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Prevention of vascular disease

Leonardo Elia, Paolo Kunderfranco, Pierluigi Carullo, Marco Vacchiano, Floriana Maria Farina, Ignacio Fernando Hall, Stefano Mantero, Cristina Panico, Roberto Papait, Gianluigi Condorelli, Manuela Quintavalle
Adult vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess the peculiar ability to de-differentiate in response to extracellular cues, such as vascular damage and inflammation. De-differentiated VSMCs are proliferative, migratory, and have decreased contractile capacity. VSMC dedifferentiation contributes not only to vascular repair, but also to cardiovascular pathologies, such as intimal hyperplasia/restenosis in coronary artery or peripheral vascular diseases and arterial aneurysm. We here demonstrate the role of ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1 (UHRF1) as an epigenetic master regulator of VSMC plasticity...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Johan Spetz, Javid Moslehi, Kristopher Sarosiek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of malignancies, yet the cardiovascular (CV) toxicity that can result from chest radiotherapy impairs the long-term health of cancer survivors and can be a limiting factor for its use. Despite over 100 years of successful clinical use, the mechanisms by which high-energy photons damage critical components within cells of the heart's myocardium, pericardium, vasculature, and valves remain unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies exploring the acute and chronic effects of radiation therapy on cardiac and vascular tissue have provided new insights into the development and progression of heart disease, including the identification and understanding of age- and complication-associated risk factors...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Xiao Xiao Zhao, Jinbo Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Yingyan Zhou, Lihong Li, Hongyu Wang
Hypertension is a generally accepted atherogenic risk factor. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to evaluate changes in carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and explore the association of cardiovascular risk factors and the carotid intima thickness in adults with hypertension using standardized methods. We used data from a subgroup of Beijing Vascular Disease Patients Evaluation Study (BEST), a population-based study of community-dwelling adults. The c-IMT, biomarkers, and carotid-femoral-pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at baseline, and lifestyles such as smoking status, sleeping habits, and oil or salt intake level were determined with the use of a validated questionnaire in the follow-up...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Mariusz Kusztal, Krzysztof Nowak
For arrhythmia treatment or sudden cardiac death prevention in hemodialysis patients, there is a frequent need for placement of a cardiac implantable electronic device (pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or cardiac resynchronization device). Leads from a cardiac implantable electronic device can cause central vein stenosis and carry the risk of tricuspid regurgitation or contribute to infective endocarditis. In patients with end-stage kidney disease requiring vascular access and cardiac implantable electronic device, the best strategy is to create an arteriovenous fistula on the contralateral upper limb for a cardiac implantable electronic device and avoidance of central vein catheter...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
John R Best, Janice J Eng, Jennifer C Davis, Robin Hsiung, Peter A Hall, Laura E Middleton, Peter Graf, Charles H Goldsmith, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease-such as stroke-is the second most common cause of dementia (ie, vascular dementia). Specifically, a stroke increases one's risk for dementia by a factor of two. Thus, stroke survivors represent a target population in need of intervention strategies to promote cognitive function and prevent dementia. The current standard of care in stroke rehabilitation does not adequately address the significant cognitive consequences of stroke, especially for those who are in the chronic phase (ie, >12 months since an index stroke)...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Min-Ho Oak, Cyril Auger, Eugenia Belcastro, Sin-Hee Park, Hyunho Lee, Valérie B Schini-Kerth
Epidemiological studies have indicated that regular intake of polyphenol-rich diets such as red wine and tea, are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich products has been attributable, at least in part, to their direct action on the endothelial function. Indeed, polyphenols from tea, grapes, cacao, berries, and plants have been shown to activate endothelial cells to increase the formation of potent vasoprotective factors including nitric oxide (NO) and to delay endothelial ageing...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Yajaira Suárez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the first discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in 1993, the involvement of miRNAs in different aspects of vascular disease has emerged as an important research field. In this review, we summarize the fundamental roles of miRNAs in controlling endothelial cell functions and their implication with several aspects of vascular dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: MiRNAs have been found to be critical modulators of endothelial homeostasis. The dysregulation of miRNAs has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and the development and progression of vascular disease which and open new opportunities of using miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets for vascular disease...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Cécile Vors, Charles Couillard, Marie-Eve Paradis, Iris Gigleux, Johanne Marin, Marie-Claude Vohl, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: High-fat meals induce postprandial inflammation. Resveratrol is a polyphenol known to prevent comorbidities associated with cardiovascular disease and exerts an anti-inflammatory action. There is also an increasing body of evidence supporting the role of curcumin, a polyphenol from the curcuminoid family, as a modulator of proinflammatory processes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the following: 1) the bioavailability of resveratrol consumed in combination with curcumin after consumption of a high-fat meal; and 2) the acute combined effects of this combination on the postprandial inflammatory response of subjects with abdominal obesity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Nicolas S Merle, Anne Grunenwald, Marie-Lucile Figueres, Sophie Chauvet, Marie Daugan, Samantha Knockaert, Tania Robe-Rybkine, Remi Noe, Olivia May, Marie Frimat, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Sylvia Miescher, Pascal Houillier, Veronique Legros, Florence Gonnet, Olivier P Blanc-Brude, Marion Rabant, Regis Daniel, Jordan D Dimitrov, Lubka T Roumenina
Intravascular erythrocyte destruction, accompanied by the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory components hemoglobin and heme, is a common event in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases with heterogeneous etiology and clinical features. A frequent adverse effect related to massive hemolysis is the renal injury and inflammation. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether heme--a danger-associated molecular pattern--and ligand for TLR4 or upstream hemolysis-derived products are responsible for these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yingying Liu, Yudiao Huang, Yueyue Xu, Peng Qu, Minghua Wang
Increased transendothelial permeability and subsequent blood-brain barrier damage play a key role in the pathological progression of human brain ischemia and secondary reperfusion. Memantine is a licensed drug providing clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is known regarding its effects on brain endothelial permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine on endothelial permeability and the underlying mechanisms in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
March 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
Yuhui Yang, Xue Liu, Yunpeng Liu, Hui Fu, Ying Gao, Xing Liu, Xiaoliang Jiang
Background and objective: Chronic inflammatory is involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PSGL-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Methods and results: In this study, we used PSGL-1-/- and PSGL-1+/+ mice fed with high salt diet to measure the blood pressure, inflammatory response and vascular injury. We found that, in PSGL-1+/+ mice, high salt diet resulted in high blood pressure with the increased expression of serum inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNFɑ, vascular injury markers MCP-1, ET-1, and VWF, and renal macrophages and T cells infiltration, and endothelium-dependent acetylcholine vasodilation dysfunction...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Sonia S Anand, Francois Caron, John W Eikelboom, Jackie Bosch, Leanne Dyal, Victor Aboyans, Maria Teresa Abola, Kelley R H Branch, Katalin Keltai, Deepak L Bhatt, Peter Verhamme, Keith A A Fox, Nancy Cook-Bruns, Vivian Lanius, Stuart J Connolly, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). There is limited information on the prognosis of patients who suffer MALE. OBJECTIVES: Among participants with lower extremity PAD, we investigated: 1) if hospitalizations, MACE, amputations, and deaths are higher after first episode of MALE compared with PAD patients who do not experience MALE and 2) the impact of treatment with low dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared to aspirin alone on the incidence of MALE, peripheral vascular interventions, and all peripheral vascular outcomes over a median follow-up of 21 months...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Laurie G Sherlock, Ashley Trumpie, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Sarah McKenna, Susan Fisher, Russell Bowler, Clyde J Wright, Cassidy Delaney, Eva Nozik-Grayck
BACKGROUND: A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (R213 G), in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), decreases SOD3 matrix binding affinity. Humans and mature mice expressing the R213 G SNP exhibit increased cardiovascular disease but decreased lung disease. The impact of this SNP on the neonatal lung at baseline or with injury is unknown. METHODS: Wild type and homozygous R213 G mice were injected with intraperitoneal bleomycin or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) three times weekly for three weeks and tissue harvested at 22 days of life...
March 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
X X Zhao, C Z Shen, X X Xie, Q Q Xu, X Zhou, Z W Sun
Objective: To explore the change and value of platelet aggregability(PA)in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD). Methods: A total of 108 patients with SIVD hospitalized in the Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from October 2015 to July 2017 were enrolled as SIVD group and 30 healthy cases were also in cluded as normal controlgroup (NC). According to magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), the SIVD group was further divided into two subtypes: lacunar infarction(LI) ( n =31)and leukoaraiosis(LA) ( n =77)...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
B P Bergman, D F Mackay, J P Pell
Background: While traumatic limb loss in military personnel is widely known, the threat posed by peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in those who have served is less well recognized. The aim of our study was to examine the risk of PAD in a Scotland-wide cohort of veterans who served between 1960 and 2012. Methods: Retrospective 30-year cohort study of 56 205 veterans born 1945-85, and 172 741 non-veterans, matched for age, sex and area of residence, using Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between veteran status, birth cohort, length of service and risk of PAD leading to hospitalization or death...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health
John Jarrell
Historically, the evolutionary origins of menstruation have been based on two theories: the ability to eliminate infectious agents carried to the uterus with spermatozoa and the comparative conservation of energy with menstruation compared to its absence. In the menstruating species, more recent theories have identified spontaneous decidualization as the key adaptive mechanism. Spontaneous decidualization is seen as a mechanism to provide the mother with protection from the invasive characteristics of the embryo...
February 8, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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