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Placental protein

Nanthini Jayabalan, Andrew Lai, Valeska Ormazabal, Stefanie Adam, Dominic Guanzon, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ratana Lim, Thomas Jansson, Harold David McIntyre, Martha Lappas, Carlos Salomon
Context: Molecules produced by adipose tissue (AT) function as an endocrine link between maternal AT and fetal growth by regulating placental function in normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective: We hypothesised that AT-derived exosomes from women with GDM carry a specific set of proteins that influences glucose metabolism in placenta. Design: Exosomes were isolated from omental AT-conditioned media from pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (exo-NGT, n=65) and women with GDM (exo-GDM, n=82)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christina E Hayward, Kirsty R McIntyre, Colin P Sibley, Susan L Greenwood, Mark R Dilworth
Fetal delivery of calcium, via the placenta, is crucial for appropriate skeletal mineralization. We have previously demonstrated that maternofetal calcium transport, per gram placenta, is increased in the placental specific insulin-like growth factor 2 knockout mouse (P0) model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) compared to wild type littermates (WTL). This effect was mirrored in wild-type (WT) mice comparing lightest vs. heaviest (LvH) placentas in a litter. In both models increased placental calcium transport was associated with normalization of fetal calcium content...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Rosette Megnekou, Jean Claude Djontu, Benderli C Nana, Jude D Bigoga, Maurice Fotso, Balotin Fogang, Rose F G Leke
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequestering in placental tissue release Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and histidine-rich protein-II (HRP-II). These proteins can be detected in peripheral blood using monoclonal antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Nevertheless, studies to evaluate the reliability of RDTs in detecting placental malaria compared with microscopy of placental tissue impression smear (PTIS) as the gold standard are scarce. METHODS: Between August 2013 and January 2015, Giemsa-stained blood smears for peripheral blood smear (Pbs), placental intervillous space (IVS) blood smear and placental tissue impression smear (PTIS)] were prepared from HIV-negative women during delivery at the Marie Reine Medical Health Centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ursula Quitterer, Xuebin Fu, Armin Pohl, Karam M Bayoumy, Andreas Langer, Said AbdAlla
Preeclampsia is the most frequent pregnancy-related complication worldwide with no cure. While a number of molecular features have emerged, the underlying causal mechanisms behind the disorder remain obscure. Here, we find that increased complex formation between angiotensin II AT1 and bradykinin B2, two G protein-coupled receptors with opposing effects on blood vessel constriction, triggers symptoms of preeclampsia in pregnant mice. Aberrant heteromerization of AT1-B2 led to exaggerated calcium signaling and high vascular smooth muscle mechanosensitivity, which could explain the onset of preeclampsia symptoms at late-stage pregnancy as mechanical forces increase with fetal mass...
November 20, 2018: Cell
Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Maritta Wipplinger, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
In mares, placental diseases are a common cause of pregnancy failure and they can have an economic impact on the horse breeding industry. To our knowledge no published data on TLR expression in the equine placenta exist. This study examined the expression of TLR 2, 4 and 6 as transcript and protein in the placenta (chorioallantois) of 14 foals born alive. By PCR, all examined placental samples contained TLR 2, 4 and 6 transcripts. Using immunohistochemistry, trophoblasts and allantoic epithelium were immunopositive for TLR 2, 4 and 6 in all placental samples...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Line H Tangerås, Gabriela B Silva, Guro S Stødle, Lobke M Gierman, Bente Skei, Karin Collett, Anne-Lise Beversmark, Ragnhild B Skråstad, Liv Cecilie V Thomsen, Line Bjørge, Ann-Charlotte Iversen
INTRODUCTION: Normal pregnancy is characterized by an elevated inflammatory state involving the placenta. The placental inflammation is further increased in preeclampsia, resulting in release of harmful danger signals to the maternal circulation. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and TLR4 by endogenous danger signals plays a role in inflammatory diseases. Placental TLR2 and TLR4 expression has been reported, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a likely endogenous activator of these receptors...
December 2018: Placenta
Haiyan Liu, Matt Kang, Julie Wang, Cherie Blenkiron, Arier Lee, Michelle Wise, Larry Chamley, Qi Chen
BACKGROUND: The human placenta extrudes a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the maternal blood daily. These vesicles may be crucial to the adaptation of the maternal cardiovascular and immune systems to pregnancy. Quantifying the EVs that are released in early gestation is important to our understanding of how placental EVs may contribute to the regulation of maternal physiology. METHODS: EVs were isolated from first trimester placental explants and separated into micro- and nano-vesicles by differential centrifugation...
December 2018: Placenta
Stuart T Hamilton, Corina Hutterer, Ece Egilmezer, Mirjam Steingruber, Jens Milbradt, Manfred Marschall, William D Rawlinson
INTRODUCTION: Congenital cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may cause significant fetal malformation and in severe cases fetal and neonatal death. Fetal injury may be caused indirectly by the placental response to infection. Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) have recently been identified as critical kinases for HCMV replication. In this study we provide first evidence that DYRK1A and DYRK1B are utilised during HCMV placental replication. METHODS: DYRK expression was investigated in AD169- and Merlin-infected TEV-1 trophoblast cells, ex vivo placental explants and naturally infected clinical placentae by immunofluorescence, western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and RT-qPCR...
December 2018: Placenta
Yonghong Zhang, Lina Ma, Xiaohui Hu, Jinlu Ji, Gil Mor, Aihua Liao
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis in macrophage polarization during early pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: PD-1 signaling is a major regulator of macrophage differentiation and function, and it is critical for the success of a pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The predominance of decidual macrophages (DMs) with an M2 phenotype is an important contributor to maternal-fetal tolerance during early pregnancy...
November 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Anaïs Wakx, Margaux Nedder, Céline Tomkiewicz-Raulet, Jessica Dalmasso, Audrey Chissey, Sonja Boland, Françoise Vibert, Séverine A Degrelle, Thierry Fournier, Xavier Coumoul, Sophie Gil, Ioana Ferecatu
The human placenta is an organ between the blood of the mother and the fetus, which is essential for fetal development. It also plays a role as a selective barrier against environmental pollutants that may bypass epithelial barriers and reach the placenta, with implications for the outcome of pregnancy. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is one of the most important environmental-sensor transcription factors and mediates the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics. Nevertheless, the identification of dietary and endogenous ligands of AhR suggest that it may also fulfil physiological functions with which pollutants may interfere...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xunsha Sun, Yulin Jin, Qihua Liang, Jie Tang, Jinsong Chen, Qiuxia Yu, Fatao Li, Yan Li, Jieying Wu, Shaoqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic preconditioning alters the biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It is not known whether this process has an effect on circular RNAs (circRNAs) in MSCs. METHODS: Human placental chorionic plate-derived MSCs (hpcpMSCs) isolated from the same placentae were classed into two groups: hypoxic pretreated (hypoxia) group and normally cultured (normoxia) group. The comparative circRNA microarray analysis was used to determine circRNAs expression and verified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the two groups...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Zhen Luo, Xue Xu, Takami Sho, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianbo Yao, Jianxiong Xu
Significant embryo loss remains a serious problem in pig production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in embryonic implantation and placentation. However, the potential mechanism of ROS on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cell fate during peri-implantation period has not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of ROS on pTr cell phenotypes and the regulatory role in cell attachment and differentiation. Herein, results showed that exogenous H2 O2 inhibited pTr cell viability, arrested cell cycle at S and G2/M phase, increased cell apoptosis and autophagy protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin-1, while these effects were reversed by different concentrations of N-acety-l-cysteine (NAC) post-treatment...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Marie-Eve Brien, Bernadette Baker, Cyntia Duval, Virginie Gaudreault, Rebecca Lee Jones, Sylvie Girard
Inflammation is known to be associated with placental dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Infections are well known to be a cause of inflammation but they are frequently undetectable in pregnancy complications. More recently, the focus has been extended to inflammation of non-infectious origin, namely caused by endogenous mediators known as "damage-associated molecular patterns - DAMPs" or alarmins. In this manuscript we review the mechanism by which inflammation; sterile or infectious can alter the placenta and its function...
November 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
P Šimják, A Cinkajzlová, K Anderlová, J Kloučková, H Kratochvílová, Z Lacinová, P Kaválková, H Krejčí, M Mráz, A Pařízek, M Kršek, M Haluzík
We measured plasma concentrations, adipose tissue and placental mRNA expression of hepatokines fetuin A, fetuin B and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in 12 healthy pregnant women (P group), 12 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and 10 healthy non-pregnant women (N group) to explore their potential role in the etiopathogenesis of GDM. GDM and P group had comparable BMI, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glycated hemoglobin levels while IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels were higher in GDM group. Fetuin A and fetuin B levels were higher in pregnancy as compared to N group and decreased after delivery with no apparent influence of GDM...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
Yan Zhang, Wenjin Zhang, Huancheng Wang, Bo Yang
BACKGROUND: Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAM-MSCs) are considered a new and favorable source of stem cells for cell replacement-based therapy. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to participate in the regulation of immune responses. Our aim was to investigate the effects of miR-21 on the biological characteristics, immunoregulatory properties, and potential mechanisms of hAM-MSCs. METHODS: hAM-MSCs were isolated from the placental amnion membrane of a newborn...
November 27, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Isabel Castro-Piedras, Monica Sharma, Meghan den Bakker, Deborah Molehin, Edgar G Martinez, David Vartak, Wendy M Pruitt, Jena Deitrick, Sharilyn Almodovar, Kevin Pruitt
The CYP19A1 gene encodes aromatase, an enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens and consequently directly contributes to both the depletion of androgens and the synthesis of estrogens in several organs. Aromatase is critical for diverse biological processes such as proliferation, regulation of fat metabolism and hormone signaling. Additionally, it is also overexpressed in diverse cancers and drives hormone-dependent tumor progression and increases 17-β-estradiol (E2 ) within tumors and the tumor microenvironment...
November 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Chunyu He, Meili Wang, Zi Yan, Suli Zhang, Huirong Liu
We developed a new separation method for isolating placental vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) from a rat in this study. Our method used the magnetic force between a magnet and ferrous ferric oxide (Fe3 O 4 ) to make the separation and extraction processes easier and more efficient. From the first to sixth generation, the cells isolated using this protocol were identified as smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by their immunoreactivity to the SMC markers and by the "hill and valley" morphology. PVSMCs were exposed to angiotensin II (1 μmol/L) and resulted in sharply increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Tadashi Sasagawa, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Kazuki Morita, Nobuko Mimura, Takayuki Iriyama, Tomoyuki Fujii, Masabumi Shibuya
Placental hypoxia and elevated levels of circulating soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, are closely related to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although sFlt-1 secretion from the placental trophoblasts is increased under hypoxic conditions, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Previously, an authentic hypoxia response element in the Flt-1 gene promoter was shown to be a potential binding site for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Here, we investigated the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in Flt-1 gene expression in trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cell lines and cytotrophoblasts exposed to hypoxic conditions...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yves-Marie Pers, Marie Maumus, Claire Bony, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noël
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are progenitor cells identified in many adult tissues, in particular in bone marrow or adipose tissue and, in placental tissues. MSCs exert pleiotropic functions that render them attractive for many clinical applications, both in degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Their main mode of action is through the secretion of trophic factors that can be released in the extracellular milieu or packaged within extracellular vesicles. These factors can be proteins, lipids, mRNAs or miRNAs that possess diverse effects, notably pro-angiogenic, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic or anti-inflammatory...
December 2018: Biochimie
Michaela Rohrmoser, Michael Kluge, Yousra Yahia, Anita Gruber-Eber, Muhammad Ahmad Maqbool, Ignasi Forné, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Ann Katrin Greifenberg, Matthias Geyer, Nicolas Descostes, Axel Imhof, Jean-Christophe Andrau, Caroline C Friedel, Dirk Eick
Mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIRs) are retrotransposed elements of mammalian genomes. Here, we report the specific binding of zinc finger protein ZNF768 to the sequence motif GCTGTGTG (N20) CCTCTCTG in the core region of MIRs. ZNF768 binding is preferentially associated with euchromatin and promoter regions of genes. Binding was observed for genes expressed in a cell type-specific manner in human B cell line Raji and osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed binding of ZNF768 to Elongator components Elp1, Elp2 and Elp3 and other nuclear factors...
November 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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