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Ying Wang, Susan M Gapstur, Brian D Carter, Terryl J Hartman, Victoria L Stevens, Mia M Gaudet, Marjorie L McCullough
Background: Recent studies suggest that untargeted metabolomics is a promising tool to identify novel biomarkers of individual foods. However, few large cross-sectional studies with comprehensive data on habitual diet and circulating metabolites have been conducted. Objective: We aimed to identify potential food biomarkers and evaluate their predictive accuracy. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of consumption of 91 food groups or items, assessed by a 152-item food-frequency questionnaire, in relation to 1186 serum metabolites measured by mass spectrometry-based platforms from 1369 nonsmoking postmenopausal women (mean age = 68...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Shan Duan, Xingzhi Zhou, Jianyin Miao, Xingxing Duan
The succession of bacterial microbiota in tilapia fillets during cold storage at 4 °C was investigated employing PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that Pseudomonas was the most dominant genus during entire storage period. Shewanella and Psychrobacter were also always present, but became dominant only after 3 days of storage. Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Flavobacterium, Dietzia and Janthinobacterium were always the minor genera, among which Acinetobacter and Brevibacterium disappeared 6 days later, and Dietzia and Janthinobacterium only appeared at the end of storage...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yasi Xu, Dan Su, Lucheng Zhu, Shirong Zhang, Shenglin Ma, Kan Wu, Qiang Yuan, Nengming Lin
BACKGROUND: The anti-tumor effects of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic derivative, on human ovarian cancer cells have been previous studied in vitro and in vivo models but the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the epigenetic mechanism of SAC. METHODS: Human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line A2780 was selected. Cell proliferation and cell cycle was analyzed. DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, tumor suppressor gene expressions, as well as protein expression were analyzed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Monyque Kais Araújo, Aline Marzaleck Gumiela, Keliani Bordin, Fernando Bittencourt Luciano, Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo
The effects of natural antimicrobial compounds (garlic essential oil [GO], allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], and nisin Z [NI]) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fresh sausage were assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) towards Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Lactobacillus plantarum were determined in vitro. Sausages inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, were treated with different combinations of antimicrobials and assessed for microbiological and physicochemical parameters during storage (6C for 20 d)...
May 3, 2018: Meat Science
Afaf D Abdel-Mageid, Mohamed E S Abou-Salem, Nancy M H A Salaam, Hoda A S El-Garhy
BACKGROUND: Modified herbal medicines implicate the combination of several therapeutic practices of native systems of medicine that may extend many earlier generations, which frequently afford valuable therapeutic benefits. PURPOSE: In this study, the role of nano-curcumin and aged garlic extract (AGE) as two modified phytomedicines on alleviating both of advanced glycation end products (AGEPs) and oxidative stress (OS) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were investigated during this study...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Selin Özkan-Kotiloğlu, Robert H A Coutts
Mycoviruses are viruses that naturally infect and replicate in fungi. They are widespread in all major fungal groups including plant and animal pathogenic fungi. Several dsRNA mycoviruses have been reported in Aspergillus fumigatus . Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a version of PCR that enables amplification of different targets simultaneously. This technique has been widely used for detection and differentiation of viruses especially plant viruses such as those which infect tobacco, potato and garlic...
May 8, 2018: Viruses
Adriano Mollica, Gokhan Zengin, Marcello Locatelli, Carene Marie Nancy Picot-Allain, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally
Allium species have been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. This study attempts for the first time to investigate into the enzyme inhibitory potential of different plant parts of Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Stearn, also known as wild garlic or leek in Turkey. The antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potential of the flower, stem, and bulb extracts of A. scorodoprasum were assessed using in vitro bio-assays. The phenolic composition of the different plant parts was also established...
June 2018: Food Research International
F T Hata, M U Ventura, V L Béga, I M Camacho, M T de Paula
Strawberry is affected by several pests and diseases. Neopamera bilobata is an emerging pest that has been reported by several strawberry growers, usually associated with catfacing symptoms in fruits. We evaluated intercropping garlic or Chinese chives on N. bilobata populations on strawberry crops grown in high tunnels in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated N. bilobata populations on strawberry intercropping with garlic plants (three densities: 8, 16, 24 GP - garlic plant per plot) on the bags by taking 12 samples from December 2015 to April 2017...
May 8, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Marcelo Aguilar, Pedro Mondaca, Rosanna Ginocchio, Kooichi Vidal, Sébastien Sauvé, Alexander Neaman
Human exposure to trace elements has been a large concern due to the potential health issues. Accordingly, this study aimed to compare the concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc in the edible parts of vegetables grown in a mining-agricultural area and in an exclusively agricultural area and to compare the potential human health risks of consuming vegetables from both areas. The consumption habits of the studied population were extracted from the 2010 National Alimentary Survey of Chile. In most cases, the concentrations of trace elements in the edible tissues of vegetables (lettuce, spinach, garlic, onion, carrot, potato, sweet corn, and tomato) were higher in the mining-agricultural area than those in the control area...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ting Xiong, Xiao-Wang Liu, Xue-Long Huang, Xiong-Feng Xu, Wei-Quan Xie, Su-Jun Zhang, Jian Tu
Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a volatile component of garlic oil, has various biological properties, including antioxidant, antiangiogenic and anticancer effects. The present study aimed to explore novel targets of DADS that may slow or stop the progression of breast cancer. First, xenograft tumor models were created by subcutaneously injecting MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into nude mice. Subsequently, western blot analysis was performed to investigate the expression of tristetraprolin (TTP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the xenograft tumors, and cell cultures...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Jiangang Sun, Xiaohui Li, Xianbin Ai, Junyou Liu, Yanli Yin, Ying Huang, Hongyu Zhou, Kai Huang
Paddy field soil contaminated by cadmium may produce cadmium-contained corns causing Itai-itai disease, and in situ washing of soil with the organic acid is a good technical choice due to its convenience and cost-effectiveness. While the bottleneck of this technique is how to recycle the huge volume of washing effluent in an efficient and economical way. Biosorption of cadmium on the garlic peel was attempted in present study and it was found quite satisfactorily effective to remove all cadmium from the real soil leaching effluent after three-time sequential adsorption...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yue-E Sun, Weidong Wang, Jie Qin
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to understand the impact of garlic on improving blood lipids using a meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed using keywords such as "garlic" and "hypercholesterolemia," and the deadline "July 14 (th), 2017." After extracting relevant details, each selected literature was evaluated for quality according to the quality evaluation criteria of bias risk recommended by Cochrane Collaboration recommendations and heterogeneity tests were performed...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Bruce Zilkowski, Lina B Flor-Weiler, Alejandro P Rooney
We examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). The effect of the two essential oils on egg hatch was also examined. Ten and 12 compounds, respectively, were identified in garlic and asafoetida essential oils. Allyl disulfide (49.13%) and diallyl trisulfide (31.08%) were the most abundant compounds in garlic essential oil accounting for 80.2% of the total oil...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Roman Leontiev, Nils Hohaus, Claus Jacob, Martin C H Gruhlke, Alan J Slusarenko
Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with broad antimicrobial activities in the low µM range against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including antibiotic resistant strains, and fungi. Allicin reacts with thiol groups and can inactivate essential enzymes. However, allicin is unstable at room temperature and antimicrobial activity is lost within minutes upon heating to >80 °C. Allicin's antimicrobial activity is due to the thiosulfinate group, so we synthesized a series of allicin analogues and tested their antimicrobial properties and thermal stability...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hanna Karakula-Juchnowicz, Mirosława Gałęcka, Joanna Rog, Anna Bartnicka, Zuzanna Łukaszewicz, Pawel Krukow, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Karolina Skonieczna-Zydecka, Tomasz Krajka, Kamil Jonak, Dariusz Juchnowicz
There is an increasing amount of evidence which links the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with food IgG hyperreactivity. Some authors have suggested that food IgG hyperreactivity could be also involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to compare levels of serum IgG against 39 selected food antigens between three groups of participants: patients with MDD (MDD group), patients with IBS (IBS group) and healthy controls (HC group). The study included 65 participants (22 in the MDD group, 22 in the IBS group and 21 in the HC group)...
April 28, 2018: Nutrients
Agostina B Sassone, Liliana M Giussani
At present the subfamily Allioideae is included within the Amaryllidaceae, which is an economic important bulb crop subfamily that includes onion, garlic, and ornamental species worldwide. The Allioideae includes four tribes geographically disjunct namely: Allieae, widespread in the northern hemisphere, tribe Tulbaghieae distributed in South Africa, and tribes Leucocoryneae and Gilliesieae are endemic to South America. Although we agree with the current tribal circumscription of the Leucocoryneae including Beauverdia, Ipheion, Latace, Leucocoryne, Nothoscordum, and Tristagma, there are still taxonomic and phylogenetic uncertainties regarding the monophyly, phylogenetic relationships, and divergence time of several lineages in a biogeographic context...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Peter Rose, Philip Keith Moore, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Garlic (Allium sativum) and allied plant species are rich sources of sulfur compounds. Major roles for garlic and its sulfur constituents include the regulation of vascular homeostasis and the control of metabolic systems linked to nutrient metabolism. Recent studies have indicated that some of these sulfur compounds, such as diallyl trisulfide (DATS), alter the levels of gaseous signalling molecules including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), and perhaps carbon monoxide (CO) in mammalian tissues...
April 26, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Karina Barboza, Vanesa Beretta, Perla C Kozub, Cecilia Salinas, Mauro M Morgenfeld, Claudio R Galmarini, Pablo F Cavagnaro
Allium vegetables, such as garlic and onion, have understudied genomes and limited molecular resources, hindering advances in genetic research and breeding of these species. In this study, we characterized and compared the simple sequence repeats (SSR) landscape in the transcriptomes of garlic and related Allium (A. cepa, A. fistulosum, and A. tuberosum) and non-Allium monocot species. In addition, 110 SSR markers were developed from garlic ESTs, and they were characterized-along with 112 previously developed SSRs-at various levels, including transferability across Alliaceae species, and their usefulness for genetic diversity analysis...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Peter Bai James, Halimatu Kamara, Abdulai Jawo Bah, Amie Steel, Jon Wardle
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Dina M Metwally, Ebtesam M Al-Olayan, Mohammad Alanazi, Sanaa B Alzahrany, Abdelhabib Semlali
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by trematode worms. The host inflammatory response to schistosome eggs leads to perioval granulomata formation, mainly in the liver and intestine. This study investigated the potential antischistosomal and anti-inflammatory activity of both garlic extract and allicin on liver fibrotic markers in BALB/c mice with schistosomiasis (S. mansoni infection) compared with that of the commonly used drug, praziquantel (PZQ)...
April 27, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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