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Yi Yang, Wei-Jun Jean Yeung, Qiushi Feng
This study investigates how social exclusion, defined as a multidimensional concept encompassing financial deprivation, social isolation, and a lack of basic social rights, is associated with cognitive impairment of elderly Chinese. Using three waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (N = 10,923), we find that rural elderly women are the most vulnerable to social exclusion (17.28%) and cognitive impairment (18.52%) among the Chinese elderly. After addressing the methodological challenges of endogeneity and sample attrition due to mortality, and holding an array of demographic, lifestyle, and health variables constant, we find that social exclusion is significantly associated with higher risks of cognitive impairment...
August 13, 2018: Health & Place
Daniel Probst, Jean-Louis Reymond
The recent general availability of low-cost virtual reality headsets, and accompanying 3D engine support, presents an opportunity to bring the concept of chemical space into virtual environments. While virtual reality applications represent a category of widespread tools in other fields, their use in the visualization and exploration of abstract data such as chemical spaces has been experimental. In our previous work we established the concept of interactive 2D maps of chemical spaces, followed by interactive web-based 3D visualizations, culminating in the interactive web-based 3D visualization of extremely large chemical spaces...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Jihoon Shin, Junghoon Kim, Sung Ha Park, Tai Hwan Ha
The central dogma of molecular biology is the principal framework for understanding how nucleic acid information is propagated and used by living systems to create complex biomolecules. Here, by integrating the structural and dynamic paradigms of DNA nanotechnology, we present a rationally designed synthetic platform which functions in an analogous manner to create complex DNA nanostructures. Starting from one type of DNA nanostructure, DNA strand displacement circuits were designed to interact and pass along the information encoded in the initial structure to mediate the self-assembly of a different type of structure, the final output structure depending on the type of circuit triggered...
August 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Yuquan Wang, Lanlan Li, Weibo Zhao, Yin Dou, Huijie An, Hui Tao, Xiaoqiu Xu, Yi Jia, Shan Lu, Jianxiang Zhang, Houyuan Hu
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of vascular diseases worldwide. Whereas anti-oxidative therapy has been considered promising for the treatment of atherosclerosis in view of a critical role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, currently available antioxidants showed considerably limited clinical outcomes. Herein we hypothesize that a broad-spectrum ROS-scavenging nanoparticle can serve as an effective therapy for atherosclerosis, taking advantages of its anti-oxidative stress activity and targeting effects...
August 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Roumi Deb, Jyoti Arora, Ratika Samtani, Gaurav Garg, Deepti Saksena, Noopur Sharma, Aloke Kumar Kalla, Kallur Nava Saraswathy
PURPOSE: The present study attempts to understand the complex contribution of biochemical (plasma homocysteine) and nutritional parameters (dietary pattern and folate supplementation) to the neural tube defects (NTDs) affected pregnancies and controls in North Indian population. METHODS: Case-control study design was adopted to assess the role of folic acid, dietary habits, and homocysteine in relation to NTD births. The subjects comprised of 130 mothers of affected children (cases) and 233 mothers of healthy children (controls), who were either carrying NTD fetus or gave birth to NTD child...
August 16, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Yiping Huang, Fan Shi, Teng Wang, Xiaomin Liu, Xianglong Zeng, Fufei Pang, Tingyun Wang, Pu Zhou
We experimentally investigate high-order modes (HOMs) generating at the wavelength of 1.0 μm in all-fiber Yb-doped lasers based on mode-selective couplers (MSCs). Broadband MSCs for HOMs conversion are achieved by optimizing the phase-matching condition at 1.0 μm. Efficient generation of HOMs is demonstrated with the MSCs inserted both into continuous-wave and mode-locked fiber lasers. The slope efficiencies of HOMs (LP11 , LP02 and LP21 ) are presented and discussed. Additionally, cylindrical vector and orbital angular momentum beams are produced out of the MSCs by controlling the polarization states...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Ryo Oe, Shuji Taue, Takeo Minamikawa, Kosuke Nagai, Kyuki Shibuya, Takahiko Mizuno, Masatomo Yamagiwa, Yasuhiro Mizutani, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Tetsuo Iwata, Hideki Fukano, Yoshiaki Nakajima, Kaoru Minoshima, Takeshi Yasui
Optical frequency combs (OFCs) have attracted attention as optical frequency rulers due to their tooth-like discrete spectra together with their inherent mode-locking nature and phase-locking control to a frequency standard. Based on this concept, their applications until now have been demonstrated in the fields of optical frequency metrology. However, if the utility of OFCs can be further expanded beyond their application by exploiting new aspects of OFCs, this will lead to new developments in optical metrology and instrumentation...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Zhigang Zhao, Chen Qu, Hironori Igarashi, Hongwen Xuan, Taisuke Miura, Shinji Ito, Yohei Kobayashi
A compact, dual-stage, collinear-cascaded sum-frequency mixing configuration is presented for generating 193 nm sources. Due to the less-introduced, deep-ultraviolet optical components, the system is less prone to damage. In our proof-of-concept experiments, a 1030 nm laser and a 1553 nm laser synchronized to each other were used as drivers and an average power of ~0.7 W was obtained. For comparison, the noncollinear configuration gave an average power of 0.77 W. The difference of 0.07 W is attributed to the spatial walk-off inside the cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal, confirmed by indirect visualization...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Cristian L Cortes, Zubin Jacob
Over the past 15 years there has been an ongoing debate regarding the influence of the photonic environment on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Disparate results corresponding to enhancement, suppression and null effect of the photonic environment have led to a lack of consensus between the traditional theory of FRET and experiments. Here we show that the quantum electrodynamic theory (QED) of FRET near an engineered nanophotonic environment is exactly equivalent to an effective near-field model describing electrostatic dipole-dipole interactions...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Pengfei Zhao, Zhiyong Dong, Jingyuan Zhang, Xuechun Lin
A coaxial multibeam passive coherent combination of lasers with improved beam quality is proposed and verified using cascaded Michelson-type cavities, in which 4f optical systems are used to compensate for the beam waist separation between the combined adjacent lasers. A proof-of-concept experiment shows that three 65 W Nd:YAG lasers with an M2 factor of about 5.5 were coherently combined into a 124.4 W single-lobed output improving the M2 factor to 1.36. The central lobe accounted for 76% of the total power, corresponding to a total combined efficiency of 66...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Mohamed Morsy-Osman, Francesco Fresi, Enrico Forestieri, Marco Secondini, Luca Potì, Fabio Cavaliere, Stephane Lessard, David V Plant
We experimentally demonstrate 50 Gb/s transmission below an uncorrected bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 in the C band over a transmission reach that extends from 0 to 20 km using combined amplitude and phase shift (CAPS) codes. The CAPS signal, which is not required to be specifically dispersion compensated for each reach within the 20 km operating range, is amenable for simple direct detection using a single photodetector without any subsequent digital signal processing (DSP). Hence, the presented solution constitutes a potentially attractive low cost solution for mobile Xhaul applications employing single mode fiber interconnects with reaches extending to 20 km...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Shen Zheng, Chao Li, Shichao Li, Xiaojuan Zhang, Guangyou Fang
In this paper, an approach to achieve wide-angle beam scanning in the terahertz (THz) band with frequency sweeping was proposed based on a metasurface structure. To widen the scanning angular scope, a coherent enhancement mechanism for improving the mode competition efficiency of the high-order diffraction mode was first implemented. A systematic method was firstly developed for the design of practical frequency-controlled beam scanning quasi-optics in THz band, in which the optimization of scanning range, linearity, and the avoidance of beam blocking are comprehensively considered...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
G Douglass, A Arriola, I Heras, G Martin, E Le Coarer, S Gross, M J Withford
With the growing complexity of astronomical instruments devoted to interferometry, such as MATISSE (a 4 telescope beam combiner) or FIRST (a 9 sub-apertures beam combiner), and the rebirth of space projects such as LIFE (a mid-infrared interferometer), integrated optics devices can be an interesting and complementary approach for beam combination of a large number of apertures. Moreover, one of the approaches for beam combination is pairwise combination of the inputs (either from individual telescopes or from aperture masking on a single telescope), which scales as N(N-1)/2 for an N input system...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Ya-Lan Shih, Yu-Ching Hsu, Wei-Hsin Chiu, Co-Shi Chantal Chao
Preparing for a good death is an important and meaningful concept in Chinese culture because people hope to know residual life to make effort for their unfinished business. However, the family of terminally ill patients with cancer may be annoyed and frustrated about unexpected bereavement if they have unresolved conflicts with the loved one, missing a chance for declaring love, untimely apologizing and saying goodbye. The study aimed to explore this difficult issue. The medical records of 121 deceased terminally ill patients with cancer at National Cheng Kung University Hospital between December 2010 and February 2012 were reviewed...
September 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
Kazunori Uemura, Toru Kawada, Masaru Sugimachi
OBJECTIVE: Occlusive cuff inflation in ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring disturbs the daily life of the user, and affects efficacy of monitoring. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a novel minimally-occlusive cuff method for stress-free measurement of BP. This study aimed to experimentally evaluate the reliability of this method. Methods In this method, a thin-plate-type ultrasound probe placed between the cuff and the skin is used to measure the ultrasonic dimension of the artery...
August 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Elizabeth A Whitcomb, Yien Che Tsai, Johnvesly Basappa, Ke Liu, Aurélie K Le Feuvre, Allan M Weissman, Allen Taylor
Ubiquitinylation drives many cellular processes by targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitin conjugation enzymes promote ubiquitinylation and, thus, degradation of protein substrates. Ubiquitinylation is a well-known posttranslational modification controlling cell-cycle transitions and levels or/and activation levels of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes change during development and cell cycle. Progression through the cell cycle is tightly controlled by CDK inhibitors such as p27Kip1 . Here we show that, in contrast to promoting its degradation, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBCH7/UBE2L3 specifically protects p27Kip1 from degradation...
August 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Charlotte Sonigo, Isabelle Beau, Michael Grynberg, Nadine Binart
The follicular ovarian reserve, constituted by primordial follicles (PMF), is established early in life, then keeps declining regularly along reproductive life. The maintenance of a normal female reproductive function implies the presence of a vast amount of dormant PMF. This process involves a continuous repression of PMF activation into early growing follicle through the balance between factors activating the initiation of follicular growth, mainly actors of the PI3K signaling pathway, and inhibiting factors such as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)...
August 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Hamed Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Ali Asghar Akhlaghi, Jaleh Gholami, Kazem Mohammad, Reza Majdzadeh
Randomized clinical trials are considered the ideal source for generation of robust evidence for clinical and public health decision making. Estimation of treatment effect in observational studies is always subject to varying degrees of bias due to lack of random allocation, blindness, precise definition of intervention, as well as the existence of potential unknown and unmeasured confounding variables. Unlike other conventional methods, instrumental variable analysis (IVA), as a method for controlling confounding bias in non-randomized studies, attempts to estimate the treatment effect with the least bias even without knowing and measuring the potential confounders in the causal pathway...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Golnaz Azami, Soh Kim Lam, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali, Salmiah Md Said, Sanaz Aazami, Mosayeb Mozafari, Hamid Taghinejad
BACKGROUND: The theory if self-efficacy is the central concept of social cognitive theory with emphasis on the constructs of efficacy expectation, outcome expectation. Efficacy expectation is defined as the person's confidence to carry out a specific behavior. Outcome expectation is beliefs that carrying out a specific behavior will lead to a specific outcome. While the benefit of measuring outcome expectations has been established, there has been no large scale within the Iranian context...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Xiuling Xu, Fan Hu, Qi Shuai
A facile reversed-phase microemulsion method was used to synthesize shell-core nanospheres of SiO2 @RCs (SiO2 -encapsuled rare-earth metal complexes). β-d-Galactose was then grafted onto the surfaces of the nanospheres through the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction for targeted delivery. The chemical characteristics and surface profiles of the nanocarriers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy...
August 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
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