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Bicarbonate transport

Guorong Wen, Shili Deng, Wenfeng Song, Hai Jin, Jingyu Xu, Xuemei Liu, Rui Xie, Penghong Song, Biguang Tuo
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-induced duodenal ulcer remains to be elucidated. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is the most important protective factor against acid-induced mucosal injury. We previously revealed that H. pylori infection downregulated the expression and functional activity of duodenal mucosal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and solute linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) which are the two key duodenal mucosal epithelial cellular bicarbonate transporters to mediate duodenal bicarbonate secretion...
August 17, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Xiangbo Duan, Yang Yu, Yu Zhang, Chao Chen, Huizi Duanmu, Lei Cao, Mingzhe Sun, Xiaoli Sun, Yanming Zhu
Soil alkalization severely restricts agricultural production and economic development worldwide, this problem is far more serious in Songnen Plain, the largest commodity grain base of China. However, little research has been done concerning the mechanisms of plant responses to alkaline stress to date. In this study, we isolated an alkali inducible gene GsBOR2 from Glycine soja on the basis of RNA seq data. GsBOR2 sh high protein sequence similarity with the known boron transporters in other species. The expression of GsBOR2 was highly up-regulated by 50 mM NaHCO3 treatment and displayed tissue specificity...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Dongun Lee, Sang A Lee, Dong M Shin, Jeong H Hong
Secretory glands including salivary glands by many hormonal inputs produce and secrete biological fluids determined by variety of ion transporters. Spinophilin is a multifunctional scaffolding protein, which involved in receptor signaling and regulation of anion exchangers AE2 activity. We found that spinophilin expressed in salivary glands. The role of salivary spinophilin on the modulation of chloride/bicarbonate exchange remains unknown. The spinophilin enhanced AE2 activity and associated with a STE20/SPS1-related kinase and showed an additive effect on the modulation of the activity of AE2...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mrinal K Bhattacharjee, Muhammad Anees, Ayrushi Patel
The periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is extremely sensitive to even a mildly acidic pH resulting from metabolic acids secreted during growth, losing viability rapidly as the pH goes below 6.0. Cells grown at high glucose concentration grow fast but rapidly lose viability. However, if the cells are grown at low glucose concentration, the pH of the growth medium first decreases slowly for about 24 h and then starts to increase. This increase of pH is indicative of cell death since the spontaneous rise of pH due to the presence of bicarbonate can no longer be opposed by secreted metabolic acids...
July 31, 2018: Current Microbiology
Bruce K Rubin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem illness caused by abnormalities in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and protein. CFTR is an ion channel regulating transport of chloride, bicarbonate, and water, and influencing sodium resorption. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder, and with about 70,000 CF patients worldwide, it is the most common life shortening disease among persons of European descent. CFTR disease-causing mutations have been organized into six classes. Areas covered: Recently, small molecule targeted therapy for specific classes of CFTR abnormalities have included CFTR correctors that decrease protein degradation and CFTR potentiators that increase channel open probability enhancing chloride transport...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Xin Wu, Ethan N W Howe, Philip A Gale
Transmembrane anion transport has been the focus of a number of supramolecular chemistry research groups for a number of years. Much of this research is driven by the biological relevance of anion transport and the search to find new treatments for diseases such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by genetic problems leading to faulty cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, which in turn lead to reduced chloride and bicarbonate transport through epithelial cell membranes. Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of new transporters, and our group along with others have been searching for combinations of organic scaffolds and anion binding groups that produce highly effective transporters that work at low concentration...
July 31, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Daniel Patschan, Gerhard Anton Müller
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) remains a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized individuals worldwide. The current article will focus on three AKI-related aspects: prevention of contrast-Induced Nephropathy with sodium chloride vs. sodium bicarbonate (PRESERVE trial), kidney-related unwanted side effects of Sodium-Glucose co-Transporter-2-antagonists (SGLT-2-inhibitors), and the utilization of certain types of stem/progenitor cells for AKI therapy.
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sali Al-Ansari, Rozita Jalali, Lilian I Plotkin, Antonius L J J Bronckers, Pamela DenBesten, Yan Zhang, Judith E Raber-Durlacher, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
During enamel development, formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and regulation of pH in the enamel matrix require massive transport of ions. Both ameloblasts and adjacent dental epithelial cells in the stellate reticulum co-express several transmembrane cotransporters/ion-exchangers for transport of ions across plasma membranes. Gap junctions (GJs) enable intercellular exchanges of ions between neighboring cells. This suggests that the ameloblasts and other cell layers of the enamel organ, form a functional unit...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jing Chen, Marina Gálvez-Peralta, Xiang Zhang, Jingyuan Deng, Zijuan Liu, Daniel W Nebert
Slc39a8 encodes ZIP8, a divalent cation/bicarbonate symporter expressed in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells, and therefore ubiquitous in adult tissues; ZIP8 influxes Zn2+ , Mn2+ and Fe2+ . Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown mice exhibit 10-15% of wild-type ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels, and show pleiotropic phenotype of stunted growth, neonatal lethality, multi-organ dysmorphogenesis, and dysregulated hematopoiesis manifested as severe anemia. Herein we performed RNA-seq analysis of gestational day (GD)13.5 yolk sac and placenta, and GD16...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antreas C Kalli, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
The Band 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) membrane protein is found in red blood cells and in kidney where it functions as an electro-neutral chloride/bicarbonate exchanger. In this study, we have used molecular dynamics simulations to provide the first realistic model of the dimeric membrane domain of human Band 3 in an asymmetric lipid bilayer containing a full complement of phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and cholesterol, and its partner membrane protein Glycophorin A (GPA). The simulations show that the annular layer in the inner leaflet surrounding Band 3 was enriched in phosphatidylserine and PIP2 molecules...
July 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Thomas Franke, Uwe Deppenmeier
The human gut microbiota is a crucial factor for the host's physiology with respect to health and disease. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing of microbial gut communities revealed that Prevotella copri is one of the most important players in the gastrointestinal tract of many individuals. Because of the importance of this bacterium we analyzed the growth behavior and the central metabolic pathways of P. copri. Bioinformatic data, transcriptome profiling and enzyme activity measurements indicated that the major pathways are based on glycolysis and succinate production from fumarate...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
The hydration/dehydration of CO2 catalyzed by carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC is a crucial physiological reaction for the survival of all living organisms because it is connected with numerous biosynthetic and biochemical pathways requiring CO2 or HCO3 - , such as respiration, photosynthesis, carboxylation reactions, pH homeostasis, secretion of electrolytes, transport of CO2 , bicarbonate, etc. Areas covered: The bacterial genome encodes CAs belonging to the α-, β-, and γ-CA classes able to ensure the survival and/or satisfying the metabolic needs of the bacteria, as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro experiments...
July 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Guillermina M Luque, Tomas Dalotto-Moreno, David Martín-Hidalgo, Carla Ritagliati, Lis C Puga Molina, Ana Romarowski, Paula A Balestrini, Liza J Schiavi-Ehrenhaus, Nicolas Gilio, Dario Krapf, Pablo E Visconti, Mariano G Buffone
Mammalian sperm must undergo a functionally defined process called capacitation to be able to fertilize oocytes. They become capacitated in vivo by interacting with the female reproductive tract or in vitro in a defined capacitation medium that contains bovine serum albumin, calcium (Ca2+ ), and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ). In this work, sperm were double stained with propidium iodide and the Ca2+ dye Fluo-4 AM and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) in individual live sperm...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Stefan Đorđievski, Daizo Ishiyama, Yasumasa Ogawa, Zoran Stevanović
Bor, Krivelj, and Bela Rivers belong to the watershed of Timok River, which is a tributary of transboundary Danube River. These rivers receive metal-rich acidic wastewater from metallurgical facilities and acid mine drainage (AMD) from mine wastes around Bor copper mines. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and natural attenuation of metals and arsenic in rivers from Bor copper mines to Danube River during the year 2015. The results showed that metallurgical facilities had the largest impact on Bor River by discharging about 400 t of Cu per year through highly acidic wastewater (pH = 2...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matthew E Kinney
To determine the effect of capture and restraint on hematologic, plasma biochemical, and venous blood gas values in Dalmatian pelicans ( Pelecanus crispus), blood samples were collected and temperature and heart rate were recorded in 13 pelicans (5 males and 8 females) immediately after capture from a large field exhibit. Repeat sampling was performed after transport, a mean of 74 minutes after initial evaluation. When compared with values at initial sampling to the time of capture, significant increases were documented in the heterophil : lymphocyte ratio (H : L), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), bicarbonate (HCO3 ), total carbon dioxide (Tco2 ), base excess (BE), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2 ) values after 74 minutes...
June 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Greta Nölke, Mirna Barsoum, Marcel Houdelet, Elsa Arcalís, Fritz Kreuzaler, Rainer Fischer, Stefan Schillberg
Increasing the productivity of crops is a major challenge in agricultural research. Given that photosynthetic carbon assimilation is necessary for plant growth, enhancing the efficiency of photosynthesis is one strategy to boost agricultural productivity. The authors attempted to increase the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass of tobacco plants by expressing individual components of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) and integrating them into the chloroplast. Independent transgenic varieties are generated accumulating the carbonic anhydrase CAH3 in the thylakoid lumen or the bicarbonate transporter LCIA in the inner chloroplast membrane...
June 11, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
J A Barberá, J Jódar, E Custodio, A González-Ramón, P Jiménez-Gavilán, I Vadillo, A Pedrera, S Martos-Rosillo
In many of the alpine watersheds of Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain) exists an ancient network of dug canals that collect, transport and facilitate the recharge the snowmelt in the underlying aquifer during the spring season. This practice, known as careos, in the lower part of the watersheds supply drinking water as spring discharge during the dry season. To study how this managed recharge technique modifies the natural response of these basins this work focuses on characterizing the hydrological behavior of one of the sites, the Berchules watershed...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Huilong Luo, Matthieu Gauthier, Xi Tan, Christophe Landry, Joël Poupon, Marie-Pierre Dehouck, Fabien Gosselet, Nicolas Perrière, Frank Bellivier, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves
Variability in drug response to lithium (Li+ ) is poorly understood and significant, as only 40% of patients with bipolar disorder highly respond to Li+ . Li+ can be transported by sodium (Na+ ) transporters in kidney tubules or red blood cells, but its transport has not been investigated at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inhibition and/or transcriptomic strategies for Na+ transporters such as NHE (SLC9), NBC (SLC4), and NKCC (SLC12) were used to assess their role on Li+ transport in human brain endothelial cells...
July 2, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
André B Heibel, Pedro H L Perim, Luana F Oliveira, Lars R McNaughton, Bryan Saunders
Blood alkalosis, as indicated by an increased blood bicarbonate concentration and pH, has been shown to be beneficial for exercise performance. Sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, and sodium or calcium lactate, can all result in increased circulating bicarbonate and have all independently been shown to improve exercise capacity and performance under various circumstances. Although there is considerable evidence demonstrating the efficacy of these supplements in several sports-specific situations, it is commonly acknowledged that their efficacy is equivocal, due to contrasting evidence...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Kwon Hwangbo, Jong-Min Lim, Seok-Won Jeong, Jayaraman Vikramathithan, Youn-Il Park, Won-Joong Jeong
Microalgae and higher plants employ an inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrating mechanism (CCM) to increase CO2 availability to Rubisco. Operation of the CCM should enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle, which could act as an electron sink for electrons generated by photosynthesis, and lower the redox status of photosynthetic electron transport chains. In this study, a hypothesis that microalgal cells with fully operating CCM are less likely to be photodamaged was tested by comparing a Chlorella mutant with its wild type (WT)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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