Du, Xiao-Lin Miao, Guang-Yong Ye, Yi-Yun Wang, Ai-Bo Xu, Yun-Zhong Jing, Yu Tong, Kai Xu, Mei-Qin Zheng, Dong Chen, Zhen Wang
In recent years, group B streptococcus (GBS) has become an important pathogen that causes infections in many neonatal organs, including the brain, lung, and eye (Ballard et al., 2016). A series of studies performed on GBS infections in western countries have revealed that GBS is one of the primary pathogens implicated in perinatal infection, and GBS infections are a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States (Decheva et al., 2013). In China, GBS is mainly found by screens for adult urogenital tract and perinatal infections, and neonatal GBS infections have been rarely reported...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Emma Linton, Lisa Hardman, Lynn Welburn, Imran Rahman, Jaya Devi Chidambaram
Purpose: Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the commonest sexually transmitted infections in England, reports of ocular co-infection in the literature are limited. We report such a case which responded well to treatment, and discuss the literature and evidence currently available with regards to management of these cases. Observations: The patient is a 48-year-old bisexual gentleman who presented to the eye clinic of a UK hospital with redness, discharge and blurred vision in his left eye for one week...
March 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ahmed B Sallam, Kyle A Kirkland, Richard Barry, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Tayyeba K Ali, Sue Lightman
Treatment of infectious posterior uveitis represents a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. The eye is a privileged site, maintained by blood ocular barriers, which limits penetration of systemic antimicrobials into the posterior segment. In addition, topical and subconjunctival therapies are incapable of producing sufficient drug concentrations, intraocularly. Posterior infectious uveitis can be caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or protozoa. Mode of treatment varies greatly based on the infectious etiology...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
Alyaqdhan Al-Ghafri, Abdullatif Al-Raisi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology, risk factors, etiology, and outcome of microbial keratitis in a tertiary care center in Muscat, Oman. METHODS: The electronic records of all patients diagnosed with keratitis or corneal ulcer between January 2013 and January 2016 in Al-Nahdha Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who presented with a corneal ulcer requiring admission and who underwent culture and sensitivity studies were included in the study...
September 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Giorgia De Lorenzi, Karen Kamphuisen, Giuseppe Biscontini, Maria Pacciarini, Mariagrazia Zanoni, Andrea Luppi
Mycobacterium genavense infection was diagnosed in an adult ferret with ptosis of the left eye, a proliferative lesion of the conjunctiva of the nictitating membrane, conjunctival swelling, and tumefaction of the periorbital tissues with a watery ocular discharge and the presence of a retrobulbar mass. The diagnosis was based on characteristic cytology of the retrobulbar mass and left mandibular lymph node that revealed granulomatous inflammation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed the presence of positive acid-fast bacilli in the cytoplasm of the macrophages...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Hipólito Castillo-Ureta, José Marcial Zazueta-Moreno, José Guadalupe Rendón-Maldonado, José Israel Torres-Avendaño, Héctor Samuel López-Moreno, Vicente Olimón-Andalón, Victor Manuel Salomón-Soto, Fabiola Patricia Pérez-Sánchez, Edith Hilario Torres-Montoya
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Dogs have been proven as primary hosts of the parasite. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans caused by Leishmania mexicana have been reported in Sinaloa; however, the vectors and hosts involved in the epidemiology of the parasite in northwestern Mexico are still unknown. Given the public health implications of this parasite's domestic hosts regarding the permanence and transmission of the disease to humans, the objective of the present study was to detect and determine the species of Leishmania that caused the first three cases of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico...
November 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
H Furuya, K Ikeda, K Iida, K Suzuki, S Furuta, T Tamachi, K Suzuki, G Miura, M Hiraguri, R Hase, K Hikosaka, K Norose, H Nakajima
Toxoplasma is a common parasite worldwide that mainly affects the brain, lungs and eyes. Although toxoplasmic encephalitis is a lethal disease without treatment, past case reports show most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis were misdiagnosed and treated as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, which led to unfavorable outcomes. We herein describe a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis affecting all the above organs with atypical symptoms, which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus...
November 28, 2018: Lupus
Paolo Romita, Luca Stingeni, Katharina Hansel, Grazia Ettorre, Anna Bosco, Francesca Ambrogio, Caterina Foti
Topical drugs containing chloramphenicol and clostridiopeptidase A are frequently used for the treatment of cutaneous ulcers and other necrotic lesions. Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in eye and skin ointments to treat bacterial infections and a well-known cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) (1). Clostridiopeptidase A, also called collagenase 1, is a proteolytic enzyme facilitating the tissue granulation with consequent re-epithelization; it has rarely been reported as cause of ACD (2)...
November 28, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Shanshan Wan, Jun Cheng, Yanling Dong, Lixin Xie
To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment, risk factors of occurrence and graft transparency of corneal epithelial defects after penetrating keratoplasty in patients with infectious keratitis. 594 patients (594 eyes) with infectious keratitis treated by penetrating keratoplasty at Shandong Eye Institute were reviewed retrospectively between January 2008 and January 2018. We investigated the demographic data, diameter and sources of graft, onset time, location, scope, time of healing and treatment of epithelial defects, as well as other postoperative complications and graft clarity...
2018: PloS One
Amanda L Fuchs, Alan J Weaver, Brian P Tripet, Mary Cloud B Ammons, Martin Teintze, Valérie Copié
Bald's eyesalve is an Anglo-Saxon medicinal remedy that has been used through ancient times to treat eye sty infections and may represent a source of ancientbiotics. This study assessed the efficacy of Bald's eyesalve against several strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including a multi-drug resistant phenotype, and identified the principal compound conveying antibacterial activity. Bald's eyesalve formulations were produced by combining garlic, onion or leek, wine, bovine bile, and brass, with specific ingredient omissions in several formulations, followed by incubation at 4 °C for 9 days...
2018: PloS One
Birgit Fritz, Anne Jenner, Siegfried Wahl, Christian Lappe, Achim Zehender, Christian Horn, Frithjof Blessing, Matthias Kohl, Focke Ziemssen, Markus Egert
Surfaces with regular contact with the human body are typically contaminated with microorganisms and might be considered as fomites. Despite spectacles being widespread across populations, little is known about their microbial contamination. Therefore, we swab-sampled 11 worn spectacles within a university setting as well as 10 worn spectacles in a nursing home setting. The microbial load was determined by aerobic cultivation. All spectacles were found to be contaminated with bacteria, with nose pads and ear clips having the highest density, i...
2018: PloS One
Ashkan Faridi, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi, Mahsa Ziasistani, Mohammad Reza Kandehkar Ghahraman, Seyedeh Zeinab Seyyed-Yousefi, Noshin Shakeri, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is the main Gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients with ocular infections. Herein, we describe the pattern of antibiotic resistance, presence of resistance genes including ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, mecA and the pvl cytotoxin gene in S. aureus isolates collected from patients with external ocular infection. Materials and Methods: In this study, 8 S. aureus isolates were collected from 81 patients that suffered from eye damage...
August 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Tetsuya Kawakita
Dry eye is a multifactorial disease that is one of the most common diseases worldwide. A major cause of dry eye is the deficiency of aqueous tears, which are mainly secreted from the lacrimal gland. The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining the health of the ocular surface and protecting it from environmental exposure. Dry eye can lead to ocular irritation and discomfort, as well as severe ocular surface diseases (e.g., ocular infections, corneal ulcerations, and ocular surface keratinization)...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hardik Majmudar, Meng Hao, Nehru Viji Sankaranarayanan, Brian Zanotti, Michael V Volin, Umesh R Desai, Vaibhav Tiwari
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a significant pathogen that affects vision by targeting multiple regions in the human eye including iris. Using a focused library of synthetic non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics (NSGMs), we identified sulfated pentagalloylglucoside (SPGG) as a potent inhibitor of HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell spread in the primary cultures of human iris stromal (HIS) cells isolated from eye donors. Using in vitro β-galactosidase reporter assay and plaque reduction assay, SPGG was found to inhibit HSV-1 entry in a dosage-dependent manner (IC50 ∼6...
November 24, 2018: Antiviral Research
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