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Ciaran Grafton-Clarke, Kai Wen Chen, Jane Wilcock
BACKGROUND: The incidence of oral cancer is increasing. Guidance for oral cancer from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is unique in recommending cross-primary care referral from GPs to dentists. AIM: This review investigates knowledge about delays in the diagnosis of symptomatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: An independent multi-investigator literature search strategy and an analysis of study methodologies using a modified data extraction tool based on Aarhus checklist criteria relevant to primary care...
November 19, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Brittani R Price, Donna M Wilcock, Erica M Weekman
Behind only Alzheimer's disease, vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second most common cause of dementia, affecting roughly 10-40% of dementia patients. While there is no cure for VCID, several risk factors for VCID, such as diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, have been identified. Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine, termed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are a major, yet underrecognized, risk factor for VCID. B vitamin deficiency, which is the most common cause of HHcy, is common in the elderly...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Nathan Davies, Jill Manthorpe, Elizabeth L Sampson, Kethakie Lamahewa, Jane Wilcock, Rammya Mathew, Steve Iliffe
BACKGROUND: End of life care (EOLC) for people with dementia can present a multitude of challenges and difficult decisions for practitioners. These challenges may include assessment and management of difficulties with eating and swallowing, responding to agitation, treating pain, and managing recurrent infections. Practitioners sometimes lack both confidence in making end of life decisions and guidance. This study developed an alternative to lengthy guidelines, in the form of heuristics which were tested in clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
Omar M Al-Janabi, Christopher A Brown, Ahmed A Bahrani, Erin L Abner, Justin M Barber, Brian T Gold, Larry B Goldstein, Ronan R Murphy, Peter T Nelson, Nathan F Johnson, Leslie M Shaw, Charles D Smith, John Q Trojanowski, Donna M Wilcock, Gregory A Jicha
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and hypertension (HTN) are risk factors for development of white matter (WM) alterations and might be independently associated with these alterations in older adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of HTN and AD pathology on WM alterations. METHODS: Clinical measures of cerebrovascular disease risk were collected from 62 participants in University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center studies who also had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling and MRI brain scans...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Amy Wilcock, Rajia Bahri, Silvia Bulfone-Paus, Peter D Arkwright
Mast cells are typically linked to immediate hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis. This review looks beyond this narrow role, focusing on how these cells have evolved and diversified via natural selection promoting serine protease gene duplication, augmenting their innate host defense function against helminths and snake envenomation. Plasticity of mast cell genes has come at a price. Somatic activating mutations in the mast cell growth factor KIT gene cause cutaneous mastocytosis in young children and systemic mastocytosis with a more guarded prognosis in adults who may also harbor other gene mutations with oncogenic potential as they age...
November 3, 2018: Allergy
Joanne Bayly, Bethany M Edwards, Nicola Peat, Geoffrey Warwick, Ivo M Hennig, Arvind Arora, Andrew Wilcock, Irene J Higginson, Matthew Maddocks
Background: Access to rehabilitation to prevent disability and optimise function is recommended for patients with cancer, including following cancer diagnosis. Models to integrate rehabilitation within oncology services as cancer treatment commences are required, but must be informed by those they are intended to support. We aimed to identify views of patients, carers and clinicians to develop and refine a rehabilitation model to be tested in a feasibility trial for people newly diagnosed with lung cancer or mesothelioma...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Ian D Maidment, Sarah Damery, Niyah Campbell, Nichola Seare, Chris Fox, Steve Iliffe, Andrea Hilton, Graeme Brown, Nigel Barnes, Jane Wilcock, Emma Randle, Sarah Gillespie, Garry Barton, Rachel Shaw
BACKGROUND: "Behaviour that Challenges" is common in people living with dementia, resident in care homes and historically has been treated with anti-psychotics. However, such usage is associated with 1800 potentially avoidable deaths annually in the UK. This study investigated the feasibility of a full clinical trial of a specialist dementia care pharmacist medication review combined with a health psychology intervention for care staff to limit the use of psychotropics. This paper focuses on feasibility; including recruitment and retention, implementation of medication change recommendations and the experiences and expectations of care staff...
October 19, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Sangeeta Sunda, Anil Miglani, Reena R Kumar, Vikram Panghal, Puja Khanna, Nishtha Arora
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare static and kinetic friction of round (0.018") and rectangular (0.019 × 0.025") stainless steel (SS) wires of different brands with conventional preadjusted edgewise brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maxillary canine and two bicuspids of 0.022 × 0.028" slot sized MBT prescription (Gemini, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, California) brackets were chosen. The wires selected were 0.018" SS (3M Unitek); 0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
M Wilcock, L Kelly, A Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Rohit Shankar, Mike Wilcock
PURPOSE: People with Intellectual disability (ID) are likely to be prescribed psychotropic medication particularly antipsychotics without a clear clinical indication. This has given rise to a national initiative in the UK to stop overprescribing medication in this vulnerable population. While the goals are simple it is unclear if specialist ID services or primary care services in the UK should look to lead. Further, it is uncertain if primary care practitioners (GPs) can be systematically educated of the latest good practice developments and concerns in this specialised area...
2018: PloS One
Edward Jenkins, Ana Mafalda Santos, Caitlin O'Brien-Ball, James H Felce, Martin J Wilcock, Deborah Hatherley, Michael L Dustin, Simon J Davis, Christian Eggeling, Erdinc Sezgin
The spatiotemporal regulation of signalling proteins at the contacts formed between immune cells and their targets determines how and when immune responses begin and end. Therapeutic control of immune responses therefore relies on thorough elucidation of the molecular processes occurring at these interfaces. However, the detailed investigation of each component's contribution to the formation and regulation of the contact is hampered by the complexities of cell composition and architecture. Moreover, the transient nature of these interactions creates additional challenges, especially in the use of advanced imaging technology...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Andrew Wilcock, Sarah Charlesworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Laura Crane, Rachel Wilcock, Katie L Maras, Wing Chui, Carmen Marti-Sanchez, Lucy A Henry
Research suggests that autistic children can provide accurate and forensically useful eyewitness evidence. However, members of a jury also rely on non-verbal behaviours when judging the credibility of a witness, and this could determine the verdict of a case. We presented mock jurors with videos (from an experimental study) of one of two child witnesses on the autism spectrum being interviewed about a mock minor crime. Results demonstrated that providing jurors with generic information about autism and/or informing them of the child's diagnostic label differentially affected credibility ratings, but not for both children...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Erin L Abner, Janna H Neltner, Gregory A Jicha, Ela Patel, Sonya L Anderson, Donna M Wilcock, Linda J Van Eldik, Peter T Nelson
Data from a large autopsy series were analyzed to address questions pertinent to primary age-related tauopathy (PART) and Alzheimer's disease (AD): what factors are associated with increased severity of neurofibrillary degeneration in brains that lack neuritic amyloid plaques?; is there an association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles and PART pathologic severity independent of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits?; and, how do the stains used to detect plaques and tangles impact the experimental results? Neuropathologic data were evaluated from elderly research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (UK-ADC; N = 145 subjects)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Paul Howard, Jan Remi, Constanze Remi, Sarah Charlesworth, Helen Whalley, Rebecca Bhatia, Morwenna Hitchens, Mary Mihalyo, Andrew Wilcock
Therapeutic Reviews aim to provide essential independent information for health professionals about drugs used in palliative and hospice care. Additional content is available on The series editors welcome feedback on the articles (
October 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Natasha Lovell, Sabrina Bajwah, Matthew Maddocks, Andrew Wilcock, Irene J Higginson
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness remains a common and distressing symptom in people with advanced disease with few effective treatment options. Repurposing of existing medicines has been effective in other areas of palliative care, for example, antidepressants to treat pain, and offers an opportunity to deliver improved symptom control in a timely manner. Previous case series have shown reduced breathlessness following the use of sertraline (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 2018: Palliative Medicine
Andrew Wilcock, Sim Koon, Cathann Manderson, Vicky Taylor, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is common in patients with thoracic cancer but difficult to manage. The Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) can help assess new treatments, but its repeatability has not been described in this group. AIM: To examine within and between day repeatability of the ISWT in this setting. METHODS: Patients with incurable thoracic cancer were recruited from outpatient clinics at a University Hospital. Two ISWTs were completed one hour apart on two consecutive days, with the first test for familiarization purposes only...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Andrew Wilcock, Sarah Charlesworth, Claire Stark Toller, Rahul Girish, Mary Mihalyo, Paul Howard
Therapeutic Reviews aim to provide essential independent information for health professionals about drugs used in palliative and hospice care. Additional content is available on Country-specific books (Hospice and Palliative Care Formulary USA, and Palliative Care Formulary, British and Canadian editions) are also available and can be ordered from The series editors welcome feedback on the articles (
August 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Sarah E Gollust, Andrew Wilcock, Erika Franklin Fowler, Colleen L Barry, Jeff Niederdeppe, Laura Baum, Pinar Karaca-Mandic
The effectiveness of health insurance advertising has gained renewed attention following the Trump administration's decision to reduce the marketing budget for the federal Marketplace. Yet there is limited evidence on the relationship between advertising and enrollment behavior. This study combined survey data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey on adults ages 18-64 with data on volumes of televised advertisements aired in respondents' counties of residence during the 2013-14 open enrollment period...
June 2018: Health Affairs
Rachel Wilcock, Laura Crane, Zoe Hobson, Gilly Nash, Mimi Kirke-Smith, Lucy A Henry
Performance at identification lineup was assessed in eighty-five 6- to 11-year-old typically developing children. Children viewed a live staged event involving 2 male actors, and were asked to identify the perpetrators from 2 separate lineups (one perpetrator-present lineup and one perpetrator-absent lineup). Half the children took part in lineups adapted by a registered intermediary (an impartial, trained professional who facilitates understanding and communication between vulnerable witnesses and members of the justice system), and half took part in "best-practice" lineups, according to the current guidance for eyewitness identification in England and Wales...
May 2018: Applied Cognitive Psychology
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