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Sonisilpa Mohapatra, James C Weisshaar
The organization of the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes in living Escherichia coli is compared under two growth conditions: "fast" (50-min doubling time) and "slow" (147-min doubling time). Superresolution fluorescence microscopy reveals strong DNA-ribosome segregation in both cases. In both fast and slow growth, free ribosomal subunits evidently must circulate between the nucleoid (where they initiate co-transcriptional translation) and ribosome-rich regions (where most translation occurs)...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Sajad Moshkelgosha, Giulia Masetti, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Hedda Luise Verhasselt, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Alistair Noble, Barbel Edelman, Danila Covelli, Sue Plummer, Julian R Marchesi, Marian Ludgate, Filippo Biscarini, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are efficiently developed by genetic immunisation by electroporation with human thyrotropin hormone receptor (hTSHR) A-subunit plasmid in female BALB/c (H-2d) mice. We investigated susceptibility in C57BL/6 J (H-2b) animals to allow studies on disease mechanisms in transgenic and immune response gene knock-out mice. Higher numbers of female C57BL/6 J were positive for pathogenic thyroid stimulating antibodies, but induced hyperthyroidism remained at a low frequency compared to BALB/c animals...
August 14, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
John Mark McLain, Wateen H Alami, Zachary T Glovak, Chris R Cooley, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Helen A Baghdoyan, Michael D Karlstad, Ralph Lydic
Study Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that sleep fragmentation (SF) delays wound healing in obese B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice with impaired leptin signaling and type 2 diabetes compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Methods: Adult male mice (n=34) were anesthetized and bilateral full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the back of each mouse. Half of the db/db and B6 mice were housed in SF-cages equipped with a bar that moved across the cage floor every 2 min, 12 h/day for 23 days...
August 11, 2018: Sleep
Gang Jee Ko, Connie M Rhee, Yoshitsugu Obi, Tae Ik Chang, Melissa Soohoo, Tae Woo Kim, Csaba P Kovesdy, Elani Streja, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Background: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred vascular access type in most hemodialysis patients. However, the optimal vascular access type in octogenarians and older (≥80 years) hemodialysis patients remains widely debated given their limited life expectancy and lower AVF maturation rates. Methods: Among incident hemodialysis patients receiving care in a large national dialysis organization during 2007-2011, we examined patterns of vascular access type conversion in 1 year following dialysis initiation in patients <80 versus ≥80 years of age...
August 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Jung Youn Kim, Ji Eun Park, Youngheun Jo, Woo Hyun Shim, Soo Jung Nam, Jeong Hoon Kim, Roh-Eul Yoo, Seung Hong Choi, Ho Sung Kim
Background: Pseudoprogression is a diagnostic challenge in early post-treatment glioblastoma. We therefore developed and validated a radiomics model using multiparametric MRI to differentiate pseudoprogression from early tumor progression in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: The model was developed from the enlarging contrast-enhancing portions of 61 glioblastomas within 3 months after standard treatment with 6472 radiomic features being obtained from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps...
August 11, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Susan Elaine Greni, Bruna Demari-Silva, Tatiane Marques Porangaba de Oliveira, Lincoln Suesdek, Gabriel Zorello Laporta, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
Nyssorhynchus strodei (Root) is an understudied species of potential epidemiological importance, having been found naturally infected in Brazil with Plasmodium falciparum Welch, Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti, and Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi. It belongs to the strodei subgroup that includes Nyssorhynchus albertoi (Unti), Nyssorhynchus arthuri (Unti), Nyssorhynchus rondoni (Neiva & Pinto), Nyssorhynchus striatus (Sant'Ana & Sallum), and three unnamed species, Nyssorhynchus arthuri B, Nyssorhynchus arthuri C, and Nyssorhynchus arthuri D...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Andrew Tomita, Jennifer I Manuel
Introduction: As a leading global disease risk factor, cigarette smoking has declined in some developed countries, but its health consequences are not well established in sub-Saharan Africa. This is particularly evident in South Africa, where few investigations have quantified the dually-neglected challenges of cigarette smoking and depression, despite decades of research from developed countries. We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and incident depression, with the hypothesis that adolescents are particularly vulnerable...
August 9, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Anna M Varizhuk, Anna D Protopopova, Vladimir B Tsvetkov, Nikolay A Barinov, Victor V Podgorsky, Maria V Tankevich, Maria A Vlasenok, Vyacheslav V Severov, Igor P Smirnov, Evgeniy V Dubrovin, Dmitry V Klinov, Galina E Pozmogova
We examined the assembly of DNA G-quadruplexes (G4s) into higher-order structures using atomic force microscopy, optical and electrophoretic methods, NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Our results suggest that parallel blunt-ended G4s with single-nucleotide or modified loops may form different types of multimers, ranging from stacks of intramolecular structures and/or interlocked dimers and trimers to wires. Decreasing the annealing rate and increasing salt or oligonucleotide concentrations shifted the equilibrium from intramolecular G4s to higher-order structures...
August 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe, Brian W Whitcomb, JoAnn E Manson, Susan E Hankinson, Lisa M Troy, Bernard A Rosner, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson
Background: Early natural menopause, the cessation of ovarian function before age 45 y, is positively associated with cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Dietary vitamin D intake has been inversely associated with early menopause; however, no previous studies have evaluated risk with regard to plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Objective: We prospectively evaluated associations of total and free 25(OH)D and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) concentrations and the risk of early menopause in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ron Flatau, Michal Segoli, Irina Khokhlova, Hadas Hawlena
Endosymbionts-microbes that live within and engage in prolonged and intimate associations with their hosts-are gaining recognition for their direct impact on plant and animal reproduction. Here we used the overlooked Wolbachia-flea system to explore the possibility that endosymbionts may also play a role as mediators in shaping the reproductive success of their hosts. We simultaneously quantified the Wolbachia density in field- and laboratory-originated fleas that fed and mated on rodents for either five or ten days and assessed their body size and current reproductive success...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Bente Mertz Nørgård, Bjarne Magnussen, Jens Fedder, Punyanganie S de Silva, Sonja Wehberg, Sonia Friedman
Backgroud: Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might have an increased tendency to choose an elective abortion due to a fear that their fetus could be harmed by use of medications, disease flares during pregnancy, or for genetic reasons. We examined the risk of elective abortions in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without IBD. Methods: This nationwide cohort study, based on Danish health registries, comprises all registered pregnancies from 1996 through 2015...
August 10, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Marie Gallé-Tessonneau, Kamel Gana
Objective: School refusal (SR) is considered as a clinical form of emotionally based school absenteeism related to the experience of strong negative emotions when attending school. However, there are no psychometrically sound measures specifically designed to assess SR. The aim of the present research was to develop and validate a multidimensional self-report measure of SR: the SChool REfusal EvaluatioN Scale (SCREEN) for adolescents. Methods: Two studies were performed to develop this scale...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
A E Blanco, D Cavero, W Icken, M Voss, M Schmutz, R Preisinger, A R Sharifi
Selection to reduce susceptibility to Enterococcus faecalis infection in laying hens may contribute to the prevention of amyloid arthropathy since it is mainly induced by this bacterium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility to select more laying hens that are resistant against E. faecalis infection through the embryo lethality assay (ELA), which is proposed as an alternative model to replace the adult avian challenge assay. Ten-day-old embryos of 500 Lohmann Brown layers were inoculated into the allantoic cavity with an infectious dose of 2...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
S M Hosseini-Moghaddam, M Shokoohi, G Singh, S F Dufresne, A Boucher, A Jevnikar, G V R Prasad, A Shoker, D Kabbani, M Hebert, H Cardinal, I Houde, A Humar, D Kumar
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this case-control study, we determined the association between post-transplant PCP and 3 variables: cytomegalovirus infection, allograft rejection and prophylaxis. Methods: Eight transplantation centers participated. For each case (SOT recipient with PCP), 3-5 controls (SOT recipients without PCP) were included. Controls were matched to the cases based on transplant center, type of allograft and date of transplantation (± 6 months)...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
J T Howard, T A Rathje, C E Bruns, D F Wilson-Wells, S D Kachman, M L Spangler
Across the majority livestock species, routinely collected genomic and pedigree information has been incorporated into evaluations using single-step methods. As a result, strategies that reduce genotyping costs without reducing the response to selection are important as they could have substantial economic impacts on breeding programs. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of selectively genotyping selection candidates on the selection response using simulation. Populations were simulated to mimic the genome and population structure of a swine and cattle population undergoing selection on an index comprised of the estimated breeding values (EBV) for two genetically correlated quantitative traits...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Andrea I Guaricci, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Laura Fusini, Margherita Soldi, Fabio Fazzari, Claudio Berzovini, Annalisa Pasquini, Paolo Ciancarella, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Giuseppe Calligaris, Stefano De Martini, Cristina Ferrari, Stefano Galli, Luca Grancini, Paolo Ravagnani, Giovanni Teruzzi, Daniela Trabattoni, Franco Fabbiocchi, Alessandro Lualdi, Piero Montorsi, Mark G Rabbat, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
Aims: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) for the detection of significant coronary artery disease with visual approach vs. quantitative analysis with transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) in consecutive symptomatic patients scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) plus invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods and results: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic patients underwent rest coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) followed by static stress-CTP...
August 10, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Wilma J Nusselder, Dagmar Wapperom, Caspar W N Looman, Renata T C Yokota, Herman van Oyen, Carol Jagger, Jean Marie Robine, Emanuelle M Cambois
Background: Women report more disability than men perhaps due to gender differences in the prevalence of diseases and/or in their disabling impact. We compare the contribution of chronic diseases to disability in men and women in France, using a disability survey conducted in both private households and institutions, and we also examine the effect of excluding the institutionalized population. Methods: Data comprised 17 549 individuals age 50+, who participated in the 2008-09 French Disability Health Survey including people living in institutions...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Yuta Takaichi, Yasuhisa Ano, James K Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
The accumulation of specific phosphorylated protein aggregates in the brain is a hallmark of severe neurodegenerative disorders. Specifically, hyperphosphorylated tau (hp-tau) accumulates in Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17, and progressive supranuclear palsy; furthermore, phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-αSyn) accumulates in Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Moreover, codeposition of different pathological protein aggregates is common in the brains of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Qianqian Zhang, Ringo van Wijk, Xavier Zarza, Muhammad Shahbaz, Max van Hooren, Aisha Guardia, Denise Scuffi, Carlos García-Mata, Wim Van den Ende, Susanne Hoffmann-Benning, Michel A Haring, Ana M Laxalt, Teun Munnik
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a well-known signaling enzyme in metazoans that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers involved in mutiple processes. Plants contain PLC too, but relatively little is known about its function there. The model system Arabidopsis thaliana contains nine PLC genes. Reversed genetics have implicated several roles for PLCs in plant development and stress signaling. Here, PLC5 is functionally addressed...
August 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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