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Placental protein

Simone Corrêa-Silva, Aline P Alencar, Jusciele B Moreli, Alexandre U Borbely, Larissa de S Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Débora C Damasceno, Marilza V C Rudge, Estela Bevilacqua, Iracema M P Calderon
This study was based on the hypothesis that IL-1β and its central regulator, the inflammasome, may play a role in the inflammatory condition exhibited by placental tissues from mothers with different gestational hyperglycemia levels. Pregnant women were classified according to the glycemic reference as non-diabetic (n = 15), mild gestational hyperglycemia (n = 15), gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 15) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 15). We investigated levels of pro-inflammatory factors in maternal plasma and placental tissues (by ELISA or immunohistochemistry) and, NFKB activity (by electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and inflammasome protein expression (by Western blot) in chorionic villous...
August 13, 2018: Cytokine
Ali Alhousseini, Sunil Jaiman, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Salam Zeineddine, Faisal Qureshi, Suzanne M Jacques
Background: Thrombosis of one of the umbilical arteries can be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as stillbirth and severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Case: A 21-year-old gravida 1 patient, with a history of 3-vessel cord at 20 weeks, presented at 29 weeks with a single umbilical artery. The estimated fetal weight measurements at 26 weeks, 29 weeks, and 31 weeks were at the 27th percentile, the 26th percentile, and less than the 5th percentile, respectively...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Manu Banadakoppa, Meena Balakrishnan, Chandra Yallampalli
PROBLEM: Antiangiogenic molecule soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (sFLT1) released from trophoblast cells is associated with pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder pre-eclampsia. Cause of elevated sFLT1 in pre-eclampsia patients is not well understood. Despite evidence of excess systemic and placental complement activation in pre-eclampsia patients, its role in pathophysiology is not clear. If the complement activation plays a role in upregulation and secretion of sFLT1 is not known...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
D Szukiewicz, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Michal Pyzlak, Aleksandra Stangret, Michal Bachanek, Seweryn Trojanowski, Habib Alkhalayla, Jaroslaw Wejman
Upregulation of chemokine CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 occurs in the diabetic human placenta. Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing biguanide, is used in the therapy of diabetic pregnancy. By preventing the activation of NF-κB, metformin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. We examined the influence of hyperglycemia (25 mmol/L glucose; HG group; N = 36) on metformin-mediated effects on CX3CL1 and TNF-α production by placental lobules perfused extracorporeally. Additionally, CX3CR1 expression and contents of CX3CR1, TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and NF-κB proteins in the placental tissue were evaluated...
August 10, 2018: Inflammation
Mehboob Ali, Lynette K Rogers, Kathryn M Heyob, Catalin S Buhimschi, Irina A Buhimschi
Accreta and gestational trophoblastic disease (ie, choriocarcinoma) are placental pathologies characterized by hyperproliferative and invasive trophoblasts. Cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion are heavily controlled by actin-binding protein (ABP)-mediated actin dynamics. The ABP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) carries key regulatory role. Profilin-1, cofilin-1, and VASP phosphorylated at Ser157 (pVASP-S157) and Ser239 (pVASP-S239) are ABPs that regulate actin polymerization and stabilization and facilitate cell metastases...
August 9, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Allerdien Visser, Maarten Beijer, Cees B M Oudejans, Marie van Dijk
The number of molecules identified to be involved in communication between placenta and decidua is fast expanding. Previously, we showed that NODAL expressed in maternal endometrial stromal cells is able to affect NODAL and STOX1 expression in placental extravillous trophoblasts. The effect of maternal NODAL on placental NODAL expression is achieved via Activin A, while preliminary data suggests that maternal NODAL affects STOX1 expression in trophoblasts potentially via IGF1. In the current study, T-HESC endometrial stromal cells were treated with siRNAs against NODAL after which IGF1 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR, while IGF1 secretion was measured by ELISA...
2018: PloS One
Yingjun Zhou, Fashui Hong, Yusheng Tian, Xiangyu Zhao, Jie Hong, Yuguan Ze, Ling Wang
Background : Numerous studies have demonstrated that, upon maternal exposure, nano-TiO2 can cross the placental barrier, accumulate in offspring animals, and cause neurotoxicity. However, the neurotoxic mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of nano-TiO2 on the dendritic outgrowth of hippocampal neurons and confirm the role of apoptosis and excessive autophagy in the neurotoxicity of offspring mice caused by nano-TiO2 , as well as its molecular mechanisms. Methods : Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 1, 2, or 3 mg per kg body weight nano-TiO2 consecutively from prenatal day 7 to postpartum day 21...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
Hong Song, Bhanu P Telugu, Loren P Thompson
Placental hypoxia can stimulate oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction reducing placental efficiency and inducing fetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia inhibits mitochondrial function in the placenta as an underlying cause of cellular mechanisms contributing to FGR. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or hypoxia (HPX; 10.5%O2) at 25d gestation until term (65d). Guinea pigs were anesthetized, and fetuses and placentas were excised at either mid (40d) or late gestation (64d), weighed, and placental tissue stored at -80°C until assayed...
July 31, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Attila Özkara, Aşkı Ellibeş Kaya, Alper Başbuğ, Sabri Berkem Ökten, Ozan Doğan, Mete Çağlar, Selahattin Kumru
OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to evaluate the laboratory results and proteinuria levels of preeclamptic women and their relation-ships to maternal and fetal outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred preeclamptic pregnant women who gave birth in our clinic between 2013 and 2015 were included in our study retrospectively. The data collected from the patients included gestational week, age, gravidity, parity, abortus history, blood pressure, biochemical parameters, delivery method, maternal hospitalization time, cesarean indication, complications, blood products required, plasmapheresis use and dialysis need...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Linmei Zheng, Lei Shi, Zhongyi Zhou, Xiaoju Chen, Li Wang, Zhicheng Lu, Rong Tang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate placental expression of AChE, α7nAChR and NF-κB in patients with preeclampsia and discuss about its clinical significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels of acetylcholine (AChE), alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) in placenta were detected by qRT-PCR, and protein levels were determined by immunohis-tological analysis and Western Blot in 35 women with preeclampsia (including 20 cases of mild preeclampsia and 15 cases of severe preeclampsia) and 30 cases in control group, respectively...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Priyanka Banerjee, Ankita Malik, Sudha Saryu Malhotra, Satish Kumar Gupta
During pregnancy, regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important for activation of signaling pathways and placentation. In the current study, the effect of H2 O2 on invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells, a human extravillous trophoblast cell line, is investigated. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 24 hr with H 2 O2 (25 µM) leads to a significant increase in invasion without affecting cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) ratio is observed...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nicola Ronan, Deirdre M Bennett, Kashif A Khan, Yvonne McCarthy, Darren Dahly, Louise Bourke, Adeline Chelliah, Alberto Cavazza, Kevin O'Regan, Fiachra Moloney, Barry J Plant, Michael T Henry
BACKGROUND: Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic agent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with proven clinical benefit. Better human tissue models to demonstrate the immunomodulatory and anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone are required. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to use transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC), a novel technique which provides substantial tissue samples, and a large panel of biomarkers to temporally assess disease activity and response to pirfenidone therapy...
July 31, 2018: Lung
Maral E A Tabrizi, Tara L Lancaster, Thamir M Ismail, Athina Georgiadou, Ankana Ganguly, Jayna J Mistry, Keqing Wang, Philip S Rudland, Shakil Ahmad, Stephane R Gross
S100P has been shown to be a marker for carcinogenesis where its expression in solid tumours correlates with metastasis and a poor patient prognosis. This protein's role in any physiological process is, however, unknown. Here we first show that S100P is expressed both in trophoblasts in vivo as well as in some corresponding cell lines in culture. We demonstrate that S100P is predominantly expressed during the early stage of placental formation with its highest expression levels occurring during the first trimester of gestation, particularly in the invading columns and anchoring villi...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu Wang, Eugenie R Lumbers, Anya L Arthurs, Celine Corbisier de Meaultsart, Andrea Mathe, Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Claire T Roberts, Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Francine Z Marques, Brian J Morris, Kirsty G Pringle
STUDY QUESTION: Are any microRNAs (miRNAs) that target the placental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the human placenta suppressed in early gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall, 21 miRNAs with predicted RAS mRNA targets were less abundant in early versus term placentae and nine were more highly expressed. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Regulation of human placental RAS expression could alter placental development and therefore normal pregnancy outcome...
July 28, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Helena C Bartels, James D Postle, Paul Downey, Donal J Brennan
Background . Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a condition of abnormal placental invasion encompassing placenta accreta, increta, and percreta and is a major cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of a PAS is made on the basis of histopathologic examination and characterised by an absence of decidua and chorionic villi are seen to directly adjacent to myometrial fibres. The underlying molecular biology of PAS is a complex process that requires further research; for ease, we have divided these processes into angiogenesis, proliferation, and inflammation/invasion...
2018: Disease Markers
Dil Diaz, Ronald J Clarke
The catalytic α-subunits of both the Na+ ,K+ -ATPase and the gastric H+ ,K+ -ATPase possess lysine-rich N-termini which project into the cytoplasm. Due to conflicting experimental results, it is currently unclear whether the N-termini play a role in ion pump function or regulation, and, if they do, by what mechanism. Comparison of the lysine frequencies of the N-termini of both proteins with those of all of their extramembrane domains showed that the N-terminal lysine frequencies are far higher than one would expect simply from exposure to the aqueous solvent...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Yuyin Yi, Jung-Chien Cheng, Christian Klausen, Peter C K Leung
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been reported in trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Prostaglandin E2, the production of which is initiated by COX-2, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) have been shown to inhibit human trophoblast cell invasion. However, it is not known if TGF-β1 induces COX-2 in human trophoblast cells or whether COX-2 mediates the suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on trophoblast invasion...
August 2018: Placenta
Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Norah M E Fogarty, Carolyn J P Jones, John Kingdom, Graham J Burton
INTRODUCTION: Premature ageing has been implicated in placental dysfunction. Senescence can be activated by oxidative stress, a key intermediary in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. We examined senescence markers across normal gestation, and in pathological and post-mature pregnancies. Inducers of oxidative stress were used to mimic senescence changes in term explants. METHODS: Placental samples were collected with ethical approval and informed consent: first and second trimester samples from surgical terminations; term and pre-term controls, and early-onset pre-eclampsia samples from caesarean deliveries...
August 2018: Placenta
Shorena Janelidze, Niklas Mattsson, Erik Stomrud, Olof Lindberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Oskar Hansson
OBJECTIVE: To measure CSF levels of biomarkers reflecting microglia and astrocytes activation, neuroinflammation, and cerebrovascular changes and study their associations with the core biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology (β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau), structural imaging correlates, and clinical disease progression over time. METHODS: The study included cognitively unimpaired elderly (n = 508), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 256), and patients with AD dementia (n = 57) from the longitudinal Swedish BioFINDER cohort...
July 27, 2018: Neurology
Sruthi Alahari, Julia Garcia, Martin Post, Isabella Caniggia
The von Hippel Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) protein is essential for proper placental development and is downregulated in preeclampsia (PE), a devastating disorder of pregnancy typified by chronic hypoxia. To date, knowledge on VHL genetic and epigenetic regulation is restricted to inactivating mutations and loss-of-heterozygosity in renal cell carcinomas. Herein, we sought to examine whether VHL DNA is subject to differential methylation, and if so, whether it is altered in early-onset PE (E-PE). Sodium bisulfite modification and methylation-specific PCR analysis revealed that VHL is subject to extensive methylation in a CpG-rich region within its promoter in the human placenta...
July 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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