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Health Interventions

Catherine McClure, Maureen Cunningham, Sheana Bull, Stephen Berman, Mandy A Allison
In this narrative review, we will present a brief overview of known disparities in children's language development based on socioeconomic status (SES) and efforts in the primary care setting to promote children's language development. Next, we will define mobile-health (m-health) and review the limited, published literature regarding the effectiveness of m-health interventions in promoting children's health, in general, and language development, in particular. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of smart phone applications to increase parental behaviors that promote their children's language development as well as challenges that should be addressed as the field of m-health continues to grow...
August 8, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
K Currie, C King, K McAloney-Kocaman, N J Roberts, J MacDonald, A Dickson, S Cairns, N Khanna, P Flowers, J Reilly, L Price
BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of transmission of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), international guidelines recommend admission screening to identify hospital patients at risk of colonisation. However, routine monitoring indicates that optimum screening compliance levels are not always achieved. In order to enhance compliance, we must better understand those factors which influence staff screening behaviours. AIM: To identify factors which influence staff compliance with hospital MRSA screening policies...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Qian Wang, Jiayi Wang, Wu Ding, Dequan Zhang, Kevin Reed, Boce Zhang
Preservatives in processed meat raise significant concerns associated with bowel cancer and diabetes, and implicate various public health issues. This introduces the need for safer preservatives to uphold public health standards. However, developing safer alternatives to these preservatives poses a significant challenge to food industry. A potential solution to this issue is the use of loaded nanoparticles as preservative agents. This study investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sorbic acid-loaded chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (SAN) in Chinese Sausage...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
J Parsons, K Sparrow, K Ismail, K Hunt, H Rogers, A Forbes
AIM: To inform targeted interventions for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by exploring the factors that influence their health behaviours and their preferences for lifestyle support. METHODS: Participants were women with previous GDM taken from a diverse inner-city UK population. Data collection involved focus groups (n = 35 women in six groups) and semi-structured interviews (n = 15 women). The transcribed data were analysed using framework analysis...
August 11, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Martha Sajatovic, Kari Colon-Zimmermann, Mustafa Kahriman, Edna Fuentes-Casiano, Hongyan Liu, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kristin A Cassidy, Samden Lhatoo, Douglas Einstadter, Peijun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in care, many people with epilepsy have negative health events (NHEs) such as accidents, emergency department visits, and poor quality of life. "Self-management for people with epilepsy and a history of negative health events" (SMART) is a novel group format epilepsy self-management intervention. A community participatory approach informed the refinement of SMART, which was then tested in a 6-month randomized controlled trial of SMART (n = 60) versus waitlist control (WL, n = 60)...
August 10, 2018: Epilepsia
Pei-Jung Lin, Elle Pope, Fang Liz Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggest that the type and combination of comorbidities may impact diabetes care, but their cost implications are less clear. This study characterized how diabetes patients' health care utilization and costs may vary according to comorbidity type classified on the basis of the Piette and Kerr framework. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of privately insured US adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 138,466) using the 2014-2016 Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Wassim Bedrouni
The imminent legalization of recreational cannabis represents a considerable public health challenge that requires proactive measures to ensure a responsible transition. The federal government recognizes the need for strict regulation to reduce cannabis-related health harms, notably among the youth. Additionally, the government plans to oversee a national public awareness campaign as part of a harm-reduction strategy. In light of the public health risks of cannabis legalization, this paper proposes the implementation of increasingly popular, evidence-based, preventive, and therapeutic digital interventions to minimize the harms of this policy among adolescents and young adults...
August 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Chi-Chi N Udeagu, Jamie Huang, Kavita Misra
Late presentation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is an important concern for clinical outcomes and HIV prevention. Significant proportions of HIV-diagnosed persons are not timely linked to care following HIV diagnosis. We implemented and evaluated an intervention to link to care persons never in HIV care (NIC). Disease intervention specialists (DIS) traced persons presumed to be NIC since HIV diagnosis, offered them assistance with linkage to care, and elicited reasons for NIC. We examined the overall outcomes of the intervention and reasons for NIC...
August 10, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jeannette M Beasley, Stella S Yi, Jiyoung Ahn, Simona C Kwon, Judith Wylie-Rosett
Little is known about the dietary patterns of Chinese Americans. Understanding their dietary patterns can provide insights for addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Chinese American immigrants. The objective of this study was to identify dietary patterns among Chinese American immigrants living in New York City (NYC) and to describe associations with demographic and CVD risk factors. A validated Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed usual dietary intake in Chinese American immigrants living in NYC as part of the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) in 2010-2011 (n = 1973, age range 21-89 years)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Laura M Schwab-Reese, Vladka Kovar, Sarah Brummett, Carol Runyan
Suicide is a critical public health problem, resulting in more than 40,000 deaths a year in the United States (U.S.) and 800,000 globally. Provision of mental health services is a key component of a comprehensive population-based approach to prevention. State licensing boards in some U.S. states require mental health practitioners to be trained in suicide risk assessment and management, but such requirements are not uniform. Our case study examined mental health practitioner preparedness to engage in suicide prevention and intervention in Colorado, a state with a high suicide rate, using a survey designed to understand training experiences and perceptions of the acceptability of mandated training...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Elaine J Abrams, Claude A Mellins, Amelia Bucek, Curtis Dolezal, Jeannette Raymond, Andrew Wiznia, Andrea Jurgrau, Mahrukh Bamji, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Yiu Kee Warren Ng
BACKGROUND: Young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIVYAs) are at risk for poor biomedical and behavioral health outcomes. Few studies offer a comprehensive overview of the functioning of this population in young adulthood and the role of HIV. METHODS: Data come from the Child and Adolescent Self-Awareness and Health Study, a longitudinal behavioral health cohort study of PHIVYAs and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected young adults (PHEUYAs) who are compared on psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning, sexual and substance use behaviors, health and reproductive outcomes, and young adult milestones...
August 10, 2018: Pediatrics
Jessica M Yingst, Courtney Lester, Susan Veldheer, Sophia I Allen, Ping Du, Jonathan Foulds
INTRODUCTION: 'Stealth vaping' is the practice of vaping discreetly in places where electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is prohibited. While anecdotal evidence suggests that stealth vaping is common, there have been no formal studies of the behaviour. The purpose of this study is to examine stealth vaping behaviour among experienced e-cigarette users. METHODS: Data were collected from the follow-up survey of a large longitudinal cohort study of adult experienced e-cigarette users conducted in January 2017...
August 10, 2018: Tobacco Control
Elia Gabarron, Eirik Årsand, Rolf Wynn
BACKGROUND: Health authorities recommend educating diabetic patients and their families and initiating measures aimed at improving self-management, promoting a positive behavior change, and reducing the risk of complications. Social media could provide valid channel to intervene in and deliver diabetes education. However, it is not well known whether the use of these channels in such interventions can help improve the patients' outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to review and describe the current existing evidence on the use of social media in interventions targeting people affected with diabetes...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jennifer L Sullivan, Marlena H Shin, Ryann L Engle, Enzo Yaksic, Carol VanDeusen Lukas, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Leigh M Starr, Joseph D Restuccia, Sally K Holmes, Amy K Rosen
BACKGROUND: Improving the process of hospital discharge is a critical priority. Interventions to improve care transitions have been shown to reduce the rate of early unplanned readmissions, and consequently, there is growing interest in improving transitions of care between hospital and home through appropriate interventions. Project Re-Engineered Discharge (RED) has shown promise in strengthening the discharge process. Although studies have analyzed the implementation of RED among private-sector hospitals, little is known about how hospitals in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) have implemented RED...
August 7, 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Chin-Jung Liu, Pei-Tseng Kung, Chia-Chen Chu, Wen-Yu Chou, Yueh-Hsin Wang, Wen-Chen Tsai
OBJECTIVES: An integrated delivery system with a prospective payment program (IPP) for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) was launched by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) due to the costly and limited ICU resources. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of IPP and evaluate the factors associated with successful weaning and survival among patients with PMV. METHODS: Taiwan's NHI Research Database was searched to obtain the data of patients aged ≥17 years who had PMV from 2006 to 2010 (N=50,570)...
July 19, 2018: Health Policy
Arritxu Etxeberria, Josune Iribar, Rafael Rotaeche, Kalliopi Vrotsou, Iosu Barral
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several interventions have been shown to reduce polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the number of drugs and PIP before and after an educational intervention with the Primary Care physician (PCP), with electronic identification of PIP and structured medication review, in elderly patients with excessive polypharmacy (≥10 drugs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A before-after intervention study was conducted in the Gipuzkoa district of Osakidetza (Basque Country Health System), in a random sample of patients older than 80 years taking ≥ 10 drugs, and whose PCP attended training sessions...
August 7, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Wei Du, Xi Zhu, Yuanchen Chen, Weijian Liu, Wei Wang, Guofeng Shen, Shu Tao, James J Jetter
Residential combustion emission contributes significantly to ambient and indoor air pollution in China; however, this pollution source is poorly characterized and often overlooked in national pollution control policies. Few studies, and even fewer field-based investigations, have evaluated pollutant emissions from indoor biomass burning. One significant feature of Chinese household biofuel stoves is that many are built on site. In this study, 112 tests were conducted to investigate pollutant emission factors and variations for 11 fuel-stove combinations in actual use in the field...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mark Graves, Kim Snyder, Joni McFelea, Jan Szczepanski, Mark Philip Smith, Thomas Strobel, Nona Mehrnia, Jacob Schneider, Madison J Snyder, Andrew Kilian Graves, Judith Canlas
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common disorder and is associated with an increased risk of bone fracture. Falls are a proximate cause of a high proportion of medical costs and mortality. Improving balance can reduce the risk of falls and improve health outcomes, especially for the at-risk population of people with osteoporosis and osteopenia. The FrameWorksTM exercise program is a formal, standardized, informational and interventional 10-month exercise program. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the improvement in standing balance, functional reach, and overall confidence in balance after participating in the 10-month program...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Kirsti A Campbell, Brian C Healy, Christopher M Celano, Ariana Albanese, Rachel A Millstein, Jeff C Huffman
OBJECTIVE: Dropout from health behavior interventions in patients with heart disease is a major clinical issue that can impact recovery and prognosis. Positive psychology (PP)-based treatments have the potential to promote health behaviors, but predictors of PP intervention completion have not been examined in persons with heart disease. METHODS: Among 128 patients receiving a phone-based PP intervention to promote physical activity among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, numerous baseline sociodemographic, medical, and psychological variables, along with self-reported pre/post improvements in happiness and optimism (on 0-10 Likert scales) associated with an initial PP exercise, were examined as potential predictors of intervention completion...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Sameera Senanayake, Nalika Gunawardena, Paba Palihawadana, Chathurie Suraweera, R Karunarathna, Priyantha Kumara
OBJECTIVE: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is known to adversely affect mental health. The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of depression and psychological distress and the associated factors among CKD patients living in Anuradhapura, a rural district in Sri Lanka. METHOD: A community-based, cross-sectional study included a representative sample of 1174 CKD patients, drawn proportionately from all registered patients in all 19 Medical Officer of Health areas in the district of Anuradhapura...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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