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Bicarbonate transport

Matteo Grattieri, David P Hickey, Han Sol Kim, Vanesa Teijeiro Seijas, Jungbae Kim, Shelley D Minteer
Enzymes are promising catalysts for bioprocessing. For instance, the enzymatic capture of CO2 using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a carbon capture approach that allows obtaining bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) with no high-energy input required. However, application in a commercially viable biotechnology requires sufficient enzymatic lifetime. Although enzyme stabilization can be achieved by different immobilization techniques, most of them are not commercially viable because of transport limitations induced by the immobilization method...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Shashidhar Cherukuri, Maria Bajo, Giacomo Colussi, Roberto Corciulo, Hafedh Fessi, Maxence Ficheux, Maria Slon, Eric Weinhandl, Natalie Borman
BACKGROUND: Utilization of home hemodialysis (HHD) is low in Europe. The Knowledge to Improve Home Dialysis Network in Europe (KIHDNEy) is a multi-center study of HHD patients who have used a transportable hemodialysis machine that employs a low volume of lactate-buffered, ultrapure dialysate per session. In this retrospective cohort analysis, we describe patient factors, HHD prescription factors, and biochemistry and medication use during the first 6 months of HHD and rates of clinical outcomes thereafter...
October 11, 2018: BMC Nephrology
John P Clancy
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by variants in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conduction regulator (CFTR) protein. Loss of CFTR function disrupts chloride, bicarbonate and regulation of sodium transport, producing a cascade of mucus obstruction, inflammation, pulmonary infection, and ultimately damage in numerous organs. Established CF therapies treat the downstream consequences of CFTR dysfunction and have led to steady improvements in patient survival...
November 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Alejandro Corrales-Hernández, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Patricia Roldan-Santiago, Selene Rodríguez-Salinas, Ariadna Yáñez-Pizaña, Luis de la Cruz, Miguel González-Lozano, Patricia Mora-Medina
The horse welfare at markets includes fatigue, fear, fasting, dehydration and injuries. However, the scientific literature contains no readily-available information on the physiology responses of equids sold in livestock markets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of holding in livestock markets on gas exchange, the acid-base balance, energy metabolism, and the mineral and water balance in 4 types of horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ) and mules (( Equus asinus  ×  Equus caballus )...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Ying Liang, Ikumi Sasaki, Yuki Takeda, Beiwei Zhu, Shintaro Munemasa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yoshimasa Nakamura
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is an organosulfur compound derived from cruciferous vegetables and papaya seeds. In this study, we investigated the effect of BITC on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes during adipocyte differentiation. The treatment of BITC during the differentiation-inducing stage significantly ameliorated the lipid accumulation, whereas it had no inhibitory effect during the differentiation-maintaining stage. BITC also significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipocyte-specific markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ...
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
R Biddau, R Cidu, S Da Pelo, A Carletti, G Ghiglieri, D Pittalis
Intensive farming usually imply a degradation of groundwater resources worldwide. In particular, nitrate concentrations exceeding the 50 mg L-1 limit established for drinking water pose the human health at risk. Therefore, assessing the impact of farming on groundwater, in terms of space and time, is of fundamental importance for policy decision makers and land managers. This study was aimed at assessing the nitrate source and fate in groundwater by combining hydrogeochemical and isotopic tools. The study area is located in the coastal plain of Arborea (Italy), a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ) due to intensive farming and animal husbandry (28,000 bovine livestock units)...
January 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Swee Su Lim, Byung Hong Kim, Da Li, Yujie Feng, Wan Ramli Wan Daud, Keith Scott, Eileen Hao Yu
Understanding the mechanism of electron transfer between the cathode and microorganisms in cathode biofilms in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for hydrogen production is important. In this study, biocathodes of MECs were successfully re-enriched and subjected to different operating parameters: applied potential, sulfate use and inorganic carbon consumption. It was hypothesized that biocathode catalytic activity would be affected by the applied potentials that initiate electron transfer. While inorganic carbon, in the form of bicarbonate, could be a main carbon source for biocathode growth, sulfate could be a terminal electron acceptor and thus reduced to elemental sulfurs...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Nina Riddell, Pierre Faou, Sheila G Crewther
BACKGROUND: Myopia (short-sightedness) affects approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide, and prevalence is increasing. Animal models induced by defocusing lenses show striking similarity with human myopia in terms of morphology and the implicated genetic pathways. Less is known about proteome changes in animals. Thus, the present study aimed to improve understanding of protein pathway responses to lens defocus, with an emphasis on relating expression changes to no lens control development and identifying bidirectional and/or distinct pathways across myopia and hyperopia (long-sightedness) models...
August 29, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Daniel Batlle, Jose Arruda
In contrast to distal type I or classic renal tubular acidosis (RTA) that is associated with hypokalemia, hyperkalemic forms of RTA also occur usually in the setting of mild-to-moderate CKD. Two pathogenic types of hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis are frequently encountered in adults with underlying CKD. One type, which corresponds to some extent to the animal model of selective aldosterone deficiency (SAD) created experimentally by adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement, is manifested in humans by low plasma and urinary aldosterone levels, reduced ammonium excretion, and preserved ability to lower urine pH below 5...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Zinnia N Noor, Joachim W Deitmer, Shefeeq M Theparambil
Sodium plays a major role in different astrocytic functions, including maintenance of ion homeostasis and uptake of neurotransmitters and metabolites, which are mediated by different Na+ -coupled transporters. In the current study, the role of an electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1), a sodium-potassium-chloride transporter 1 (NKCC1) and sodium-potassium ATPase (Na+ -K+ -ATPase) for the maintenance of [Na+ ]i was investigated in cultured astrocytes of wild-type (WT) and of NBCe1-deficient (NBCe1-KO) mice using the Na+ -sensitive dye, asante sodium green-2...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Claudia Cossu, Michele Fiore, Debora Baroni, Valeria Capurro, Emanuela Caci, Maria Garcia-Valverde, Roberto Quesada, Oscar Moran
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic lethal disease, originated from the defective function of the CFTR protein, a chloride and bicarbonate permeable transmembrane channel. CF mutations affect CFTR protein through a variety of molecular mechanisms which result in different functional defects. Current therapeutic approaches are targeted to specific groups of patients that share a common functional defect. We seek to develop an innovative therapeutic approach for the treatment of CF using anionophores, small molecules that facilitate the transmembrane transport of anions...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Guorong Wen, Shili Deng, Wenfeng Song, Hai Jin, Jingyu Xu, Xuemei Liu, Rui Xie, Penghong Song, Biguang Tuo
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-induced duodenal ulcer remains to be elucidated. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is the most important protective factor against acid-induced mucosal injury. We previously revealed that H. pylori infection downregulated the expression and functional activity of duodenal mucosal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and solute linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) which are the two key duodenal mucosal epithelial cellular bicarbonate transporters to mediate duodenal bicarbonate secretion...
August 17, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Xiangbo Duan, Yang Yu, Yu Zhang, Chao Chen, Huizi Duanmu, Lei Cao, Mingzhe Sun, Xiaoli Sun, Yanming Zhu
Soil alkalization severely restricts agricultural production and economic development worldwide, this problem is far more serious in Songnen Plain, the largest commodity grain base of China. However, little research has been done concerning the mechanisms of plant responses to alkaline stress to date. In this study, we isolated an alkali inducible gene GsBOR2 from Glycine soja on the basis of RNA seq data. GsBOR2 sh high protein sequence similarity with the known boron transporters in other species. The expression of GsBOR2 was highly up-regulated by 50 mM NaHCO3 treatment and displayed tissue specificity...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Dongun Lee, Sang A Lee, Dong M Shin, Jeong H Hong
Secretory glands including salivary glands by many hormonal inputs produce and secrete biological fluids determined by variety of ion transporters. Spinophilin is a multifunctional scaffolding protein, which involved in receptor signaling and regulation of anion exchangers AE2 activity. We found that spinophilin expressed in salivary glands. The role of salivary spinophilin on the modulation of chloride/bicarbonate exchange remains unknown. The spinophilin enhanced AE2 activity and associated with a STE20/SPS1-related kinase and showed an additive effect on the modulation of the activity of AE2...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mrinal K Bhattacharjee, Muhammad Anees, Ayrushi Patel
The periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is extremely sensitive to even a mildly acidic pH resulting from metabolic acids secreted during growth, losing viability rapidly as the pH goes below 6.0. Cells grown at high glucose concentration grow fast but rapidly lose viability. However, if the cells are grown at low glucose concentration, the pH of the growth medium first decreases slowly for about 24 h and then starts to increase. This increase of pH is indicative of cell death since the spontaneous rise of pH due to the presence of bicarbonate can no longer be opposed by secreted metabolic acids...
November 2018: Current Microbiology
Bruce K Rubin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem illness caused by abnormalities in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and protein. CFTR is an ion channel regulating transport of chloride, bicarbonate, and water, and influencing sodium resorption. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder, and with about 70,000 CF patients worldwide, it is the most common life shortening disease among persons of European descent. CFTR disease-causing mutations have been organized into six classes. Areas covered: Recently, small molecule targeted therapy for specific classes of CFTR abnormalities have included CFTR correctors that decrease protein degradation and CFTR potentiators that increase channel open probability enhancing chloride transport...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Xin Wu, Ethan N W Howe, Philip A Gale
Transmembrane anion transport has been the focus of a number of supramolecular chemistry research groups for a number of years. Much of this research is driven by the biological relevance of anion transport and the search to find new treatments for diseases such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by genetic problems leading to faulty cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, which in turn lead to reduced chloride and bicarbonate transport through epithelial cell membranes. Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of new transporters, and our group along with others have been searching for combinations of organic scaffolds and anion binding groups that produce highly effective transporters that work at low concentration...
August 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Daniel Patschan, Gerhard Anton Müller
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) remains a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized individuals worldwide. The current article will focus on three AKI-related aspects: prevention of contrast-Induced Nephropathy with sodium chloride vs. sodium bicarbonate (PRESERVE trial), kidney-related unwanted side effects of Sodium-Glucose co-Transporter-2-antagonists (SGLT-2-inhibitors), and the utilization of certain types of stem/progenitor cells for AKI therapy.
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sali Al-Ansari, Rozita Jalali, Lilian I Plotkin, Antonius L J J Bronckers, Pamela DenBesten, Yan Zhang, Judith E Raber-Durlacher, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
During enamel development, formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and regulation of pH in the enamel matrix require massive transport of ions. Both ameloblasts and adjacent dental epithelial cells in the stellate reticulum co-express several transmembrane cotransporters/ion-exchangers for transport of ions across plasma membranes. Gap junctions (GJs) enable intercellular exchanges of ions between neighboring cells. This suggests that the ameloblasts and other cell layers of the enamel organ, form a functional unit...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jing Chen, Marina Gálvez-Peralta, Xiang Zhang, Jingyuan Deng, Zijuan Liu, Daniel W Nebert
Slc39a8 encodes ZIP8, a divalent cation/bicarbonate symporter expressed in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells, and therefore ubiquitous in adult tissues; ZIP8 influxes Zn2+ , Mn2+ and Fe2+ . Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown mice exhibit 10-15% of wild-type ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels, and show pleiotropic phenotype of stunted growth, neonatal lethality, multi-organ dysmorphogenesis, and dysregulated hematopoiesis manifested as severe anemia. Herein we performed RNA-seq analysis of gestational day (GD)13.5 yolk sac and placenta, and GD16...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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