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Abnormal placentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500491/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-placental-cotyledon-proposal-of-a-novel-cotyledon-appearance-score
#1
Yuko Otake, Hidenori Kanazawa, Hironori Takahashi, Shigeki Matsubara, Hideharu Sugimoto
OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detectable morphology of the placental cotyledon, we proposed the first cotyledon appearance scores on MRI. Cotyledon appearance scores consist of two subscores: orthogonal and parallel cotyledon appearance scores. These represent cotyledon appearance orthogonal or parallel to the placental thickness, respectively. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of our hospital...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498451/mitochondria-and-coenzyme-q10-in-the-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#2
REVIEW
Enrique Teran, Isabel Hernández, Leandro Tana, Santiago Teran, Carlos Galaviz-Hernandez, Martha Sosa-Macías, Gustavo Molina, Andrés Calle
Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy constitute one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality across the world and particularly in developing countries such as Ecuador. However, despite its impact on public health, the primary pathophysiological processes involved are yet to be elucidated. It has been proposed, among other theories, that an abnormal placentation may induce an endothelial dysfunction, which is ultimately responsible for the final clinical manifestations. Mitochondria, particularly from trophoblastic cells, are responsible for the production of energy, which is extremely important for normal placentation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487550/upregulation-of-cd81-in-trophoblasts-induces-an-imbalance-of-treg-th17-cells-by-promoting-il-6-expression-in-preeclampsia
#3
Hailin Ding, Yimin Dai, Yi Lei, Zhiyin Wang, Dan Liu, Ruotian Li, Li Shen, Ning Gu, Mingming Zheng, Xiangyu Zhu, Guangfeng Zhao, Yali Hu
The disturbance of maternal immune tolerance to a semiallogeneic fetus is recognized as one of the key pathologies of preeclampsia (PE), in which an imbalance between the inflammation-limiting regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the inflammation-mediating Th17 cells plays an essential role. Previously, we reported that the abnormal upregulation of tetraspannin CD81 in trophoblast cells (fetal component) participated in the pathogenesis of PE. However, as one of the potential immune regulatory molecules, whether CD81 induces PE by interfering with the balance of the maternal immune system has not yet been clarified...
November 28, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486702/the-role-of-supracervical-hysterectomy-in-reducing-blood-products-requirement-in-the-management-of-placenta-accreta-a-case-control-study
#4
Levin Gabriel, Rottenstreich Amihai, Benshushan Avi, Dior Uri, Shveiky David, Shushan Asher, Elchalal Uriel
OBJECTIVE: While surgical management is the treatment of choice for abnormally invasive placenta, the role of supracervical hysterectomy in this setting is not well established. We aimed to compare supracervical versus total cesarean hysterectomy as a surgical option for abnormally invasive placenta. METHODS: We carried out a 8-year retrospective case-control study. Six cases of patient treated by total hysterectomy were matched and compared to 30 controls treated by supracervical hysterectomy...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486701/blunt-dissection-technique-with-finger-and-vessel-skeletonization-in-the-posterior-vesical-wall-for-abnormally-invasive-placenta-previa
#5
Hüseyin Çağlayan Özcan, Mete Gurol Uğur, Seyhun Sucu, Özcan Balat
PURPOSE: This study described a new technique to minimize the bleeding resulted from aberrant engorged vessels and unintended bladder injury in cases with abnormally invaded placenta adjacent to posterior bladder wall at cesarean hysterectomy. METHODS: After filling the bladder with 300 ml saline aberrant engorged vessels were identified and skeletonized between lower uterine segment and bladder with blunt dissection by index finger down to the distal end point of cervix...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486635/updates-on-the-management-of-placenta-accreta-spectrum
#6
Daniele Di Mascio, Giuseppe Calì, Francesco D'antonio
Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders is a multifactorial process that encompasses a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by an abnormal invasion of trophoblastic tissue through the myometrium and uterine serosa. PAS is associated with a high burden of adverse maternal outcomes including severe life-threatening hemorrhage, need for blood transfusion, damage to adjacent organs, and death. Prenatal screening of PAS is mandatory so that women may be counselled about the severity of this condition to plan management with a multidisciplinary team and delivery in a specialized center...
November 27, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474229/the-association-between-maternal-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-mthfr-c677t-and-a1298c-polymorphism-and-birth-defects-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Yuan Zhang, Xia He, Xuan Xiong, Junlan Chuan, Lei Zhong, Guo Chen, Dongke Yu
Published studies indicate the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with abnormal homocysteine levels, which may cause various pregnancy complications and birth defects. However, the results obtained from different studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis explores the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and birth defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Embase, China Biology Medicine literature databases and ClinicalTrials were searched. Analyses of public bias, meta-regression, subgroups, and sensitivity were used to ensure the robustness of our results...
November 25, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471891/placenta-accreta-spectrum
#8
Alison G Cahill, Richard Beigi, R Phillips Heine, Robert M Silver, Joseph R Wax
Placenta accreta spectrum, formerly known as morbidly adherent placenta, refers to the range of pathologic adherence of the placenta, including placenta increta, placenta percreta, and placenta accreta. The most favored hypothesis regarding the etiology of placenta accreta spectrum is that a defect of the endometrial-myometrial interface leads to a failure of normal decidualization in the area of a uterine scar, which allows abnormally deep placental anchoring villi and trophoblast infiltration. Maternal morbidity and mortality can occur because of severe and sometimes life-threatening hemorrhage, which often requires blood transfusion...
December 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469429/prophylactic-transcatheter-arterial-embolization-helps-intraoperative-hemorrhagic-control-for-removing-invasive-placenta
#9
Kun-Long Huang, Ching-Chang Tsai, Hung-Chun Fu, Hsin-Hsin Cheng, Yun-Ju Lai, Hsuan-Ning Hung, Leo Leung-Chit Tsang, Te-Yao Hsu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to investigate the estimated blood loss in pregnant women undergoing cesarean section and placental extirpation to treat abnormal placentation and compare the outcomes of those who underwent prophylactic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with those who did not. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 17 pregnant women diagnosed with abnormal placentation in 2001⁻2018 in a single tertiary center. The patients were diagnosed by surgical finding, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462321/hezeb2-a-master-regulator-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-mediates-trophoblast-differentiation
#10
Sonia DaSilva-Arnold, Che-Ying Kuo, Viralkumar Davra, Yvonne Remache, Peter C W Kim, John P Fisher, Stacy Zamudio, Abdulla Al-Khan, Raymond B Birge, Nicholas P Illsley
STUDY QUESTION: Does the upregulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) transcription factor in human trophoblast cells lead to alterations in gene expression consistent with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a consequent increase in invasiveness? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overexpression of ZEB2 results in an epithelial-mesenchymal shift in gene expression accompanied by a substantial increase in invasive capacity of human trophoblast cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In-vivo results have shown that cytotrophoblast differentiation into extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
November 21, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461695/obstetric-care-consensus-no-7-placenta-accreta-spectrum
#11
(no author information available yet)
Placenta accreta spectrum, formerly known as morbidly adherent placenta, refers to the range of pathologic adherence of the placenta, including placenta increta, placenta percreta, and placenta accreta. The most favored hypothesis regarding the etiology of placenta accreta spectrum is that a defect of the endometrial-myometrial interface leads to a failure of normal decidualization in the area of a uterine scar, which allows abnormally deep placental anchoring villi and trophoblast infiltration. Maternal morbidity and mortality can occur because of severe and sometimes life-threatening hemorrhage, which often requires blood transfusion...
December 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461691/obstetric-care-consensus-no-7-summary-placenta-accreta-spectrum
#12
(no author information available yet)
Placenta accreta spectrum, formerly known as morbidly adherent placenta, refers to the range of pathologic adherence of the placenta, including placenta increta, placenta percreta, and placenta accreta. The most favored hypothesis regarding the etiology of placenta accreta spectrum is that a defect of the endometrial-myometrial interface leads to a failure of normal decidualization in the area of a uterine scar, which allows abnormally deep placental anchoring villi and trophoblast infiltration. Maternal morbidity and mortality can occur because of severe and sometimes life-threatening hemorrhage, which often requires blood transfusion...
December 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457231/-comparison-of-two-approaches-for-placenta-accreta-uterine-preservation-versus-cesarean-hysterectomy
#13
Shlomit Maymon, Ron Maymon, Jacob Bornstein, Josef Tovbin, Yaakov Melcer, Maya Frank Wolf
AIMS: To compare the maternal and newborn outcome between cases that underwent conservative surgery with uterine preservation (Group A) to cesarean hysterectomy (Group B). BACKGROUND: Placenta accreta defines abnormally adherent and invasive placentation into the myometrium and in some cases invades adjacent organs. In recent years the incidence of placenta accreta cases has risen due to the increasing prevalence of cesarean delivery. The clinical manifestation of placenta accreta might be life threatening maternal bleeding during the attempt to detach the placenta following delivery...
November 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453684/characterizing-the-different-effects-of-zika-virus-infection-in-placenta-and-microglia-cells
#14
Maria Del Pilar Martinez Viedma, Brett E Pickett
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neuropathic virus that causes serious neurological abnormalities such as Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in fetuses, which makes it an important concern for global human health. A catalogue of cells that support ZIKV replication, pathogenesis, and/or the persistence of the virus still remains unknown. Here, we studied the behavior of the virus in human placenta (JEG-3) and human microglia (HMC3) cell lines in order to better understand how different host tissues respond during infection...
November 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452541/associations-between-features-of-placental-morphology-and-birthweight-in-dichorionic-twins
#15
Alexa A Freedman, Carol J Hogue, Carmen J Marsit, Augustine Rajakumar, Alicia K Smith, Katherine L Grantz, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, George R Saade, Robert M Silver, Karen J Gibbins, Radek Bukowski, Carolyn Drews-Botsch
Low birthweight is associated with both perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. Studies in singletons have reported associations between features of placental morphology and birthweight. Evaluating similar associations within twin pairs offers a unique opportunity to control for key confounders shared within a twin pair, including gestational age, parental characteristics, and intrauterine environment, which may otherwise be unfeasible...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30448828/clinical-and-ultrasound-predictors-of-placenta-accreta-in-pregnant-women-with-antepartum-diagnosis-of-placenta-previa-a-multicenter-study
#16
Davide De Vita, Giampiero Capobianco, Giovanni Gerosolima, Carmen Sciorio, Ermenegilda Coppola, Fabio Parazzini, Maurizio Silvestri, Anna Paola Caruso, Maddalena Morlando, Raffaele Petta, Alessandro Pascarella, Salvatore Dessole, Elsa Viora
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) includes placenta accreta, increta, and percreta and represents major complications of pregnancy. This study was designed to assess the role of ultrasonography in the identification of AIP among pregnant women with antepartum diagnosis of placenta previa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed between May 2015 and April 2016 in 11 centers, including 242 women with antepartum diagnosis of placenta previa...
November 16, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30445173/early-changes-in-cardiovascular-biomarkers-with-contemporary-thoracic-radiation-therapy-for-breast-cancer-lung-cancer-and-lymphoma
#17
Biniyam G Demissei, Gary Freedman, Steven J Feigenberg, John P Plastaras, Amit Maity, Amanda M Smith, Caitlin McDonald, Karyn Sheline, Charles B Simone, Lillie Lin, Joseph R Carver, Peter Liu, Liyong Zhang, Justin E Bekelman, Bonnie Ky
PURPOSE: We characterized the early changes in cardiovascular biomarkers with contemporary thoracic radiation therapy (RT) and evaluated their associations with radiation dose volume metrics including mean heart dose (MHD), V5 and V30. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a prospective longitudinal study of 87 patients with breast cancer, lung cancer or mediastinal lymphoma treated with photon or proton thoracic RT, blood samples were obtained pre-RT and after completion of RT (median 20 days, interquartile range (IQR) 1,35)...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425647/new-insights-into-the-role-of-placental-aquaporins-and-the-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#18
Natalia Szpilbarg, Nora A Martínez, Mauricio Di Paola, Julieta Reppetti, Yollyseth Medina, Abril Seyahian, Mauricio Castro Parodi, Alicia E Damiano
Accumulated evidence suggests that an abnormal placentation and an altered expression of a variety of trophoblast transporters are associated to preeclampsia. In this regard, an abnormal expression of AQP3 and AQP9 was reported in these placentas. Recent data suggests that placental AQPs are not only water channel proteins and that may participate in relevant processes required for a normal placental development, such as cell migration and apoptosis. Recently we reported that a normal expression of AQP3 is required for the migration of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416278/external-cephalic-version-a-dying-art-worth-reviving
#19
Raj Lakshmi Nalam, Priya Chinnachamy, Paul Emmanuel
Purpose: Breech presentation is the most common abnormal presentation occurring in 3-4% of all deliveries. Incidence of caesarean section for breech presentation has increased markedly in the last few decades. Attempting external cephalic version (ECV) reduces the chance of non-cephalic presentation at term, thus reducing the rate of caesarean sections. Methods: Prospective study was conducted in secondary healthcare centre, in rural set-up from August 2013 to August 2015...
December 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411435/persistent-amnion-chorion-membrane-separation
#20
Kristin D Gerson, Anna M Modest, Jonathan L Hecht, Brett C Young
AIM: Fetal membranes are composed of the amnion and chorion, which fuse during the early second trimester. Persistent separation confers increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. This study characterizes sonographic and placental findings associated with persistent amnion-chorion (AC) membrane separation. METHODS: This is a case series of 23 patients carrying singleton pregnancies with persistent AC membrane separation after 16 weeks' gestation diagnosed by ultrasound from 2010 to 2016 at our institution...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
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