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Bicarbonate transport

Catherine Banks, Laura Freeman, Do Yeon Cho, Bradford A Woodworth
Sinonasal respiratory epithelium is a highly regulated barrier that employs mucociliary clearance (MCC) as the airways first line of defense. The biological properties of the airway surface liquid (ASL), combined with coordinated ciliary beating, are critical components of the mucociliary apparatus. The ASL volume and viscosity is modulated, in part, by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR is an anion transporter of chloride (Cl- ) and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) that is located on the apical surface of respiratory epithelium and exocrine glandular epithelium...
September 2018: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
A S Lapashina, B A Feniouk
H+-FO F1 -ATP synthase (F-ATPase, F-type ATPase, FO F1 complex) catalyzes ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate in eubacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some archaea. ATP synthesis is powered by the transmembrane proton transport driven by the proton motive force (PMF) generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chains. When the PMF is decreased or absent, ATP synthase catalyzes the reverse reaction, working as an ATP-dependent proton pump. The ATPase activity of the enzyme is regulated by several mechanisms, of which the most conserved is the non-competitive inhibition by the MgADP complex (ADP-inhibition)...
October 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Silvia Iacobelli, Jean-Pierre Guignard
Acid-base homeostasis is one of the most tightly regulated systems in the body. Maintaining the acid-base balance is particularly challenging for preterm infants and growing neonates. The kidney, which represents the crucial ultimate line of defense against disturbances of acid-base balance, undergoes a complex maturation process during the transition from a fetal to an extra-uterine environment. This review article summarizes the physiology of acid-base regulation by the immature human kidney and discusses disorders of acid-base balance, such as metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis...
November 19, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Pengchao Xie, Li Zhang, Jinhui Chen, Jiaqi Ding, Ying Wan, Songlin Wang, Zongping Wang, Aijiao Zhou, Jun Ma
Degradation of propranolol (PrP) by a combined zero-valent iron and sulfite system under simulated sunlight irradiation (ZVI/sulfite/photo) was investigated. Simulated sunlight irradiation enhanced the degradation of PrP by accelerating the decomposition of ferric sulfite complex as a result to producing sulfite radical (SO3 •- ). As bubbles would block the transport of photons in the reaction solution, mechanical aeration rather than purging air was suggested to sustain the essential dissolved oxygen. The degradation of PrP increased with the elevation of initial ZVI concentration from 0...
October 31, 2018: Water Research
Anna Ermund, Sergio Trillo-Muyo, Gunnar C Hansson
The respiratory system is protected from inhaled particles and microbes by the mucociliary system. This system differs between animal species, where pigs and humans have numerous submucosal glands. The polymer-forming mucin, MUC5B, is packed in a highly organized way in granules of the mucus-secreting cells in the glands. Upon secretion, the packed MUC5B is flushed out by a chloride- and bicarbonate-rich fluid from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-expressing serosal cells located at the most distal part of the gland...
November 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ambra Gianotti, Livia Delpiano, Emanuela Caci
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) gene, which encodes for a channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial tissues. Defective chloride and bicarbonate secretion, arising from CFTR mutations, cause a multi-organ disease. In the airways, impaired ion transport results in a thick mucus, dehydration of the periciliar region and bacterial infections. Over the last years, basic research has sustained a great effort to identify therapies that are able to correct defective CFTR...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mei Ji, Lili Xiao, Le Xu, Shengyun Huang, Dongsheng Zhang
Amelogenesis is a complicated process that concerns the interaction between growing hydroxyapatite crystals and extracellular proteins, which requires the tight regulation of pH. In dental fluorosis, the balance of pH regulation is broken, leading to abnormal mineralization. The current review focuses on the electrolyte transport processes associated with pH homeostasis, particularly regarding the changes in ion transporters that occur during amelogenesis, following exposure to excessive fluoride. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of fluorosis is discussed on the basis of acid hypothesis...
November 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hui Li, Ningxia Ma, Jing Wang, Ying Wang, Chao Yuan, Jing Wu, Meihui Luo, Jiali Yang, Juan Chen, Juan Shi, Xiaoming Liu
Lung cancer remains one of the most common cancer-related deaths worldwide. The cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer development. Interestingly, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator encoded by CFTR gene, an ATP-binding cassette transporter-class ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate anions across membrane of epithelial cells, has recently been suggested to play a role in the development and progression of many types of cancer. It has been well-documented that mutations of CFTR gene are the cause of cystic fibrosis, the most common fatal hereditary lung disease in Caucasian population; the function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the development of lung cancer however has not yet been established...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Xiaoyang Shi, Hang Xiao, Xiangbiao Liao, Mitchell Armstrong, Xi Chen, Klaus S Lackner
Ion hydration is a fundamental process in many natural phenomena. This paper presents a quantitative analysis, based on atomistic modeling, of the behavior of ions and the impact of hydration in a novel CO2 sorbent. We explore moisture-driven CO2 sorbents focusing on diffusion of ions and the structure of ion hydration complexes forming inside water-laden resin structures. We show that the stability of the carbonate ion is reduced as the water content of the resin is lowered. As the hydration cloud of the carbonate ion shrinks, it becomes energetically favorable to split a remaining water molecule and form a bicarbonate ion plus a hydroxide ion...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nan Sun, Xunling Han, Min Xu, Aaron Kaplan, George S Espie, Hualing Mi
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are involved in CO2 uptake and conversion, a fundamental process in photosynthetic organisms. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the regulation of CO2 uptake and intracellular conversion in cyanobacteria is largely unknown. We report the characterization of a previously unrecognized thylakoid-located CA Slr0051 (EcaB) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which possesses CA activity to regulate CO2 uptake. Inactivation of ecaB stimulated CO2 hydration in the thylakoids, suppressed by the classical CA inhibitor acetazolamide...
November 1, 2018: New Phytologist
Jozef Al-Gousous, Kathy X Sun, Daniel P McNamara, Bart Hens, Niloufar Salehi, Peter Langguth, Marival Bermejo, Gregory E Amidon, Gordon L Amidon
The bicarbonate buffer capacity is usually considered in a phase-homogeneous system, at equilibrium, with no CO2 transfer between the liquid buffer phase and another phase. However, typically, an in vitro bicarbonate buffer-based system is a phase-heterogeneous system, as it entails continuously sparging (bubbling) the dissolution medium with CO2 in a gas mixture, at constant ratio, to maintain a constant partial pressure of CO2 (g) and CO2(aq) molarity at a prescribed value, with CO2 diffusing freely between the gas and the aqueous phases...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Htay Htay, David W Johnson, Kathryn J Wiggins, Sunil V Badve, Jonathan C Craig, Giovanni Fm Strippoli, Yeoungjee Cho
BACKGROUND: Biocompatible peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions, including neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) solutions and icodextrin, have previously been shown to favourably influence some patient-level outcomes, albeit based on generally sub-optimal quality studies. Several additional randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating biocompatible solutions in PD patients have been published recently. This is an update of a review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to look at the benefits and harms of biocompatible PD solutions in comparison to standard PD solutions in patients receiving PD...
October 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jie Xu, Sharon Barone, Kamyar Zahedi, Marybeth Brooks, Manoocher Soleimani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The sodium-dependent bicarbonate transporter Slc4a8 (a.k.a NDCBE) mediates the co-transport of sodium and bicarbonate in exchange for chloride. It is abundantly detected in the brain, with low expression levels in the kidney. The cell distribution and subcellular localization of Slc4a8 in the kidney and its role in acid/base and electrolyte homeostasis has been the subject of conflicting reports. There are no conclusive localization or functional studies to pinpoint the location and demonstrate the function of Slc4a8 in the kidney...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Cindy Vallières, Roxane Raulo, Matthew Dickinson, Simon V Avery
A range of fungicides or antifungals are currently deployed to control fungi in agriculture or medicine, but resistance to current agents is growing so new approaches and molecular targets are urgently needed. Recently, different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with particular transport inhibitors were found to produce strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of fungi, by synergistically increasing the error rate of mRNA translation. Here, focusing on translation fidelity as a novel target for combinatorial antifungal treatment, we tested the hypothesis that alternative combinations of agents known to affect the availability of functional amino acids would synergistically inhibit growth of major fungal pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matteo Grattieri, David P Hickey, Han Sol Kim, Vanesa Teijeiro Seijas, Jungbae Kim, Shelley D Minteer
Enzymes are promising catalysts for bioprocessing. For instance, the enzymatic capture of CO2 using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a carbon capture approach that allows obtaining bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) with no high-energy input required. However, application in a commercially viable biotechnology requires sufficient enzymatic lifetime. Although enzyme stabilization can be achieved by different immobilization techniques, most of them are not commercially viable because of transport limitations induced by the immobilization method...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Shashidhar Cherukuri, Maria Bajo, Giacomo Colussi, Roberto Corciulo, Hafedh Fessi, Maxence Ficheux, Maria Slon, Eric Weinhandl, Natalie Borman
BACKGROUND: Utilization of home hemodialysis (HHD) is low in Europe. The Knowledge to Improve Home Dialysis Network in Europe (KIHDNEy) is a multi-center study of HHD patients who have used a transportable hemodialysis machine that employs a low volume of lactate-buffered, ultrapure dialysate per session. In this retrospective cohort analysis, we describe patient factors, HHD prescription factors, and biochemistry and medication use during the first 6 months of HHD and rates of clinical outcomes thereafter...
October 11, 2018: BMC Nephrology
John P Clancy
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by variants in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conduction regulator (CFTR) protein. Loss of CFTR function disrupts chloride, bicarbonate and regulation of sodium transport, producing a cascade of mucus obstruction, inflammation, pulmonary infection, and ultimately damage in numerous organs. Established CF therapies treat the downstream consequences of CFTR dysfunction and have led to steady improvements in patient survival...
November 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Alejandro Corrales-Hernández, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Patricia Roldan-Santiago, Selene Rodríguez-Salinas, Ariadna Yáñez-Pizaña, Luis de la Cruz, Miguel González-Lozano, Patricia Mora-Medina
The horse welfare at markets includes fatigue, fear, fasting, dehydration and injuries. However, the scientific literature contains no readily-available information on the physiology responses of equids sold in livestock markets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of holding in livestock markets on gas exchange, the acid-base balance, energy metabolism, and the mineral and water balance in 4 types of horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ) and mules (( Equus asinus  ×  Equus caballus )...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Ying Liang, Ikumi Sasaki, Yuki Takeda, Beiwei Zhu, Shintaro Munemasa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Murata, Yoshimasa Nakamura
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is an organosulfur compound derived from cruciferous vegetables and papaya seeds. In this study, we investigated the effect of BITC on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes during adipocyte differentiation. The treatment of BITC during the differentiation-inducing stage significantly ameliorated the lipid accumulation, whereas it had no inhibitory effect during the differentiation-maintaining stage. BITC also significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipocyte-specific markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ...
September 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
R Biddau, R Cidu, S Da Pelo, A Carletti, G Ghiglieri, D Pittalis
Intensive farming usually imply a degradation of groundwater resources worldwide. In particular, nitrate concentrations exceeding the 50 mg L-1 limit established for drinking water pose the human health at risk. Therefore, assessing the impact of farming on groundwater, in terms of space and time, is of fundamental importance for policy decision makers and land managers. This study was aimed at assessing the nitrate source and fate in groundwater by combining hydrogeochemical and isotopic tools. The study area is located in the coastal plain of Arborea (Italy), a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ) due to intensive farming and animal husbandry (28,000 bovine livestock units)...
January 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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