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Acute kidney injury, children

Marie-Michèle Gaudreault-Tremblay, Catherine Litalien, Natalie Patey, Aicha Merouani
Rationale: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) in children is most commonly due to allergic drug reactions. In neonates, diagnosis of ATIN is clinically suspected and a kidney biopsy is not routinely performed. Presenting concern: A 17-day-old newborn presented with vomiting and dehydration, along with anuric acute kidney injury, severe electrolyte disturbances, hypocomplementemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral nephromegaly and hepatosplenomegaly...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Fang Fang, Xiaohan Hu, Xiaomei Dai, Sanfeng Wang, Zhenjiang Bai, Jiao Chen, Jian Pan, Xiaozhong Li, Jian Wang, Yanhong Li
BACKGROUND: Research on acute kidney injury (AKI) has focused on identifying early biomarkers. However, whether AKI could be diagnosed in the absence of the classic signs of clinical AKI and whether the condition of subclinical AKI, identified by damage or functional biomarkers in the absence of oliguria or increased serum creatinine (sCr) levels, is clinically significant remains to be elucidated in critically ill children. The aims of the study were to investigate the associations between urinary cystatin C (uCysC) levels and AKI and mortality and to determine whether uCysC-positive subclinical AKI is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill neonates and children...
October 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Chaobin Zhang, Qipeng Luo, Yinan Li, Xie Wu, Zhang Hao, Shoujun Li, Zhengyuan Xia, Fuxia Yan, Li Sun
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the predictive factors associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and prolonged duration of inotropic support (PDIS) following anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) surgery with possible concomitant mitral valve procedure (MVP) in a relatively young population. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Fuwai hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric patients with ALCAPA surgery from July 2010 to October 2017...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Manjuri Sharma, Arunima Mahanta, Anup Kumar Barman, P J Mahanta
Background: Children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are at risk for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) through a variety of mechanisms.The frequency of NS hospitalizations complicated by AKI has almost doubled in the last decade. Children with AKI have longer hospital length of stay and increased need for intensive care unit admission. The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors and short-term outcome of AKI in children hospitalized with NS...
October 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Xin Xu, Sheng Nie, Aihua Zhang, Jianhua Mao, Hai-Peng Liu, Huimin Xia, Hong Xu, Zhangsuo Liu, Shipin Feng, Wei Zhou, Xuemei Liu, Yonghong Yang, Yuhong Tao, Yunlin Feng, Chunbo Chen, Mo Wang, Yan Zha, Jian-Hua Feng, Qingchu Li, Shuwang Ge, Jianghua Chen, Yongcheng He, Siyuan Teng, Chuanming Hao, Bi-Cheng Liu, Ying Tang, Wenjuan He, Pinghong He, Fan Fan Hou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-quality epidemiologic data on AKI in children are particularly lacking in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology and clinical correlates of AKI among hospitalized children in China. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a multicenter study, in a cohort of hospitalized children aged 1 month to 18 years, from 25 general and children's hospitals in China during 2013-2015. We obtained patient-level data from the electronic hospitalization information system and laboratory databases of all children who had at least two serum creatinine tests within any 7-day window during their first 30 days of hospitalization...
October 4, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Tu-Hsuan Chang, Wei-Yun Hsu, Tzu-I Yang, Chun-Yi Lu, Po-Ren Hsueh, Jong-Min Chen, Ping-Ing Lee, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in children. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics between CDI and colonization and to identify the risk factors for severe diseases of CDI in children. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 124 children (1-18 years old) from 2011 to 2018. CDI was defined as diarrhea (≥3 loose stool in the past 24 h) with confirmed toxigenic strain. Colonization was defined as presence of C. difficile without clinical symptoms...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Brady S Moffett, Jennifer Morris, Charissa Kam, Marianne Galati, Ankhi Dutta, Ayse Akcan-Arikan
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin associated acute kidney injury (vAKI) is a well known complication in pediatric patients. Identification and characterization of the incidence and risk factors for vAKI in the pediatric population would assist clinicians in potentially preventing or mitigating vAKI. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 6 year retrospective cohort study was designed. Patients were included if they were < 19 years of age, received vancomycin as inpatients, and had a baseline SCr and one other SCr drawn during and up to 72 hours after the discontinuation of vancomycin...
2018: PloS One
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Elena Zakharova, Rossella Attini, Margarita Ibarra Hernandez, Bianca Covella, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Gloria Ashuntantang, Alejandra Orozco Guillen, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Philip Kam Tao Li, Gulliermo Garcia-Garcia, Adeera Levin
Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (pAKI), preeclampsia (PE), and the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are closely related conditions, which are, in turn, frequently linked to pre-existing and often non-diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current literature and research mainly underline the effects of pregnancy complications on the offspring; this review strongly emphasizes the maternal health as well. These conditions not only negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but have a relevant effect on the future health of affected mothers and their children...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Rhys D Evans, Marie Docherty, Anna Seeley, Alison Craik, Martha Mpunga, Shawna Mann, Queen Dube, Gavin Dreyer, Ulla Hemmila
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) is poorly described. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, etiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in pediatric admissions in Southern Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of pediatric admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 5 February and 30 April 2016. Children were screened for kidney disease on admission with measurement of serum creatinine and assessment of urine output...
September 25, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Lucia Karnisova, Ondrej Hradsky, Kveta Blahova, Filip Fencl, Zdenek Dolezel, Tomas Zaoral, Jakub Zieg
Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury secondary to enteric infection, typically Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Shiga toxin 2 is able to activate alternative complement pathways; therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze C3 as a predictor of clinical courses in patients with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. We hypothesized that the patients with increased complement activation at admission suffered from a more severe course...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Omar Alkandari, Lieuko Nguyen, Diane Hebert, Valerie Langlois, Natasha A Jawa, Rulan S Parekh, Lisa A Robinson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AKI is associated with progression of CKD. Little is known about AKI after kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients. We aim to describe the epidemiology, risk factors, consequences, and outcomes of AKI in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a retrospective longitudinal analysis of pediatric kidney transplant recipients followed at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Canada) from 2001 to 2012...
September 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Nastaran Khosravi, Masoud Zadkarami, Farhad Chobdar, Rozita Hoseini, Nasrin Khalesi, Parsa Panahi, Alireza Karimi
BACKGROUND: The role of urinary cystatin C to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI) in children and neonates remains uncertain. The present study aimed to assess and compare the level of urinary cystatin C in neonates with and those without AKI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 55 available neonates who were involved by AKI and admitted to neonatal department at Ali-Asghar hospital in Tehran in 2016. Ninety-seven neonates with jaundice and normal serum creatinine level were randomly selected as the control group...
September 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kelly R McMahon, Maya Harel-Sterling, Michael Pizzi, Louis Huynh, Erin Hessey, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors treated with cisplatin, ifosfamide, or carboplatin are at risk for late kidney and blood pressure (BP) abnormalities. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated kidney outcomes and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in this population. We aimed to describe chemotherapy-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and late kidney outcomes using standardized definitions. METHODS: This was a single-center longitudinal pilot study of 23 children who participated in a previous study during cisplatin, carboplatin, or ifosfamide treatment...
September 14, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Yan Wang, Fenling Feng, Minna Liu, Jiahong Xue, Huimei Huang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a hyper-inflammation-induced abrupt loss of kidney function and has become a major public health problem. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of peritonitis in rat pups mimics the development of sepsis-induced pediatric AKI is pre-renal without morphological changes of the kidneys and high lethality. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound with low toxicity, has obvious anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether resveratrol alleviates pediatric AKI and investigated the potential mechanism...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Laura Gellis, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Michael Ferguson, Lisa Bergersen, Keri Shafer, Diego Porras
BACKGROUND: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are vulnerable to contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after cardiac catheterization. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for clinically significant CI-AKI and evaluate the predictive value of contrast volume to estimated glomerular filtration rate ratio (V/eGFR) for the risk of CI-AKI following catheterization in the ACHD population. METHODS: ACHD patients who underwent catheterization at Boston Children's hospital between 1/2011 and 1/2017 were retrospectively analyzed...
September 9, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Toru Watanabe
Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized children, AKI has rarely been reported in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). Herein, we review the clinical trajectories of AKI in patients with KD. A total of 39 patients with KD who developed AKI have been reported in 28 publications as case reports. The causes of AKI include prerenal AKI associated with acute heart failure (AHF), intrinsic AKI caused by tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), acute nephritic syndrome (ANS), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), immune complex-mediated nephropathy, rhabdomyolysis, and KD shock syndrome (KDSS)...
August 30, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Brenda L Zylbersztajn, Giannina Izquierdo, Roxana C Santana, Christian Fajardo, Juan P Torres, Jaime Cordero, Cristián Valverde
OBJECTIVES: Determine pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and optimal dosage of vancomycin for children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: Retrospective PK study of vancomycin in pediatric patients on ECMO who received IV vancomycin 40 to 60 mg/kg/day every 6 hours. Patients were analyzed according to the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESULTS: Data from 40 children, with a median age of 2...
July 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Aylin Aygün, Martin Poryo, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Antonia Wissing, Daniel Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Michael Zemlin, Ludwig Gortner, Sascha Meyer
AIM: We assessed the risk factors for transient acute kidney injury in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using the serum creatinine-based criteria in Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. METHOD: This retrospective study of infants requiring ibuprofen and, or, surgery for haemodynamic relevant PDAs was performed at the University Children's Hospital of Saarland, Homburg, Germany, from January 2009 to December 2015...
September 3, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Gurinder Kumar
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) can pose a diagnostic challenge due to the multisystem involvement and varied manifestations. Early diagnosis and initiation of Eculizumab have been reported to have favorable renal outcomes. We report a case of 11-month-old male infant who presented at the age of two months with anemia, acute kidney injury, hypertension, and nephromegaly. Renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of aHUS and Eculizumab was started. Thrombotic microangiopathy markers showed the resolution...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Mohamed A El-Gamasy, Akram E El-Sadek, Ahmed R Fakhreldin, Ashraf Kamel, Eman G Elbehery
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality for critically ill children at pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). It is proposed that heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) may be either a biomarker or a co-factor of survival in PICU. The aim of this work is to assess plasma levels of HSP60 in critically ill pediatric patients with AKI secondary to septic shock within the first 24 h of admission. This study was carried out on 120 pediatric patients admitted to PICUs of four university hospitals...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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