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Abnormal placentation

Ashten Waks, Kareem Tabsh, Khalil Tabsh, Yalda Afshar
BACKGROUND: Perioperative hemorrhage is a common complication of peripartum hysterectomy for morbidly adherent placenta. We present an application of a balloon uterine tamponade device in the setting of a cesarean delivery and subsequent supracervical hysterectomy for abnormal placentation. CASE: A 33-year-old gravid woman, 6 para 3022, at 33 2/7 weeks of gestation was admitted in preterm labor, with placenta previa and suspected morbidly adherent placenta, for a planned cesarean delivery and hysterectomy...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Shen Gu, Madison Jernegan, Ignatia B Van den Veyver, Sandra Peacock, Janice Smith, Amy Breman
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish the incidence and implications of CPM in the context of prenatal CMA. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed prenatal array data on 1382 consecutive CVS specimens spanning the past 6 years, focusing on those for which whole CVS biopsy (both cytotrophoblast and mesenchymal cells) was used for CMA and cultured cells (primarily mesenchyme) was also analyzed or AF/newborn blood was used for confirmation, to determine the frequency of mosaic abnormal findings that were the result of CPM...
August 9, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Linda G Kahn, Leonardo Trasande
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the strength of evidence for associations between environmental toxicants and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, suggest potential biological mechanisms based on animal and in vitro studies, and highlight avenues for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is strongest for links between persistent chemicals, including lead, cadmium, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic biphenyls, and preeclampsia, although associations are sometimes not detectable at low-exposure levels...
August 8, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Yao-Lung Chang, An-Shine Chao, Hsiu-Huei Peng, Shuenn-Dyh Chang, Kuan-Ju Chen, Po-Jen Cheng, Tzu-Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that fetal plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are significantly increased in growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. During hypoxia in an ovine model, the primary site of fetal EPO synthesis was switched from the kidneys to the placenta. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate human placental EPO gene expression and the correlation to fetal serum EPO concentration in growth-restricted fetuses in a monochorionic (MC) twin model...
August 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Linmei Zheng, Lei Shi, Zhongyi Zhou, Xiaoju Chen, Li Wang, Zhicheng Lu, Rong Tang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate placental expression of AChE, α7nAChR and NF-κB in patients with preeclampsia and discuss about its clinical significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels of acetylcholine (AChE), alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) in placenta were detected by qRT-PCR, and protein levels were determined by immunohis-tological analysis and Western Blot in 35 women with preeclampsia (including 20 cases of mild preeclampsia and 15 cases of severe preeclampsia) and 30 cases in control group, respectively...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Michiko Hirose, Masashi Hada, Satoshi Kamimura, Shogo Matoba, Arata Honda, Kaori Motomura, Narumi Ogonuki, Hossam H Shawki, Kimiko Inoue, Satoru Takahashi, Atsuo Ogura
Although phenotypic abnormalities frequently appear in the placenta following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), mouse trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) established from SCNT embryos reportedly show no distinct abnormalities compared with those derived from normal fertilization. In this study, we reexamined SCNT-TSCs to identify their imprinting statuses. Placenta-specific maternally imprinted genes (Gab1, Slc38a4, and Sfmbt2) consistently showed biallelic expression in SCNT-TSCs, suggesting their loss of imprinting (LOI)...
August 5, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Tuba Gunel, Nilufer Kamali, Mohammad K Hosseini, Ece Gumusoglu, Ali Benian, Kilic Aydinli
PURPOSE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy specific disease soon after 20 weeks of gestation where major symptoms are hypertension and proteinuria. The underlying pathology is believed to be abnormal placentation. Epigenetic and genetic factors have significant roles in abnormal placental development. MicroRNA's (miRNAs), being one of the most important epigenetic regulators, take part in abnormal placentation. Hsa-miR-195 is a molecule associated with abnormal placental growth mechanisms such as impaired cellular proliferation, inadequate trophoblastic invasion causing defective spiral artery remodeling and apoptosis...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Junhui Wan, Ru Li, Yongling Zhang, Xiangyi Jing, Qiuxia Yu, Fatao Li, Yan Li, Lina Zhang, Cuixing Yi, Jian Li, Dongzhi Li, Can Liao
OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence and pregnancy outcome of autosomal aneuploidies other than common trisomy 21, 18 and 13 detected by noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) at a single center. METHODS: Pregnant women undergoing NIPT from February 2015 to January 2018 in our center were offered expanded screening to include rare autosomal aneuploidies. Aneuploidies included extra copy chromosomes (most likely trisomies) and decreased copy chromosomes (most likely monosomies)...
August 5, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Maha Hussain Alhainiah, Hasan S O Abdulljabbar, Yasir Ahmad Bukhari
Introduction: The incidence of grand multiparty in Saudi Arabia is high; there are no adequate studies about the grand multiparty. Aim: The aim to determine the prevalence, fetal and maternal outcomes in grand multipara women in comparison to primipara's women. Methods: A retrospective study, the data was collected from our hospital records of labour and delivery unit started from January 2016 to December 2016. Results: The analysis was done in 415 charts divided into two group 1 consist of (120 primigravidas) used as the control and group 2 the study group (295 grand multiparas)...
June 2018: Materia Socio-medica
Helena C Bartels, James D Postle, Paul Downey, Donal J Brennan
Background . Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a condition of abnormal placental invasion encompassing placenta accreta, increta, and percreta and is a major cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of a PAS is made on the basis of histopathologic examination and characterised by an absence of decidua and chorionic villi are seen to directly adjacent to myometrial fibres. The underlying molecular biology of PAS is a complex process that requires further research; for ease, we have divided these processes into angiogenesis, proliferation, and inflammation/invasion...
2018: Disease Markers
Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Norah M E Fogarty, Carolyn J P Jones, John Kingdom, Graham J Burton
INTRODUCTION: Premature ageing has been implicated in placental dysfunction. Senescence can be activated by oxidative stress, a key intermediary in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. We examined senescence markers across normal gestation, and in pathological and post-mature pregnancies. Inducers of oxidative stress were used to mimic senescence changes in term explants. METHODS: Placental samples were collected with ethical approval and informed consent: first and second trimester samples from surgical terminations; term and pre-term controls, and early-onset pre-eclampsia samples from caesarean deliveries...
August 2018: Placenta
M Naveen Kumar, R L Babu, Rajeshwari H Patil, K M Kiran Kumar, Shubha M Hegde, Rashmi Nagesh, K Kavya, Govindarajan T Ramesh, S Chidananda Sharma, C Srinivas
Choriocarcinoma, a trophoblastic neoplasia, occurs in women as an incidence of abnormal pregnancy. BeWo choriocarcinoma cells derived from the abnormal placentation are a suitable model system to study the factors associated with differentiation, invasion and other cellular events as an alternative to clinical samples. Many protein kinases orchestrate the complex events of cell cycle and in case of malignancy such regulators are found to be mutated. In the present study, BeWo cells treated with forskolin (Fo) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were used to study the role of PKA (protein kinase A) and PKC (protein kinase C), respectively, on the expression pattern of differentiation-related genes, membrane markers, PKC isoforms and cell cycle regulators...
July 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Nicole T Spillane, Stacy Zamudio, Jesus Alvarez-Perez, Tracy Andrews, Themba Nyirenda, Manuel Alvarez, Abdulla Al-Khan
BACKGROUND: The incidence of abnormally invasive placentation (AIP) is increasing. Most of these pregnancies are delivered preterm. We sought to characterize neonatal outcomes in AIP pregnancies. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study (2006-2015), AIP neonates (n = 108) were matched to two controls each for gestational age, antenatal glucocorticoid exposure, sex, plurity, and delivery mode. Medical records were reviewed for neonatal and maternal characteristics/outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Yingfan Zhang, Chengyu Liu, Robert S Adelstein, Xuefei Ma
Three paralogs of nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM 2A, 2B, and 2C) are expressed in mammals and the heavy chains are the products of three different genes, Myh9, Myh10 and Myh14, respectively. NM 2A and 2B are essential for mouse development, while 2C is not. Studies on NM 2C are limited and the in vivo function of this paralog is not clear. Using homologous recombination, cDNA expressing nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 2C1 fused with GFP was introduced into the first coding exon of Myh9, thereby replacing NM 2A expression with NM 2C1 in mice...
July 25, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Neeta L Vora, Lisa Hui
Prenatal genetics has evolved over the last decade to include application of new 'omics technologies to improve perinatal care. The clinical utility of these technologies when applied to direct fetal specimens from amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling is being explored. In this review, we provide an overview of use of prenatal exome sequencing and role in evaluation of the structurally abnormal fetus, potential applications of genome sequencing, and finally, use of transcriptomics to assess placental and fetal well-being...
July 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Payel Bhattacharjee, Debashree De, Debasish Bhattacharyya
Human placental extract contains numerous bioactive components that are effective wound healing, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. During our investigation on the therapeutic potency of human placental extract, we have purified ubiquitin-like molecules that showed strong fibrino(geno)lytic activity. Further investigation confirmed similar potency of ubiquitin purified from adult human erythrocyte. Additionally, ubiquitin efficiently degraded disordered amyloid β 42 peptide (Aβ42) aggregate and fibrin-Aβ42 co-aggregate in vitro and reduced co-aggregate induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells as compared to plasmin...
July 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dan Zhang, Xinyue Sun, Liqin Ren, Chunyan Yang, Xianbing Liu, Haixia Zhang, Yuzhu Jiang, Xuemei Hu
A Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can result in spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, or congenital fetal defects. The decidual immune system plays a critical role in regulating the immune micro-environment and in the induction of immune tolerance. To better understand the factors that mediate the decidual immune response associated with the T. gondii infection, a large-scale study employing TMT proteomics was conducted to characterize the differential decidual immune proteomes from infected and uninfected human decidual immune cells samples...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Rachel L León, Kevin T Li, Brandon P Brown
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of the placenta affect 5-7% of pregnancies. Because disturbances in fetal growth are often preceded by dysfunction of the placenta or attenuation of its normal expansion, placental health warrants careful surveillance. There are limited normative data available for placental volume by MRI. OBJECTIVE: To determine normative ranges of placental volume by MRI throughout gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional retrospective analysis, we reviewed MRI examinations of pregnant females obtained between 2002 and 2017 at a single institution...
July 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Tomoya Hasegawa, Naoaki Kuji, Fumiaki Notake, Tetsu Tsukamoto, Toru Sasaki, Motohiro Shimizu, Kazunori Mukaida, Hiroe Ito, Keiichi Isaka, Hirotaka Nishi
Background: In this prospective cohort study, we examined the utility of elastography to evaluate the fetus and placenta. Patients and methods: Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy, by which time the placenta has formed, were included in this study. A total of 111 women underwent ultrasound examinations, including elastography. Elastographic evaluation was performed using two protocols. First, the placental index (PI) was measured, which quantitatively assesses the hardness of tissue...
June 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Jelena Boekhoff, Birgit Arabin, Jens Figiel, Siegmund Köhler
AIM: Based on the recent FIGO recommendations, we wish to report on preservation of the uterus in a patient with placenta increta by applying the leaving the placenta in situ approach. METHODS: A 30-year-old gravida 2, Para 1 was referred at 25 + 5 gestational weeks due to a placenta previa bipartita increta diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound, a history of a cesarean and vaginal bleeding. After informed consent, the parents opted for conservative treatment...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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