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Understanding schizophrenia

Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M Francis
The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Artur Reginia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Marcin Jabłoński, Marta Budkowska, Barbara Dołȩgowska, Leszek Sagan, Błazej Misiak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janusz K Rybakowski, Jerzy Samochowiec
Introduction: The immune system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression. Although its role is not fully understood, it appears that this area of research can help to understand the etiology of mental illness. One of the components of the human immune system is the complement system, which forms a part of the innate immune response. Physiologically, except for its essential protective role, it is a vital element in the regeneration processes, including neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marta Bosia, Margherita Bechi, Francesca Bosinelli, Ernestina Politi, Mariachiara Buonocore, Marco Spangaro, Laura Bianchi, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Roberto Cavallaro
The relationship between neurocognition and functioning among patients with schizophrenia is well documented. However, integrating neuropsychological, clinical and psychopathological data to better investigate functional outcome still constitutes a challenge. Artificial neural network-based modeling might help to better capture clinical heterogeneity by analyzing the non-linear relationships among multiple variables. Two hundred and fourteen clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia were recruited and assessed for neurocognition, psychopathology and functioning...
December 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Carol Jahshan, Sophia Vinogradov, Jonathan K Wynn, Gerhard Hellemann, Michael F Green
The development of effective cognitive training (CT) interventions is critical for improving the daily lives of people with schizophrenia. At this point, it is unclear whether a so-called "bottom-up" or "top-down" CT approach is more beneficial for inducing cognitive gains and generalization in this population. The aims of this randomized controlled trial were to: 1) Compare the effects of these two types of training approaches on performance-based (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, MCCB) and neurophysiological (mismatch negativity, MMN) measures of cognition, and 2) Evaluate MMN as a potential predictor of treatment response...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Anissa Abi-Dargham
Despite multiple lines of research, a mechanistic understanding of schizophrenia remains elusive. Neuroimaging studies have yielded observations that can be used in translational studies in animals to attempt to uncover their cellular and circuit basis and their significance for the diseased human brain. Enhanced D2 stimulation in the striatum is a well replicated and established observation in patients with schizophrenia. This "bedside" observation was reproduced "at the bench" level by creating a transgenic mouse overexpressing D2 receptors in dorsal striatum (D2R-OE mouse)...
December 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Tom Langerud Holmen, John Abel Engh, Eivind Andersen, Ole Andreas Andreassen, Egil Wilhelm Martinsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Jens Egeland
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the relationship between cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and cognition in schizophrenia is general, or due to selective relationships between CRF and specific aspects of cognitive function. METHOD: Eighty outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders participated. Neurocognition was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale version 4 General Ability Index (WAIS GAI), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and the Emotion in Biological Motion (EBM) test...
December 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Li Kong, Huiru Cui, Tianhong Zhang, Ya Wang, Jia Huang, Yikang Zhu, Yingying Tang, Christina J Herold, Johannes Schröder, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan, Jijun Wang
Neurological soft signs (NSSs), conventionally defined as subtle neurological abnormalities, are frequently found in individuals with schizophrenia. Many neuroimaging studies have also reported that NSSs are associated with grey matter changes in patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the illness. However, these findings may be confounded by the effect of antipsychotic medications, chronicity, and duration of untreated psychosis. Examining NSSs in individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis may help to identify the neuroanatomical substrates of NSSs related to the illness itself and to avoid these potential confounding effects...
December 4, 2018: PsyCh Journal
Zahra Khalesi, Michelle K Jetha, Kristie L Poole, Joel O Goldberg, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Although individual differences in personality are known to influence quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia, relatively few studies have attempted to identify putative links underlying this relation. METHODS: Here, we examined associations among temperamental shyness, hormones (ie baseline salivary cortisol and testosterone), and quality of life (QoL) measured in 42 stable outpatient adults with schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that baseline cortisol, but not testosterone, moderated the relation between shyness and QoL (ß = 1...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Kazutaka Ohi, Chika Sumiyoshi, Haruo Fujino, Yuka Yasuda, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Tomoko Shiino, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Ryota Hashimoto
General cognitive (intelligence) function is substantially heritable, and is a major determinant of economic and health-related life outcomes. Cognitive impairments and intelligence decline are core features of schizophrenia which are evident before the onset of the illness. Genetic overlaps between cognitive impairments and the vulnerability for the illness have been suggested. Here, we review the literature on recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of general cognitive function and correlations between cognitive function and genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marta Pratelli, Massimo Pasqualetti
Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine; 5-HT) is a fascinating neurotransmitter that thanks to an extensive axonal network is released throughout the entire central nervous system (CNS) and exerts its action on the modulation of a countless number of physiological, behavioral and cognitive processes. In addition, cumulating evidences have linked alteration in 5-HT neurotransmission with the onset of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as depression, autisms and schizophrenia. Nevertheless only 5% of the total body content of serotonin exerts its action in the CNS, while the rest is synthetized and stored in peripheral tissues where it acts as an autacoid...
December 1, 2018: Biochimie
Liang Ma, Edmund T Rolls, Xiuqin Liu, Yuting Liu, Zeyu Jiao, Yue Wang, Weikang Gong, Zhiming Ma, Fuzhou Gong, Lin Wan
Analysis linking directly genomics, neuroimaging phenotypes and clinical measurements is crucial for understanding psychiatric disorders, but remains rare. Here, we describe a multi-scale analysis using genome-wide SNPs, gene-expression, grey matter volume (GMV) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores (PANSS) to explore the etiology of schizophrenia. With 72 drug-naive schizophrenic first episode patients (FEPs) and 73 matched heathy controls, we identified 108 genes, from schizophrenia risk genes, that correlated significantly with GMV, which are highly co-expressed in the brain during development...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Bashkim Kadriu, Wen Gu, Panagiota Korenis, Jeffrey M Levine
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies shown that structural hippocampal alterations are present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis or schizophrenia. These findings indicate that in a subset of patients undergoing first-psychosis episode (FPE), hippocampal volume alterations are accompanied by associated cognitive and neuropsychological deficits. The combination of psychological deficits and neuroanatomical alterations, in turn, appears to increase treatment complexity and worsen clinical outcomes...
December 3, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Mercedes Hernandez, Concepción Barrio, Lizbeth Gaona, Paula Helu-Brown, Audrey Hai, Caroline Lim
This study explored hope among Latinos with schizophrenia and their family caregivers to gain a greater understanding of how it is experienced in the family context. Data were collected from 34 participants (14 individuals with schizophrenia; 20 family caregivers). Semistructured in-depth interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis, comparing codes across and within consumer and family caregiver transcripts. Findings revealed that hope was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was a vital resource for participants...
December 1, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
A D Nelson, R N Caballero-Florán, J C Rodríguez Díaz, J M Hull, Y Yuan, J Li, K Chen, K K Walder, L F Lopez-Santiago, V Bennett, M G McInnis, L L Isom, C Wang, M Zhang, K S Jones, P M Jenkins
GABAergic circuits are critical for the synchronization and higher order function of brain networks. Defects in this circuitry are linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. Work in cultured neurons has shown that ankyrin-G plays a key role in the regulation of GABAergic synapses on the axon initial segment and somatodendritic domain of pyramidal neurons, where it interacts directly with the GABAA receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) to stabilize cell surface GABAA receptors...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Paul A Maguire, Rebecca E Reay, Jeffrey Cl Looi
OBJECTIVES: To examine willingness to adopt protective behaviours, and perceived barriers, during a pandemic influenza, in people with schizophrenia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted exploring the responses of 71 adults with schizophrenia and 238 adults without schizophrenia attending a general practice setting, regarding willingness and perceived barriers to adopting protective measures against the 2009 swine influenza pandemic in Australia...
December 3, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Andrew Gibbons, Laura Bell, Madhara Udawela, Brian Dean
OBJECTIVE: ATPase Type 13A4 (ATP13A4) is a cation-transporting, P5 -type ATPase that has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. Our recent microarray study reported a significant increase in ATP13A4 mRNA levels in Brodmann's Area (BA) 9 in subjects with schizophrenia compared to controls. Following this discovery we have sought to determine whether ATP13A4 expression was altered in other regions of the CNS that are affected in schizophrenia. METHODS: Quantitative PCR was used to measure the levels of ATP13A4 in BA 44 and BA 8, collected post-mortem, from 30 subjects with schizophrenia and 30 non-psychiatric control subjects...
December 3, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Berenice Márquez-Valadez, Rocío Valle-Bautista, Guadalupe García-López, Néstor Fabián Díaz, Anayansi Molina-Hernández
The purpose of this review was to search for experimental or clinical evidence on the effect of hyperglycemia in fetal programming to neurological diseases, excluding evident neural tube defects. The lack of timely diagnosis and the inadequate control of diabetes during pregnancy have been related with postnatal obesity, low intellectual and verbal coefficients, language and motor deficits, attention deficit with hyperactivity, problems in psychosocial development, and an increased predisposition to autism and schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ursula Voss, Armando D'Agostino, Luca Kolibius, Ansgar Klimke, Silvio Scarone, J Allan Hobson
Dreams and psychosis share several important features regarding symptoms and underlying neurobiology, which is helpful in constructing a testable model of, for example, schizophrenia and delirium. The purpose of the present communication is to discuss two major concepts in dreaming and psychosis that have received much attention in the recent literature: insight and dissociation. Both phenomena are considered functions of higher order consciousness because they involve metacognition in the form of reflective thought and attempted control of negative emotional impact...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Massimo Clerici, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Sergio De Filippis, Giuseppe Ducci, Icro Maremmani, Giovanni Martinotti, Fabrizio Schifano
Patients with severe psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorders frequently suffer from concomitant substance use disorders (SUDs)-Dual Disorder (DD) patients. In order to better understand current practices for management of patients with psychotic episodes and concomitant SUD in Italy, we carried out a survey of psychiatrists on current routine practice among prescribers. These aspects can help to identify at-risk patients, improve current prescribing practices, and favor early intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Maryam Hatami, Sabine Conrad, Pooyan Naghsh, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado, Thomas Skutella
The dentate gyrus (DG) receives highly processed information from the associative cortices functionally integrated in the trisynaptic hippocampal circuit, which contributes to the formation of new episodic memories and the spontaneous exploration of novel environments. Remarkably, the DG is the only brain region currently known to have high rates of neurogenesis in adults (Andersen et al., 1966, 1971). The DG is involved in several neurodegenerative disorders, including clinical dementia, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder and temporal lobe epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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