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Placental protein

Paulina B Szklanna, Martin E Parsons, Kieran Wynne, Hugh O'Connor, Karl Egan, Seamus Allen, Fionnuala Ní Áinle, Patricia B Maguire
PURPOSE: Healthy pregnancy is characterized by an increase in platelet activation and a decrease in the number of circulating platelets with gestation. Despite this recognised importance, proteomic studies investigating platelets in healthy pregnancy have not been performed. As platelet cargo can be altered in different conditions, we hypothesised that platelets may store a relevant and bespoke collection of molecules during pregnancy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed comparative label-free quantitative proteomic profiling of platelet releasates from 18 healthy pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women using a tandem mass spectrometry approach...
October 14, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Haiyu Zhao, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Sebastian Lungu-Mitea, Pietro Negrini, Andrea Maria Guarino, Elena Frigato, Thomas Braunbeck, Hongju Ma, Tilman Lamparter, Daniela Vallone, Cristiano Bertolucci, Nicholas S Foulkes
How the environment shapes the function and evolution of DNA repair systems is poorly understood. In a comparative study using zebrafish and the Somalian blind cavefish, Phreatichthys andruzzii, we reveal that during evolution for millions of years in continuous darkness, photoreactivation DNA repair function has been lost in P. andruzzii. We demonstrate that this loss results in part from loss-of-function mutations in pivotal DNA-repair genes. Specifically, C-terminal truncations in P. andruzzii DASH and 6-4 photolyase render these proteins predominantly cytoplasmic, with consequent loss in their functionality...
September 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
L X Ji, J Liu
Objective: MicroRNA-221/222 is involved in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) to promote the apoptosis of placental bile acids through human trophoblastic cells. This study investigates the effects of miR-221/222 on proliferation, apoptosis and apoptosis-related proteins of human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8 cells) to understand its role in promoting trophoblastic apoptosis. Methods: The experiment was divided into transfection group and negative control group. Transient transfection method was used in both groups...
August 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Ambart E Covarrubias, Edouard Lecarpentier, Agnes Lo, Saira Salahuddin, Kathryn J Gray, S Ananth Karumanchi, Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér
Although the etiology of preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity, has not been fully characterized, placental ischemia due to impaired spiral artery remodeling and abnormal secretion of anti-angiogenic factors are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. Placental ischemia could impair trophoblast mitochondrial function and energy production leading to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS has been shown to stabilize hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), which in turn may induce transcription of anti-angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) and soluble endoglin in trophoblasts...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Fengmei Yang, Bo Gao, Wei Chen, Enfu Du, Yong Liang, Xiuxue Hu, Xiaofeng Yang
The sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs may become attenuated accounts for various reasons. Reduced drug sensitivity may cause the failure of chemotherapy and affect the prognosis of patients with cancer. This study investigates the relationship between the expression levels of lung resistance protein (LRP) and placental glutathione S-transferase-P1 (GSTP1), the resistance of primary epithelial ovarian cancer (PEOC) to chemotherapy, and the prognosis of patients with platinum drug-resistant PEOC...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tiina Rasila, Olga Saavalainen, Hesham Attalla, Petri Lankila, Caj Haglund, Erkki Hölttä, Leif C Andersson
Our group originally found and cloned cDNA for a 98 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein of unknown function. Due to its abundant expression in astrocytes it was called the protein astroprincin (APCN). Two thirds of the evolutionarily conserved protein is intracytoplasmic whereas the extracellular domain carries two N-glycosidic side chains. APCN is physiologically expressed in placental trophoblasts, skeletal and hearth muscle, and kidney and pancreas. Overexpression of APCN (cDNA) in various cell lines induced sprouting of slender projections whereas knockdown of APCN expression by siRNA caused disappearance of actin stress fibres...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Jessica S Dudley, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson, Tanya Carter, Bronwyn M McAllan
Mammals exhibit similar changes in uterine epithelial morphology during early pregnancy despite having a diverse range of placental types. The uterine epithelium undergoes rapid morphological and molecular change ("plasma membrane transformation") during the early stages of pregnancy to allow attachment of the blastocyst. The domestic cat, Felis catus is in the order Carnivora; all species within the Carnivora studied so far develop an endotheliochorial placenta during pregnancy. The endotheliochorial placental type is a common form of placental invasion in mammals...
September 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jana Kleiner, Margrit Hollborn, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Bringmann
Purpose: Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of neovascular age-related macular degeneration; consumption of dietary salt resulting in extracellular hyperosmolarity is a main cause of hypertension. Extracellular hyperosmolarity was shown to induce expression of angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), in RPE cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the hyperosmotic expression of growth factor genes in RPE cells is mediated by activator protein-1 (AP-1), and whether c-Fos and c-Jun genes are regulated by extracellular osmolarity...
2018: Molecular Vision
John Canfield, Sefa Arlier, Ezinne F Mong, John Lockhart, Jeffrey VanWye, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Frederick Schatz, Ronald R Magness, Charles J Lockwood, John C M Tsibris, Umit A Kayisli, Hana Totary-Jain
Preeclampsia (PE) is a common cause of maternal morbidity, characterized by impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation resulting in progressive uteroplacental hypoxia. Given the primary role of LIN28A and LIN28B in modulating cell metabolism, differentiation, and invasion, we hypothesized that LIN28A and/or LIN28B regulates trophoblast differentiation and invasion, and that its dysregulation may contribute to PE. Here we show that LIN28B is expressed ∼1300-fold higher than LIN28A in human term placenta and is the predominant paralog expressed in primary human trophoblast cultures...
October 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Megan M Thomas, Maricela Haghiac, Catalin Grozav, Judi Minium, Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
Placental fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is impaired and lipid storage is increased in pregnancy states associated with chronic oxidative stress. The effect of acute oxidative stress, as seen in pregnancies complicated with asthma, on placental lipid metabolism is unknown. We hypothesized that induction of acute oxidative stress would decrease FAO and increase esterification. We assessed [3 H]-palmitate oxidation and esterification in term placental explants from lean women after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 4 hours...
October 10, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Asako Kumagai, Atsuo Itakura, Daisuke Koya, Keizo Kanasaki
Although the global maternal mortality ratio has been consistently reduced over time, in 2015, there were still 303,000 maternal deaths throughout the world, of which 99% occurred in developing countries. Understanding pathophysiology of pregnancy complications contributes to the proper prenatal care for the reduction of prenatal, perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity ratio. In this review, we focus on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a regulator of pregnancy complications. AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is conserved within eukaryotes...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amélie Boutin, Suzanne Demers, Cédric Gasse, Yves Giguère, Amélie Tétu, Geneviève Laforest, Emmanuel Bujold
BACKGROUND: First-trimester maternal serum markers have been associated with preeclampsia (PE). We aimed to evaluate the performance of first-trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) for the prediction of PE in nulliparous women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy at 11-13 weeks. Maternal serum PlGF concentration was measured using B·R·A·H·M·S PlGFplus KRYPTOR automated assays and reported in multiple of the median adjusted for gestational age...
October 10, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Yunzhen Ye, Yao Tang, Yu Xiong, Liping Feng, Xiaotian Li
Preeclampsia leads to adverse outcomes for pregnant women. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and has been shown to be positively associated with increased risk of preeclampsia in human studies. We investigated whether BPA exposure causes preeclampsia-like features in pregnant mice and the associated underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed in animal models and cell cultures. In pregnant mice, BPA-exposed mice exhibited preeclampsia-like features including hypertension, disruption of the circulation, and the placental angiogenesis biomarkers fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 and placenta growth factor, and glomerular atrophy; urinary protein was not affected...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Brian Akhaphong, Amber Lockridge, Seokwon Jo, Ramkumar Mohan, Jacob A Wilcox, Cameron R Wing, Jean F Regal, Emilyn U Alejandro
Maternal hypertension during pregnancy is a major risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood through unclear mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize pancreatic beta cell area and function in the fetal rat offspring of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of gestational hypertension. At embryonic day 19.5, RUPP dams exhibited lower body weight, elevated mean blood pressure, reduced litter size, and higher blood glucose compared to sham-operated controls...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Zhen Luo, Wenli Luo, Shaohua Li, Sen Zhao, Takami Sho, Xue Xu, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianxiong Xu
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a significant obstacle in pig production; however, information regarding the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced placental dysfunction and IUGR is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the placental redox status, mitochondrial content, cellular progression, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in IUGR. Placental tissues were collected from normal intrauterine gestation (NIUG) and IUGR fetuses at delivery. Compared with the NIUG, placental ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage were increased in IUGR...
October 6, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Edward B Chuong
The co-option of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) is increasingly recognized as a recurrent theme in placental biology, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of mammalian evolution and reproductive health. Most research in this area has focused on ERV-derived proteins, which have been repeatedly co-opted to promote cell-cell fusion and immune modulation in the placenta. ERVs also harbor regulatory sequences that can potentially control placental gene expression, but there has been limited evidence to support this role...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Josianne C Ten Berge, Zainab Fazil, Ingeborgh van den Born, Roger C W Wolfs, Marco W J Schreurs, Wim A Dik, Aniki Rothova
PURPOSE: To analyse intraocular cytokine levels and prevalence of intraocular antiretinal antibodies (ARAs) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and cataract, and correlate the results to clinical manifestations. METHODS: We collected intraocular fluid samples from patients with RP (n = 25), AMD (n = 12), glaucoma (n = 28) and cataract (n = 22), and serum samples paired with the intraocular fluids from patients with RP (N = 7) and cataract (n = 10)...
October 8, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Victor Vitorino Lima, Vanessa Dela Justina, Rinaldo Rodrigues Dos Passos, Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Paula Cristina S Souto, Sebastian San Martin, Fernanda Regina Giachini
Successful placentation is a key event for fetal development, which commences following embryo implantation into the uterine wall, eliciting decidualization, placentation, and remodeling of blood vessels to provide physiological exchange between embryo-fetus and mother. Several signaling pathways are recruited to modulate such important processes and specific proteins that regulate placental function are a target for the glycosylation with O- linked β-N-acetylglucosamine ( O- GlcNAc), or O- GlcNAcylation. This is a reversible post-translational modification on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, mainly controlled by O- GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O- GlcNAcase (OGA)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Baozhen Zhang, Mingbin Zheng, Lintao Cai, Xiujun Fan
An effective cancer therapeutic method reduces and eliminates tumors with minimal systemic toxicity. Actively targeting nanoparticles offer a promising approach to cancer therapy. The glycosaminoglycan placental chondroitin sulfate A (plCSA) is expressed on a wide range of cancer cells and placental trophoblasts, and malarial protein VAR2CSA can specifically bind to plCSA. A reported placental chondroitin sulfate A binding peptide (plCSA-BP), derived from malarial protein VAR2CSA, can also specifically bind to plCSA on cancer cells and placental trophoblasts...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Abdullah Md Sheikh, Shozo Yano, Shingo Mitaki, Md Ahsanul Haque, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Atsushi Nagai
A human mesenchymal stem cell line (B10) transplantation has been shown to improve ischemia-induced neurological deficits in animal stroke models. To understand the underlying mechanism, we have investigated the effects of B10 transplantation on cerebral angiogenesis in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. B10 cells were transplanted intravenously 24 h after MCAO. Immunofluorescence staining results showed that compared to PBS-groups, vWF positive vessel and endoglin positive new vessels were increased in B10-transplanted MCAO groups in the lesion areas...
October 3, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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