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Muscular balance

Sihyun Yoo, Sang-Kyoon Park, Sukhoon Yoon, Hee Sung Lim, Jiseon Ryu
Maintaining balance while performing "Hakdariseogi" in Taekwondo, which involves standing on one leg, is a critical aspect of the Poomsae competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proprioceptive training and lower-limb muscular strength training on the balance of Taekwondo Poomsae athletes over a 6-week period. Thirty Taekwondo Poomsae athletes were randomly assigned to three groups, namely, a proprioception training group, a lower-limb muscular strength training group, and a control group...
September 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Melyn Galbreath, Bill Campbell, Paul LaBounty, Jennifer Bunn, Jacqueline Dove, Travis Harvey, Geoffrey Hudson, Jean L Gutierrez, Kyle Levers, Elfego Galvan, Andrew Jagim, Lori Greenwood, Matthew B Cooke, Mike Greenwood, Chris Rasmussen, Richard B Kreider
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65...
August 11, 2018: Nutrients
C Nathan Vannatta, Matthew Haberl
Background and Purpose: The incidence of running related injuries remains high despite numerous efforts to understand the mechanical contributors to the etiology of these injuries. In light of continued running injury, theories of neuromuscular control, or movement patterns, have been suggested as possible contributors to running related injuries. However, the clinical decision making determining when altered neuromuscular control strategies may be affecting a runner's symptoms has not been described...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Eleonora Guadagnin, Davi Mázala, Yi-Wen Chen
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling plays critical roles in regulating skeletal muscle mass, repair, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the upstream activators of STAT3 in skeletal muscles, with a focus on interleukin 6 (IL6) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). We will also discuss the double-edged effect of STAT3 activation in the muscles, including the role of STAT3 signaling in muscle hypertrophy induced by exercise training or muscle wasting in cachectic diseases and muscular dystrophies...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amandine Duchesne, Anne Vaiman, Magali Frah, Sandrine Floriot, Sabrina Legoueix-Rodriguez, Anne Desmazières, Sébastien Fritz, Christian Beauvallet, Olivier Albaric, Eric Venot, Maud Bertaud, Romain Saintilan, Raphaël Guatteo, Diane Esquerré, Julien Branchu, Anaïs Fleming, Alexis Brice, Frédéric Darios, Jean-Luc Vilotte, Giovanni Stevanin, Didier Boichard, Khalid Hamid El Hachimi
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous human neurodegenerative diseases. Amongst the identified genetic causes, mutations in genes encoding motor proteins such as kinesins have been involved in various HSP clinical isoforms. Mutations in KIF1C are responsible for autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 58 (SPG58) and spastic ataxia 2 (SPAX2). Bovines also develop neurodegenerative diseases, some of them having a genetic aetiology. Bovine progressive ataxia was first described in the Charolais breed in the early 1970s in England and further cases in this breed were subsequently reported worldwide...
August 2018: PLoS Genetics
Wallace A Silva, Claudio Andre B de Lira, Rodrigo L Vancini, Marilia S Andrade
Background: The percentage of sustained maximal oxygen uptake and the running economy are important factors that determine the running success of endurance athletes. Running economy is defined as the oxygen uptake required to run at a given speed and depends on metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical, neuromuscular, and anthropometric factors. With regard to anthropometric characteristics, total body mass seems to be a crucial factor for the running economy. Moreover, neuromuscular components, especially knee muscular strength and the strength balance ratio, also seem to be critical for the running economy...
2018: PeerJ
Carmen L Wilson, Carrie R Howell, Robyn E Partin, Lu Lu, Sue C Kaste, Daniel A Mulrooney, Ching-Hon Pui, Jennifer Q Lanctot, Deo Kumar Srivastava, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kirsten K Ness
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported adverse health status among childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors and to identify associations between components of physical fitness and health status. METHODS: Participants included 365 ALL survivors (mean age at evaluation of 28.6 ± 5.9 years) and 365 age-, sex-, and race-matched community controls. Self-report of poor general health, poor mental health, functional impairments, and activity limitations were used to describe adverse health status...
July 29, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Megan M Sperry, Andrew T M Phillips, Alison H McGregor
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that inherent differences in movement strategies exist between control subjects and those with a history of lower back pain (LBP). Previous motion analysis studies focus primarily on tracking spinal movements, neglecting the connection between the lower limbs and spinal function. Lack of knowledge surrounding the functional implications of LBP may explain the diversity in success from general treatments currently offered to LBP patients. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study evaluated the response of healthy controls and individuals with a history of LBP (hLBP) to a postural disturbance...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Rémi Chaussenot, Muriel Amar, Philippe Fossier, Cyrille Vaillend
In the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) syndrome, mutations affecting expression of Dp71, the main dystrophin isoform of the multipromoter dmd gene in brain, have been associated with intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric disturbances. Patients' profile suggests alterations in prefrontal cortex-dependent executive processes, but the specific dysfunctions due to Dp71 deficiency are unclear. Dp71 is involved in brain ion homeostasis, and its deficiency is expected to increase neuronal excitability, which might compromise the integrity of neuronal networks undertaking high-order cognitive functions...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Robert Collette, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer
Background: The relation between training load, especially internal load, and the recovery-stress state is of central importance for avoiding negative adaptations in high-performance sports like swimming. The aim of this study was to analyze the individual time-delayed linear effect relationship between training load and recovery-stress state with single case time series methods and to monitor the acute recovery-stress state of high-performance swimmers in an economical and multidimensional manner over a macro cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fatai Sado, Hwa Jen Yap, Raja Ariffin Raja Ghazilla, Norhafizan Ahmad
Prolong walking is a notable risk factor for work-related lower-limb disorders (WRLLD) in industries such as agriculture, construction, service profession, healthcare and retail works. It is one of the common causes of lower limb fatigue or muscular exhaustion leading to poor balance and fall. Exoskeleton technology is seen as a modern strategy to assist worker's in these professions to minimize or eliminate the risk of WRLLDs. Exoskeleton has potentials to benefit workers in prolong walking (amongst others) by augmenting their strength, increasing their endurance, and minimizing high muscular activation, resulting in overall work efficiency and productivity...
2018: PloS One
Zohre Najafi, Fariborz Rezaeitalab, Mohsen Yaghubi, Zahra Sadat Manzari
Introduction: Stroke is the most common debilitating neurological disease in adults. Therefore, rehabilitation is a major consideration to reduce costs and relief disabilities. Biofeedback, a newly recommended method is claimed to be able to improve the consequences following stroke by enhancing the understanding of the psychological functions of the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of biofeedback on the motor- muscular situation in balance and ability to walk, muscle stiffness (spasticity), hand muscles strength of stroke patients...
June 2018: Journal of Caring Sciences
Kathleen S Thomas, Macon Hammond, Meir Magal
BACKGROUND: While several studies compare backward walking (BW) and forward walking (FW) in terms of heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), workload (VO2 ) was not matched to control for intensity levels (Hooper et al. [1]). Moreover, acute effects of inclined BW on postural control and ankle musculature has not been investigated. This study was designed to compare cardiovascular, metabolic and perceptual responses, changes in center of pressure (COP) motion, and muscle activation of tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GM) to control quiet stance posture immediately following inclined BW and FW at a matched intensity...
June 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Antoine Langeard, Kristell Pothier, Nathalie Chastan, Christian Marcelli, Chantal Chavoix, Nicolas Bessot
BACKGROUND: While most fractures are caused by falls, not all falls result in fractures. Risk factors for falls are well established, but only weak associations have been demonstrated for risk factors for fractures. Conflicting results on the implication of bone mineral density (BMD) suggest that other risk factors should be studied, such as gait and balance disorders. AIMS: Gait and postural stability in challenging conditions were, therefore, compared between fallers with and without fracture...
July 4, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Gaith Aloui, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
PURPOSE: This study analyzed the effects of complex strength training on the explosive muscular performance of junior female handball players. METHODS: Subjects were arbitrarily divided between an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=14). Training sessions and matches were performed together, but during the 10-week intervention, the experimental group replaced a part of the regular regimen by complex strength training. Measures assessed in both groups before and after the intervention included: running times over 5, 10, 20 and 30 m , change of direction tests [T-half agility test and modified Illinois test], repeated shuttle sprint ability and repeated changes of direction tests, jumping [squat, counter-movement, counter-movement with aimed arms and five-jump tests], static and dynamic balance, back extensor strength and 1RM half-squat...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jose Luis Vargas Luna, Winfried Mayr, Jorge-Armando Cortés-Ramirez
There is multiple evidence in the literature that a sub-threshold pre-pulse, delivered immediately prior to an electrical stimulation pulse, can alter the activation threshold of nerve fibers and motor unit recruitment characteristics. So far, previously published works combined monophasic stimuli with sub-threshold depolarizing pre-pulses (DPPs) with inconsistent findings-in some studies, the DPPs decreased the activation threshold, while in others it was increased. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of DPPs during biphasic transcutaneous electrical stimulation and to study the possible mechanism underlying those differences...
June 9, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Mohammad Fazle Rabbi, Kamarul Hawari Ghazali, Izzeldin I Mohd, Mahdi Alqahtani, Omar Altwijri, Nizam Uddin Ahamed
This study aimed to investigate the electrical activity of two muscles located at the dorsal surface during Islamic prayer (Salat). Specifically, the electromyography (EMG) activity of the erector spinae and trapezius muscles during four positions observed while performing Salat, namely standing, bowing, sitting and prostration, were investigated. Seven adult subjects with an average age of 28.1 (± 3.8) years were included in the study. EMG data were obtained from their trapezius and erector spinae muscles while the subjects maintained the specific positions of Salat...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Daniel Germano Maciel, Marianne Trajano da Silva, José Antônio Rodrigues, João Batista Viana Neto, Ingrid Martins de França, Ana Beatriz Medeiros Melo, Therence Yves Pereira Barros da Silva, Wouber Hérickson de Brito Vieira
This study aims to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined to a functional exercise program on treatment of FM. A double-blind and placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial composed of 22 women divided into two groups: placebo group (functional exercise program associated with placebo phototherapy n = 11) and laser group (same exercise program associated with active phototherapy; n = 11). Each session lasted from 40 to 60 min and was performed three times a week for 8 weeks...
June 21, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Aude Paquet, Bertrand Olliac, Bernard Golse, Laurence Vaivre-Douret
INTRODUCTION: Several authors have suggested the existence of motor disorders associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are few comparative studies of psychomotor profiles that include assessments of neurological soft signs in children with ASD or DCD. We used a neuropsychomotor assessment for children with ASD from a standardized neurodevelopmental examination to understand the nature of the difficulties these children encounter...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Nuno Batalha, Sónia Dias, Daniel A Marinho, José A Parraca
The continuous execution of swimming techniques, supported mainly by the upper limbs, may cause shoulder rotator muscle imbalances, which leads to injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two training programs on strength, balance and endurance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in youth swimmers. Twenty-five male swimmers were evaluated and randomly divided into two groups - the land group (n = 13), which conducted a conventional dry-land training program with elastic bands, and the water group (n = 12), which conducted a water resistance program...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
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